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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

336
Indexed

Olifo, and between the rivers of Great and Little Mance.]

Castors, a port on the s. coast of Nova Scotia, between the White isles and the port of Tangier.

CASTRO, a capital city of the province and government of Chiloé in the kingdom of Chile; peopled by the order of Don Lope Garcia de Castro, governor of Peru, who gave it his name in 1560 : it lies, between two small livers, and has a good port; is inhabited by some good and opulent families, and enjoys a pleasant ,and healthy temperature. It is also called Chjloe, and is of a regular and beautiful form ; has, besides the parish church, a convent of monks of St. Francis, and a bishop auxiliary to that of Santiago. It was .sacked by the Dutch in 1643 ; is 42 leagues s. of the city of Osorno, in lat. 42° 40' s.

Castro, another capital city of the province and government of Esmeraldas or Atacames in the kingdom of Quito ; founded. in the valley of Fili by Francisco Quintero, in 1586.

Castro, another settlement of the province and cvrregimknto of Chillan in the kingdom of Chile ; situate in the island of Maule, on the shore of the river Longomilla.

Castro-Vireyna, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded n. w. by the province ofCanete, «. by that of Yauyos, n. e. by that of Angaraes, and partly by the jurisdiction of Huamanga and Huanta, m. by that of Vilcas Huaman, s. w. by that of Lucanas, and s. s. w. and w. by that of \^ca. It is uneven and barren, and its inhabitants, on this account, amount scarcely to 6900, although it is 22 leagues in length from e. to as, and 25 in width n. to s. No mines have been discovered here, nor are there any other roads to it than merely such as are opened through passes in the snow, or where no obstruction is ofered by the copious streams which every where precipitate themselves down from the mountains, and which are particularly large in the rainy season, which is from October to Slarch. Its productions are wheat, maize, and potatoes; and in some glens, where the cold is not so great, fruits and cattle are extremely plentiful. Here are also lla~ mas, vicunas, and huanacos, the wool of which they turn to some profit. This province is watered by rivers, some of which descend from the provinces of the coast of the S. sea, and others from the further side of the cordillera, running towards the e. and entering the Maranon ; it is also watered by the Canete, which rises from the Chicha, and collects other streams in this province ; by the Pisco, which rises from a lake called .firacocha ; by the Yea, from the lake Choclo-

cocha ; and by the Calcamayo, which enters the province of Vilcas Huaman. In all the waters of this province, notwithstanding they are very abundant, there is a great scarcity of fish, and without doubt this arises from the cold which prevails here. This province is but thinly peopled, and its inhabitants are poor : they do not, we have heard, amount to more than 7000 souls. It consists of six curacies, to which there are 29 other settlements annexed. Its yearly reparlimiento amounted to 86,400 dollars, and it paid an alcavala equal to 691 dollars. The capital is of the same name ; this is a small and poor town, situate on a lofty spot, where the cold is most intense : close to it runs a river, which is made use of for working the mills of the silver mines ; which, although they produce this metal of a good quality, they are by no means well stocked with it. The town has a convent of monks of St. Francis, and two large estates called Huallanto and Huallanga, in which thera are churches annexed to this curacy ; is 14 leagues from Huancablica, 26 from Pisco, and 60 from

la. Long. 74° 44'. Lat. 13° 49' s. The

ements of the province

are.

Saesaquero,

Tambillo,

•Cinto,

Azavi,

Huacahuaca,

Tambo,

Pilpichaca,

Capillas,

Cargonacho,

Sangaiaico,

Santa Ana,

Andaimarca,

Acostambo,

Santiago,

Cordova,

Huachos,

Ocobamba,

Claris,

Ayamarca,

Cotas,

Ocozo,

Cocas,

Larnari,

Arma,

Pacomarca,

Huanactarabo,

Querco,

lluanac.

Laramanca,

Cadrillo,

Quisahuara,

Y anac.

Huaifara,

Tancara.

CASUHATI, a mountam of the province and governmemt of Buenos Ayres, on the shore of the river Hueque Lenori.

CASURO, a river of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions: it runs s. s. e. and enters the Trombetas.

(CASWELL County, in Hillsborough district, N. Carolina, borders on Virginia, n : it contains 10,096 inhabitants, of whom 2736 are slaves. Leesburg is the chief town.)

(CAT Island, or Guanahani, one of the Bahama islands. See St. Salvador.)

