The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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CHARACATO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. In its church is a miraculous image of Nuestra Senora de la Purificacion or Candelaria, to which singular devotion is paid.
(CHARAIBES, See Caribe.)
CHARALA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of the town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is, at it were, a suburb to the settlement of Mongui, and it is (being very poor and reduced) annexed to the curacy of the same. Its temperature is mild, and abounds in pure good water, and in the productions of a hot climate.
CHARAPA, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Periban in Nueva España ; situate in the loftiest part of the sierra, from whence its temperature is so cold that it is seldom any crops can be gathered from the seeds that are sown. It contains 209 families of Indians, 80 in the wards of its district, and a convent of the religious order of St. Francis : lies e. of its head settlement.
CHARAPOTO, a settlement of the district of Puerto Viejo, and government of Guayaquil, in the kingdom of Quito, at a small distance from the sea-coast and bay of its name ; this title being also applied to the point which forms the same bay.
CHARBON, Rio del, a river of N. Carolina, which runs n. and enters the Conhaway. The whole of it abounds in cataracts, and its waters throw up immense quantities of coal, which was the cause of its being thus named.
CHARCA, a settlement of the province and
corregimiento of Chayanta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Sacaca.
CHARCAS, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, composed of various others. Its jurisdiction comprehends the district of this royal audience, which begins at Vilcanota, of the corregimiento of Lampa and bishopric of Cuzco, and extends as far as Buenos Ayres to the s. It is bounded on the e. by Brazil, the meridian serving as a limit ; and reaching w. as far as the corregimiento of Atacama, which is of its district, and forms the most n. part of this province in that direction, and being closed in on its other sides by the kingdom of Chile : is 300 leagues in length, including the degrees of latitude from 20° to 28° s . : is in many parts very thinly peopled, and covered with large desert tracts, and rugged and impenetrable mountains, and again by the elevated cordilleras of the Andes, and the spacious llanuras or pampas, which serve to mark its size and the relative distances of its territories. Its temperature throughout is extremely cold, although there are not wanting parts which enjoy a moderate warmth. At the time that this province was in the possession of the Indians, and previous to the entrance of the Spaniards, many well-inhabited provinces went jointly under the name of Charcas ; and the conquest of these was first undertaken by Capac Yupanqui, fifth Emperor ; but he was not able to pass the territory of the Tutiras Indians and of Chaqui. Here it was that his conquests terminated : nor did the subjection of these parts extend farther than Collaysuyo until after his death, when he was succeeded by his son the Inca Roca, sixth Emperor, who carried on still farther the victories which had been already gained, conquering all the nations as far on as that of Chuquisaca, where he afterwards founded the city of this name, called also La Plata. After that the Spaniards had reduced that part of Peru, extending from Tumbez to Cuzco, and that the civil wars and dissensions which existed between these were at an end, they endeavoured to follow up their enterprise by making a conquest of the most distant nations. To this end, in 1538, Gonzalo Pizarro sallied forth with a great force, and attacking the Charcas and the Carangues, found in them such a spirited opposition, that after several battles he was brought to think this object was nearly impracticable : this idea was strengthened by the reception he had met with from the Chuquisacas, who in many conflicts had given him convincing proofs of their valour and warlike spirit ; indeed it is thought, that had he not just
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CINCO-SEÑORES, a settlement of the province of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; one of the missions of the Babosariganes Indians, held there by the regulars of the company of Jesuits. Within eight leagues to the s. of its district is a great unpeopled tract, called De las Manos, (Of the Hands), from the infidel Indians having nailed up against some temples in those parts many hands of some unfortunate Spaniards •whom they had killed, when the latter had entered the country under the idea of making proselytes.
CINGACUCHUSCAS, a barbarous nation of Indians, who inhabit the woods to the s. of the river Marañon. In 1652 they were united to the Pandabeques, and established themselves in the settlement of Xibaros of the missions of Maynas, with the exception of some few, who still remain in their idolatry, and lead a wandering life through the woods.
