The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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(country of the Iroquees Indians. It is handsome and well built, on the margin of the river of the same name, about 12 or 15 miles s. w. from Montreal, and n. of St. John’s fort. It was taken by the Americans, Oct. 20, 1775, and retaken by the British, Jan. 18, 1776. Lat. 45° 26' w.)
Chambo, a very large river, which rises near the former settlement, and runs with such rapidity that it cannot be forded ; is consequently passed over by means of various bridges made of osiers.
CHAME, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Natá in the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate near a river, and two leagues from the coast of the S. sea. It produces maize, plantains, and other fruits ; swine, fowl, turkeys, and other birds, with which it supplies, by means of canoes, the markets of the city of Panama, from whence it is nine leagues distant.
CHAMETLAN, a province and alcaldia mayor of Nueva España, also called Del Rosario ; bounded n. by the province of Culiacan, s. by that of Xalisco or Sentipac, e. and n. e. by that of Zacatecas and Nueva Galicia, and w. by the S. sea ; is 30 leagues long from e. to w. and 25 wide n. s. ; is of, a very hot temperature, and the greater part of it is a mountainous and rugged country, abounding in. noxious animals and insects, and on this account uninhabitable in the summer and in the rainy season. It was conquered by Don Juan de Ibarra in 1554, has many mines of silver and gold, which were formerly worked, but which at present are all abandoned, as well from their having filled with water, as from the scantiness of the means of the inhabitants to work them. The royal mines, however, are productive of some emolument, and are in fafct the support of the place. It produces some maize, and much tobacco , and cotton, to which article the soil is exactly suited, though not so to wheat, which yields here but sparingly. On the banks of the lakes formed by the sea, is left a thick incrustation of salt in the month of April ; and although the inhabitants spare no pains to collect this valuable commodity, yet abundance of it is lost from the Avant of hands to collect it ere the heats come on, when it very quickly disappears.
Some large cattle are bred here. It is very badly peopled, or, to speak more truly, it is as it were desert, having only three settlements and some estates. It is irrigated by a river which flows down from the sierra Madre, and passes through the capital, the waters of which are made useful for the working of the mines. The same river enters the sea two leagues from the settlement of Chametlan, and has abundance of fish, which are caught with ease, as well upon its shores as in marshes which it forms. Tlie capital, which is the residence of the alcalde mayor, is the real del Rosario.
Chametlan, a settlement of the former alcaldía mayor ; from thence taking its name. It contains only five or six Indians, and some Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes, who, the greater part of the year, live in the estates which they have for the breeding of large cattle, and on the farms for the cultivation of maize and cotton.
CHAMESA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; annexed to the curacy of Nopsa. It is of a cold temperature, and produces the fruits corresponding to such a climate, particularly wheat, which is of the best quality. It contains 100 Avhite inhabitants, and as many Indians, and is a little more than eight leagues from its capital.
CHAMI, San Juan de, a settlement of the province and government of Chocó ; situate in the district of Thatama, near the ruins of the city of San Juan de Rodas, to the w. of the city of Santiago de Arma.
CHAMICUROS, S. Francisco Xavier de, a settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in 1670 by the Father Lorenzo Lucero. '
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(Crow’s Meadows, a river in the n.w. territory, which runs n. w. into Illinois river, opposite to which are fine meadows. Its mouth is 20 yards wide, and 240 miles from the Mississippi. It is navigable between 15 and 18 miles.)
(CROWN Point is the most s. township in Clinton county, New York, so called from the celebrated fortress which is in it, and which was garrisoned by the British troops, from the time of its reduction by General Amherst, in 1759, till the late revolution. Itwastakenby the Americans the I4th of May 1775, and retaken by the British the year after. The point upon which it was erected by the French in 1731, extends n. into lake Champlain. It was called Kruyn Punt, or Scalp Point, by the Dutch, and by the French, Pointe-a-laChevelure ; the fortress they named Fort St. Frederick. After it was repaired by the British, it was the most regular and expensive of any constructed by them in America ; the walls are of wood and earth, about 16 feet high and about 20 feet thick, nearly 150 yards square, and surrounded by a deep and broad ditch dug out of the solid rock ; the only gate opened on the n. tow'ards the lake, where was a draw-bridge and a covert way, to secure a communication with the waters of the lake, in case of a siege. On the right and left, as you enter the fort, is a row of stone barracks, not elegantly built, which are capable of containing 2000 troops. There were formerly several outworks, which are now in ruins, as is indeed the case with the principal fort, except the walls of the barracks. The famous fortification called Ticonderoga is 15 miles s. of this, but that fortress is also so much demolished, that a stranger would scarcely form an idea of its original construction. The town of Crown Point has no rivers ; a few streams, however, issue from the mountains, which answer for mills and common uses. In the mountains, which extend the whole length of lake George, and part of the length of lake Champlain, are plenty of moose, deer, and almost all the other inhabitants of the forest. In 1790 the town contained 203 inhabitants. By the state census of 1796, it appears there are 126 electors. The fortress lies in lat. 43° 56' n. ; long. 73° 2P w.)
(CROYDEN, a township in Cheshire county, New Hampshire, adjoining Cornish, and about 18 miles n. e. of Ciiarlestown. It was incorporated in 1763 ; in 1775 it contained 143, and in 1790, 537 inhabitants.)
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on the coast, between cape San Roman and the Punta Colorada.
CRUCERO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru ; annexed to the curacj" of Coaza. It has a sanctuary where an image of Nuestra Seilora del Rosario is held in high veneration.
CRUCES, a settlement of the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore of the river Chagre, and in a small valley surrounded by mountains. It is of a good temperature and healthy climate, and is the plain from whence the greatest commerce was carried on, particularly at the time that the galleons used to go to Tierra Firme, the goods being brought up the river as far as this settlement, where the royal store-houses are established, and so forwarded to Panama, Avhich is seven leagues distant over a level road. The alcaldia mayor and the lordship of this settlement is entailed upon the eldest son of the illustrious house of the Urriolas; which family is established in the capital, and has at sundry times rendered signal services to the king. The English pirate, John Morgan, sacked and burnt it in J670.
Cruces, another, of the missions belonging to the religious order of St. Francis, in the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. Twenty-nine leagues to the n. w. of the town and real of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguagua.
CRUILLAS, a town of the province and government of La Sierra Gorda in the bay of Mexico, and kingdom of Nueva Espana, founded in 1764, by order of the Marquis of this title and viceroy' of these provinces.