CATA, a settlement of the province and govern

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rdistinguished for being very sure-footed and active. The horned cattle have, through the favourable temperature of the climate, acquired a larger size, while their flesh has become better and more nutritive ; the sheep imported from Spain retain a wool as beautiful as that of the best Spanish sheep, each sheep yielding annually from 10 to 15 lbs. of wool ; they breed twice a-year, and have generally two at a birth. The common price of cattle throughout the country is from three to four filippi (fifteen or twenty francs), but in the seaports the price is fixed by an ancient regulation, at 10 crowns ; of which the commandant of the port receives four, and the owner six.

The different kinds of trees known in Chile amount to 97, and of these only 13 shed their leaves : amongst the plants, there are 3000 not mentioned in botanical works. _The melons here are, according to Molina, three feet long, and the only fruits unknown are medlars, service apples, three-grained medlar, and the jujubre. Of the indigenous worms, insects, &c. are 36 species, andthetunicated cuttle-fish found here is of 150 lbs. weight. There are 13 species of crabs and crawfish found on the sea-coast, and four species in the fresh waters. There are 135 species ofland-birds, and of quadrupeds 36, without those imported. The various kinds of esculent fish found upon the coast are computed by the fishermen at 76, the most of them differing from those of the n. hemisphere, and appearing to be peculiar to that sea.

Amongst the earths of this country is a clay thought to be very analogous to kaolin of the Chinese ; another kind called roro, producing an excellent black dye, and represented by Feuille and Frazier as superior to the best European blacks. The membraneous mica^ otherwise Muscovy grass, is also found here in the greatest perfection, both as respects its transparency and the size of its laminae ; of this substance the country people manufacture artificial flowers, and like the Russians, make use of it for glazing their houses. The thin plates which are used for windows are by many preferred to glass, from their being pliable and less fragile, and possessing what appears to be a peculiar property, of freely admitting the light and a view of external objects to those within, while persons without are prevented from seeing any thing in the house.

22. Present revolution. — In Chile, the authority of the mother country has been superseded by the aristocracy of the colony. The government has fallen, peaceably and without resistance, into the hands of the great Creole families, who seem hitherto to have used their power with temper and moderation. See La PijAta.]

Same name, a river of the former kingdom (Chile), in the district of Tolten Baxo. It runs w. and enters the sea between the rivers Tolten and Budi.

Same name, a point of the coast of the province and corregimienio of Arequipa,

Same name, a small island of the S. sea, in the same province and corregimiento.

CHILENO, Paso del, a ford of the river Jazegua, in the province and government of Buenos Ayres, close to the river Cordobes.

CHILERIOS, a river of the province and government of Buenos Aires. It runs North Carolinan and cnler§ the river Negro.

CHILES, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pasto in the kingdom of Quito.

[CHILHOWEE, mountain, in the s. e. part of the state of Tennessee, and between it and the Cherokee country.]

CHILIA, a settlement of the province and |corregimiento of Caxaraarquilla and Collay in Peru.

CHILINTOMO, a mountain of the province and government of Guayaquil in the kingdom of Quito ; inhabited by some Indians, who, although reduced to the Catholic faith, are nevertheless of such vile habits as constantly to manifest how deeply idolatry is rooted in them.

CHILIPUIN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chachapoyas in Peru.

[CHILISQUAQUE, a township on Susquehannah river, in Pennsylvania.]

CHILLAHUA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carangas in Peru, and of the archbishopric of Charcas.

[CHILLAKOTHE, an Indian town]on the Great Miami, which was destroyed in 1782 by a body of militia from Kentucky. General Harmar supposes this to be the “ English Tawixtwi,” in H utchins’s map. Here are the ruins of an old fort, and on both sides of the river are extensive meadows. This name is applied to many different places, in honour of an influential chief who formerly headed the Shawanoes. See Tawixtwi.]

[Chillakothe, Old, is an Indian town destroyed by the forces of the United States in 1780. It lies about three miles s. of Little Mimia river j the country in its vicinity is of a rich soil, and is beautifully chequered with meadows.]

CHILLAN, a city, the capital of the district and corregimiento of this name (Chillan) in the kingdom of Chile. It is very small and poor, although it contains some families of distinction. It consists.

