The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
(CASQUIPIBIAC, a river on the n. side of Chaleur bay, about a league from Black cape, n. w. by n. in the bottom of Casquipibiac cove, at the distance of about one league from which is the great river of Casquipibiac. It lies about w, from the former, and affords a small cod and salmon fishery.)
(CASTAHANA, Indians of N. America, who resemble the Dotames, except that they trade principally Avith the Crow Indians, and that they would most probably prefer visiting an establishment on the Yellow Stone river, or at its mouth on the Missouri.)
CASTEENS, a small river of the province of Sagadohook : it runs s. and enters the sea in the bay of Penobscot. On its shore and at its mouth is a settlement of Indians, where the English have a fort and an establishment.
CASTELA, a large and navigable river of the province and government of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito, being formed from those of the Beni and Paravari ; it afterwards unites itself with that oftheYtenes, and changes its name to Madera, which joins the Maranon on the s. side, in lat. 3° 13' 18" s.
CASTILLA DEL ORO. See Tierra Firme*
Castillo, a port of the coast, in the same province and kingdom, between the former river and the port Valparaiso.
Castillo, a settlement of the province and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of the city of Cordova ; situate on the shores of the river Tercero, near the mouth Avhere this enters the Saladillo.
CASTILLOS Grandes, an island of the province and captainship of Rey in Brazil. It is very near the coast, between the cape Santa Maria of the river La Plata and the cape of Las Yncas; the Portuguese have a fort in it.
Castillos Grandes, another island, with the addition of Chicos, to distinguish it from the other in the same province and kingdom, and at a little distance from the above island.
(CASTINE, the shire town of Hancock county, district of Maine, is situate on Penobscot bay. It was taken from the town of Penobscot, and incorporated in Feb. 1796. It is named after a French gentleman who resided here ISO years ago, as also)
(Castine River, which is about 14 miles long, is navigable lor six miles, and has several mills at the head of it. It empties into Penobscot bay.)
(CASTLE Island. See Crooked Island.)
(CASTLETON, a township and river in Rutland county, Vermont, 20 miles s. e. of mount Independence at Ticonderoga. Lake Bombazon is chiefly in this town, and sends its waters into Castleton river, which, rising in Pittsford, passes through this town in a s. westerley course, and fails into Pultney river in the town of Fairhaven, a little below Colonel Lyon’s iron Avorks. Fort Warner stands in thistoAvn. Inhabitants 805.)
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Granada ; situate in a beautiful and delightful country. Its temperature is hot, it abounds in cacao, maize, yucas, and plantains, and has some neat cattle and gold mines. The inhabitants amount to 100 families, and it is annexed to the curacy of its capital.
(CHAPEL Hill, a post-town in Orange county, N. Carolina ; situated on a branch of Newhope creek, which empties into the n.w. branch of Cape Fear river. This is the spot chosen for the seat of the university of N. Carolina. Few houses are as yet erected ; but a part of the public buildings were in such forwardness, that students Avere admitted, and education commenced, in January 1796. The beautiful and elevated site of this town commands a pleasing and extensive view of the surrounding country : 12 miles s. by e. of Hillsborough, and 472 s.w. of Philadelphia. Lat. 35° 56' n. Long. 79° 2' w.)
CHAPIGANA, a fort of the province and government of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme, built upon a long strip of land, or point, formed by the great river of Tuira. There is also a small fort of the same name in a little gulf, and nearly closed at the entrance, behind the fort of San Miguel, in the S. sea.
CHAPUARE, a river of the province and government of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito, rises in the mountains of Cacao, which are upon the shore of the river Madera ; runs w. forming a curve, and enters the latter river, just where the Ytenes and Marmore also become united.
CHAPULTEPEC, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Corjoacan in Nueva España ; situate on the skirt of a mountainous eminence, on which are the castle and palace Avhich were the residence of the viceroys until they made their public entries into Mexico. Here are beautiful saloons and charming gardens, bedecked with all sorts of delicate flowers ; also a wood of branching savins, which was filled Avith stags and rabbits, and an abundant supply of water to render the soil fertile ; although, independently of a large and deep pool, it is also intersected by several streams, which, through canals, are carried to supply the s. part of
the city of Mexico. Its inhabitants amount to 40 families of Indians, in the district of the parish of a convent of St. Francis, with certain families of Spaniards and Mustecs, embodied with the parish of Vera Cruz of Mexico ; from Avheuce this is distant one league to the w. s.w.
