367

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C H A

C H A

367

Black, Granville, Craven, and a half-moon; on
the n. a line, and in front of the river Ashley the
bastion of Colliton, and the covered half-moon of
Johnson, with a draw-bridge to pass the line, and
another to pass the half-moon. Besides these works
of regular fortification, it has a fort erected upon
a point of land at the entrance of the river Ashley,
which commands the channel and the vessels : but
the bastions, the palisade, and the ditch on the
land-side, having suffered much damage in an
hurricane, and it being thought by the Governor
Nicholson, that they were of too great an extent to
defend themselves, they were by his command de
stroyed. This city is, as it were, a continual fair,
being the market for the fruits of the whole pro
vince : the streets are well projected, and the edi
fices are grand and of fine architecture, especially
the church, which is magnificent, spacious, and
one of the best in all N . America : there are several
other churches belonging to different sects, and the
French protestants have a very fine one in the prin
cipal street. The town consists of 800 houses
built of wood as to the greater part, although there
are some of stone ; all of them having glass win
dows, and manifesting a degree of elegance and or
nament in their structure : is the residence of the
governor of the province, and in it is held the ge
neral assembly and the tribunal of judicature.
Here are many rich nobles and opulent merchants,
and almost all its inhabitants exhibit a costly ap
pearance, and live in a state of consummate luxury.
It has a public library, which owes its establishment
to Doctor Thomas Bray. The liberty of con
science enjoyed in this city, and which was granted
to its inhabitants a short time after its foundation,
caused it to become very populous. This effect
was further heightened by the extensive commerce
it enjoyed ; and thus has it, with many other qua
lities of pre-eminence, become one of the finest set
tlements in America.

[Charleston, the metropolis of S. Carolina,
is the most considerable town in the state; situate
in the district of the same name, and on the tongue
of land formed by the confluent streams of Ashley
and Cowper, which are short rivers, but large and
navigable. These waters unite immediately below
the city, and form a spacious and convenient har
bour, which communicates with the ocean just be
low Sullivan’s island, which it leaves on. the n. seven
miles s, e. of Charleston. In these rivers the tide
rises in common about six feet and a half; but uni
formly rises 10 or 12 inches more during a night
tide. The fact is certain ; the cause unknown.
The continual agitation which the tides occasion
in the waters which almost surround Charleston,

the refreshing sea-breezes which are regularly felt,
and the smoke arising from so many chimneys,
render this city more healthy than any part of the
low country in the s. states. On this account it is
the resort of great numbers of gentlemen invalids
from the W. India islands, and of the rich planters
from the country, who come here to spend the
sickly months, as they are called, in quest of health
and of the social enjoyments whicli the city affords ;
and in no part of America are the social blessings
enjoyed more rationally and liberally than here.
The following statement exhibits the greatest and
least height of Fahrenheit’s thermometer for several
years past in Charleston.

Years.

Highest.

Lowest.

Years.

Highest.

Lowest.

1750

96

23

1759

93

28

1751

94

18

1791

90

28

1752

101

32

1792

93

30

1753

91

28

1793

' 89

SO

1754

93

22

1794

91

34

1755

90

26

1795

92

29

1756

96

27

1796

89

17

1757

90

25

1797

88

22

1758

94

25

1798

88

31

State of the weather for 1807, ending Decem
ber 31.

Thermometer, highest
~ ’ lowest

92^ SO'

24°

58° 15'

30° 1' to 30° 77'

1 to 131
42 inches If
N.E. S.W,

67

28

2

Ditto

Ditto mean
Barometer
Hygrometer
Fall of rain
Prevailing winds
Days of rain

Do. of thunder
Do. of snow

Unaffected hospitality — affability — ease of man
ners and address — and a disposition to make their
guests welcome, easy, and pleased with themselves,
are characteristics of the respectable people of
Charleston. In speaking of the capital, it ought
to be observed, for the honour of the people of
Carolina in general, that when, in common with the
other colonies, in the contest with Britain, they re
solved against the use of certain luxuries, and even
necessaries of life, those articles which improve the
mind, enlarge the understanding, and correct the
taste, were excepted ; the importation of books
was permitted as formerly. The land on which
the town is built is flat and low, and the water
brackish and unwholesome. The streets are pretty
regularly cut, and open beautiful prospects, and
have subterranean drains to carry off’ filth and keep]

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