CINTU, a spacious llanura or plain, of the ancient province of Chimu, now Truxillo, on the coast of the S. sea. It was taken possession of by Huaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor of the Incas. It is very fertile, and of a good and healthy climate ; but it is but little inhabited.
CIPOYAY, a country and territory of the province and government of Paraguay, called also the province of Vera, towards the e. and where the nation of the Guaranis Indians dwell. It is of a hot climate, but very fertile, abounding in woods, and well watered by many rivers ; some of which run from e. to w. and enter the Uruguay, and others from s. to n. and enter the Plata.
CIPRE, a river of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito. It takes its course from e. to w. and opposite tlie river Sola, empties itself into that of Esmeraldas, on the w. side, in lat. 28' n.
CIRANDIRO, a settlement and the capital of the alcaldia mayor of Guimeo in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a hot temperature, and inliabited by 90 families of Tarascos Indians. In its vicinity is the estate of Quichandio, in which eight families of Spaniards, and 15 of Mustees and Mulattoes, are employed in making sugar. Also in the estate of Santa Maria are five families of the former. It is 75 leagues to the w. and one-fourth to the s. w. of Mexico.
[CIRENCESTER. See Marcus Hook.]
CIUAPA, a river of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile, towards the «. It is notorious from a species of fish caught in it, called tache, of an extrem.ely delicate flavour. It runs into the S. or Pacific sea, terming a small port of little depth.
CIUDAD REAL, a city of the province and government of Paraguay ; founded in 1557. by Rui Diaz Melgarejo, on the shore of the river Piquiri, three leagues from Parana. It Was destroyed by the Mamalukos Indians of San Pablo of Brazil, in 1630, and in its place was substituted the rich town of Espiritu Santo, the territory of which abounds in fruits, vines, and mines of copper. In the vicinity of the present town is a great waterfall, formed by the above river, upwards »f 3p 2
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into tlie Banos, and which, after the great cascade, is known by the name of Pastaza. To the n. rises the Padregal, afterwards called Pita, as it passes through the llanura of Chillo ; and at the skirt of the mountain of Guangopolo, where the plain terminates, it unites itself with the Amag^uaiia, and then turning w. takes the names of Tumbaco and Huallabamba, to enter the Esmeraldas, which disembogues itself into the S. sea. At the skirt of this great mountain are the estates of Sinipu, Pongo, Pucaguaita, and Papaurca, It is distant from the settlement of Mula-halo half a league, and five leagues from its capital. In lat. 40° IPs. (The height of this volcano was discovered, in 1802, to be only 260 feet lower than the crater of Antisana, which is 19,130 feet above the level of the sea.)
COTOPAXI. See Cotopacsi.
COTUI, a town of St. Domingo ; founded, in 1504, by Rodrigo Mexia deTruxillo, by the order of the cometidador mayor of Alca.ntara, Nicolas de Obando, 16 leagues to the n. of the capital, St. Domingo, on the skirt of some mountains which are 12 leagues in height, and at the distance of two leagues from the river Yauna. It is a small and poor town. Its commerce depends upon the salting of meats, and in preparing tallow and hides to carry to St. Domingo, and in the chase of wild goats, which are sold to the French. In its mountains is a copper mine, two leagues to the s. e. of the town. The Bucaniers, a French people of the island of Tortuga, commanded by Mr. Pouancy, their governor, took and sacked it in 1676. (In
1505, the gold mines were worked here. The copper mine above alluded to is in the mountain of Meymon, whence comes the river of the same name, and is so rich, that the metal, when refined, will produce eight per cent, of gold. Here are also found excellent lapis lazuli, a streaked chalk, that some painters prefer to bole for gilding, loadstone, emeralds, and iron. The iron is of the best quality, and might be conveyed from the chain of Sevico by means of the river Yuna. The soil here is excellent, and the plantains produced here are of such superior quality, that this manna of the
Antilles is called, at St. Domingo, Sunday plantains. The people cultivate tobacco, but are chiefly employed in breeding swine. The inhabitants are called clownish, and of an unsociable character. The town is situated half a league from the s. w. bank of the Yuna, which becomes unnavigable near this place, about 13 leagues from its mouth, in the bay of Samana. It contains 160 scattered houses, in the middle of a little savana, and surrounded Avith woods, SO leagues n. of St. Domingo, and 15 s.e. of St. Yago.)