2h

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at the most, of 360 houses : for having been destroyed by tlie Araucanians, in 1599, it as never sine e been able to reach its former degree of splendour. Jt lies between the river Nuble to the n. and the Itala to the s. in lat. 35° 56' s.

another, a mountain or volcano of the same province and corregimiento (Chillan), at a little distance from the former city. On its skirts are the Indian nations of the Puclches, Pehuenches, and Chiquillanes, who have an outlet by the navigation ot the river Demante.

another, a small river of the same province (Chillan).

CHILLAOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of this name in Peru. It is of a hot temperature, and produces some tobacco and almonds.

CHILLOA, a llanura of the kingdom of Quito, near this capital, between two chains of mountains, one very lofty towards the e. and the other lower towards the s. It is watered by two principal rivers, the Pita and the Amaguana, which at the end of the llanura unite themselves at the foot of the mountain called Guangapolo, in the territory of the settlement of Alangasi, and at the spot called Las Juntas. In this plain lie the settlements of Amaguana, Sangolqui, Alangasi, and Conocoto, all of which are curacies of the jurisdiction of Quito. It is of a mild and pleasant temperature, although sometimes rather cold, from its proximity to the mountains or paramos of Pintac, Antisana, Rurainavi, and Sincholagua. Here was formerly celebrated the cavalgata, by the collegians of the head- college and seminary of San Luis dc Quito, during the vacations. The soil produces abundance of wheat and maize. It is much resorted to by the gentlemen of Quito as a place of recreation, it is eight or nine leagues in length, and six in width.

CHILLOGALLO, a settlement of the kingdomof Quito, in the district of Las Cinco Leguas de su Capital.

[CHILMARK, a township on Martha’s Vineyard island, Duke’s county, Massachusetts, containing 771 inhabitants. It lies 99 miles s. by e. of Boston. See Maktha’s Vineyard.]

CHILOE, a large island of the Archipelago or Ancud of the kingdom of Chile, being one of the 18 provinces or corregimientos which compose it. It is 58 leagues in length, and nine in width at the broadest part ; and varies until it reaches only two leagues across, which is its narrowest part. It is of a cold temperature, being very subject to heavy rains and fresh winds ; notwithstanding '

which its climate is healthy. Around it are four other islands ; and the number of settlements in these are 25, which are,

Achau,

Quehuy,

Lin-lin,

Chelin,

Llinua,

Limuy,

Qnenac,

Tanqui,

Meulin,

Chiduapi,

Cahuac,

Abtau,

Alau,

Tabor,

Apiau,

Quenu,

Chanlinec,

Llaycha,

Anihue,

Huar,

Chegniau,

Calbuco,

VAita-Chauquis,

Caucahue,

Isla Grande.

All of these are mountainous, little cultivatad, and produce only a small proportion of wheat, barley, flax, and papas ^ esteemed the best of any in America ; besides some swine, of which hams are made, which they cure by frost, and are of so delicate a flavour as not only to be highly esteemed here, but in all other parts, both in and out of the kingdom, and are in fact a very large branch of commerce. The principal trade, however, consists in planks of several exquisite woods, the trees of which are so thick, that from each of them ars cut in general 600 planks, of 20 feet in length, and of 1| foot in width. Some of these trees have measured 24 yards in circumference. The natives make various kinds of woollen garments, such as ponchos f quilts, coverlids, baizes, and bor~ dillos. The whole of this province is for the most part poor ; its natives live very frugally, and with little communication with any other part of the world, save with those who are accustomed to come hither in the fleet once a-year. Altliough it has some small settlements on the continent, in Valdivia, yet these are more than 20 or 30 leagues distant from this place, and are inhabited by infidel Indians. These islands abound in delicate shellfish of various kinds, and in a variety of other fish ; in the taking of which the inhabitants are much occupied, and on which they chiefly subsist. This jurisdiction is bounded on the n. by the territory of the ancient city of Osorno, which was destroyed by the Araucanian Indians, by the extensive Archipelagoes of Huayaneco and Huaytecas, and others which reach as far as the straits of Magellan and the Terra del Fuego, e. by the cordilleras and the Patagonian country, and w. by the Pacific or S. sea. On its mountains are found amber, and something resembling gold dust, which is washed up by the rains, although no

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Indexed

coo

coo

513

CONUENTOS, another settlement in thh province and corregimiento of Chillan in the kingdom of Chile.

CONUENTILLO, a settlement of the province and government of Tucumán, in the district of the capital ; situate to the of the same.

(CONVERSATION Point, a headland on the s. side of a bay on the coast of California. Lat. 30' Long. 119°t0.)

(CONWAY, a township in the province of New Brunswick, Sudbury county, on the w. bank of St. John’s river. It has the bayofFundyon the and at the westernmost point of the township there is a pretty good harbour, called Musquash cove.)

(Conway, a township in the ti. e. corner of Strafford county, New Hampshire, on a bend in Saco river, incorporated in J765, and contains 574 inhabitants. It was called Pigwacket by the Indians.)

(Conway, a thriving township in Hampshire county, Massachusetts, incorporated in 1767, and contains 2092 inhabitants. It lies 13 miles n. w. of Northampton, and 115 n.w. by w. of Boston.)

(CONYA, a river in Surinam, or Dutch Guinea, S. America.)

(COOK’S River, in the n. w. coast of N. America, lies n. w. of Prince William’s sound, and 1000 miles n. w. of Nootka sound. It promises to vie with the most considerable ones already known. It was traced by Captain Cook for 210 miles from the mouth, as high as lat. 61° 30' n. and so far as is discovered, opens a very considerable inland navigation by its various branches ; the inhabitants seemed to be of the same race with those of Prince William’s sound, and like them had glass beads ami knives, and were also clothed in fine furs.)

(COOKHOUSE, on the Cooquago branch of Delaware river, is situated in the township of Colchester, New York, 18 miles s. of the mouth of Unadilla river.)

(COOLOOME, an Indian town situated on the w. side of Tallapoose river, a bratich of the Mobile.)

COONI, a settlement of the province and correghniento of Cicasica in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Mecapaca.

COOPER, a river of the province and coloiij' of Georgia. It runs s. e. then s. and enters the sea.

(Cooper’s Island, one of the Lesser Virgin isles in the W. Indies, situated s.w. of Ginger island, and uninhabited. It is five miles long, and one broad.)

VOL. I.

(Cooper, a large and navigable river which mingles its waters with Ashley river, below Charleston ^ity in S. Carolina. These form a spacious and convenient harbour, which communicates with the ocean, just below Sullivan’s island, which it leaves on the n. seven miles s. e. of the city. In these rivers the tide rises 6| feet. Cooper river is a mile wide at the ferry, nine miles above Charles, town.)

(Cooper’s Town, a post-town and township in Otsego county. New York, and is the compact part of the township of Otsego, and the chief town of the country round lake Otsego. It is pleasantly situated at the s. w. end of the lake, on its banks, and those of its outlet ; 12 miles n. w. of Cherry valley, and 73 w. of Albany. Here are a courthouse, gaol, and academy. In 1791 it contained 292 inhabitants. In 1789 it had but three houses only ; and in the spring 1795, 50 houses had been erected, ofwhich above a fourth part were respectable two-story dwelling-houses, with every proportionable improvement, on a plan regularly laid out in squares. Lat. 42° 36' n. Long. 74° 58' M.] [Cooper’s Town, Pennsylvania, is situated on the Susquehannah river. This place in 1785 was a wilderness ; nine years after it contained 1800 inhabitants, a large and handsome church, with a steeple, a market-house and a bettering house, a library of 1200 volumes, and an academy of 64 scholars. Four hundred and seventy pipes were laid under ground, for the purpose of bringing water from West mountain, and conducting it to every house in town.)

(COOP’S Town, in Harford county, Maryland, lies 12 miles n. w. of Harford, and 22 n. e. of Baltimore, measuring in a straight line.)

(COOS, or Cohos. The country called Upper and Lower Coos lies on Connecticut river, between 20 and 40 miles above Dartmouth college. Upper Coos is the country of Upper Amonoosuck river, on John and Israel rivers. Lower Coos lies below the town of Haverhill, s. of th« Lower Amonoosuck. The distance from Upper Coos, to the tide in Kennebeck river, was measured in 1793, and was found to be but 90 miles.)

(COOSADES, an Indian town on Alabama river, about 60 miles above its mouth, on Mobile river, below M‘Gillivray’s town, and opposite the mouth of the Oakfuskee.)

(COOSA Hatchee, or Coosaw, a river of S. Carolina, which rises in Orangeburg district, and running a 5. m. course, em.pties into Broad river and Whale branch, which separate Beaufort island from the mainland.)

(Coosa|COOSA, or Coosa Hatcha]]==, a river which 3 u

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