CORUCO. Sec Cabo.
COUPEE, a point of the coast and shore of the Mississippi in Canada, [it is also called Cut Point, and is a short turn in the river Mississippi, about 35 miles above Mantchac fort, at the gut of Ibberville, and 259 from the mouth of the river. Charlevoix relates that the river formerly made a great turn here, and some Canadians, by deepening the channel of a small brook, diverted the waters of the river into if, in the year 1722. The impetuosity of the stream was such, and the soil of so rich and loose a quality, that in a short time the point was entirely cut through, and the old channel left dry, except in inundations ; by which travellers save 14 feagues of their voyage. The new channel has been sounded Avith a line of SO fathoms, without finding bottom. The Spanish settlements of Point Coupee extend 20 miles on the w. side of the Mississippi, and there are some plantations back on the side of La Fause Riviere, through Avhich the Mississippi passed about 70 years ago. The fort at Point Coupee is a square
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dom of Guatemala, in the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa.
CUCHUNA, a large settlement of Indians, and formerly the capital of a small province of this name in Peru, to the w. of the mountains of (he Andes. It was founded by Maita Capac, fourth Emperor of the Incas, after that he had literally starved the country into obedience. These Indians were treacherous, and used to give their enemies a very deadly poison ; the said emperor caused many to be burnt alive for having practised this abominable custom, and their houses to be destroyed, together with their cattle and possessions.
CUCUANA, a settlement of the province and government of Mariquita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate on the shore of the river Magdalena.
CUCUCHO, San Bartolome de, a settlement of tlie head settlement of Arantzan, and alealdia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 27 families of Indians, who employ themselves in agriculture, cutting wood, and making earthen-ware and
CUCUCHUCHAU, San Pedro de, a settlement of the bead settlement of the city of Cucupao, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan ; situate on the shore of the lake. It contains 18 families of Indians, and is two leagues to the s. of its head settlement.
CUCUNUBA, a settlement oiihe corregimiento of Ubate in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a cold temperature, and produces the fruits of this climate. It consists of 100 families, including those of its vicinity, and of 80 Indians; is nine leagues to the n. of Santa Fe.
CUCUNUCO, a mountain to the e, of the province and government of Popayan, eternally covered with snow. From it rises the river Purase, as also the river La Plata. It takes its name from a nation of Indians, by whom it was inhabit-
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ed, and of whom a few only, who are reduced to the,faith, remain.
CUCURULU, a river of the kingdom of Peru, which runs through the country of the Canisiencs Indians to the e. of the Andes, it abounds in fish of a very fine quality, which serve as food to the barbarians; runs e. and being much swelled by the waters it collects from others, enters the river Santa Rosa.
CUCUTA, San Joseph de, a settlement of the government and jurisdiction of Pamplona in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, though healthy, of great commerce, owing to the cacao with which it abounds, and which is brought by persons coming from various parts, the greater portion of it being embarked on the river Sulia for Maracaibo. It contains more than 100 rich Indians, but is infested with snakes, lice, and other noxious insects and reptiles.
CUCUTA, an extensive valley of this province (Pamplona), between the cities of Pamplona and S. Christoval, discovered by Juan de San Martin in 1534 ; celebrated for its fertility, and excellent breed of mules, by which the kingdom is supplied. It is watered by many streamlets which render it luxuriant and fertile, and most particularly in cacao of the finest quality. The herb on which the mules chiefly feed is wild marjoram.
CUDAJA, a lake of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the territory possessed by the Portuguese. It is formed by one of the arms w hich is thrown out by the river Maranon, and returns to enter the same, in the country of ihe Cabauris Indians.