Chapultepec, with the dedicatory title of San Juan, another settlement of the district and head settlement of Tlacoluca, and alcaldia mayor of Xalapa, in the same kingdom ; founded between four mountains, the skirts of Avhich form a circle round it. It contains 100 families of Indians, including those of the settlement of Paztepec, close to it. Although its population was formerly thought to amount to 500 families, no cause can be assigned for the present diminution ; notAvithstanding the elder people affirm, that this is a judgment of God for their having caused so many sorrows and anxieties to the poor curate, who had laboured so hard and with such zeal to convert them from their idolatry : certain it is, they are now extremely humble and docile. It is tAvo leagues n. e. of its capital.
Chapultepec, another, with the same dedicatory title of San Juan, in the head settlement of the town of Marquesado, and alcaldia mayor of Quatro Villas. It contains 25 families of Indians, Avho occupy themselves in the cultivation of cochineal, wheat, maize, fruits, woods, coal, lime-stone, and timber. It is a little more than a mile to the s. u\ of its capital.
CHAPULUACAN, a settlement of the jurisdiction and alcaldia mayor of Valles in Nueva Espana ; situate on the skirt of a very lofty sierra ; is of a mild temperature, and produces maize, cotton, bees-Avax, and honey, and large cattle. It is annexed to the curacy of Tamzunchale, contains 58 families of Indians, and lies 38 leagues from its capital.
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constitution left the lower people little more freedom than they would have possessed under the government of the Aztec kings.]
The capital is the city of the same name, founded as far back as the time ofthegentilism of the Mexican empire, when this nation was at enmity with that of Chichimeca ; it was then one of the most populous cities, and contained 30,000 inhabitants and 300 temples, and served as a barrier to Moctezuma, in the attack against the republic of Tlaxclala ; the latter place never having been subjected to the Mexican yoke. This was the city which of all others most thwarted the designs of Hernan Cortes, but the inhabitants were discovered in the conspiracy they had laid against him, when they pretended to receive him with open arrhs and a peaceable and friendly disposition, and were made by him to suffer severely for their hypocrisy ; after which he and his whole army escaped uninjured. This city has many monuments denoting its antiquity ; and although in ancient times idolatry was here carried to its highest pitch, yet the light of the gospel has spread widely around its enlivening rays. It is of a mild and healthy temperature, rather inclined to cold than heat, being situate on a level, fertile, and beautiful plain. It has a good convent of the order of St. Francis, which is also a house of studies. Its inhabitants are composed of 50 families of Spaniards, 458 of Mustees, Mulattoes and Negroes, and 606 of Indians. On a lofty spot which lies close to the entrance, on the c. side of the city, is a handsome chapel, in which is venerated the image of the blessed virgin, which also bears the dedicatory title of Los Rentedios. It is a little more than 20 leagues to the e. of Mexico, and four from Tlaxclala. Long. 98° 14'. Lat. 19° 4'. [Its population is at present estimated at about 16,000 souls.]
CHONE, a settlement which in former times was considerable, but now much impoverished, in the ancient province of Cara, which is at present united to that of Esmeraldas. It lies upon the shore of the river Chones to the n. and is of an hot and moist climate, in lat. 33° s.
CHONES, a large river of the province of Cara in the kingdom of Quito. It runs to the w. and collects the waters of the Sanchez and theTossagua on the n. and on the s. those of the Camaron and the Platanal. At its entrance on the n. stood the city of Cara, of which the vestiges still remain. Where it runs into the sea it forms the bay of Cara, between the s. point of Bellaca and the n. point of laca. Its mouth is nearly two miles and an half wide.
CHONGO, San Miguel de, a settlement of the alcaldíta mayor of Huamelula. It is of a very cold temperature, from its being situate in the vicinity of the sierra Nevada (or Snowy) of the Chontales, which lies on the n. side of it. Its inhabitants amount to 24 families of Indians, who trade in cochineal, seeds, and fruits, of which the country, being naturally luxuriant, produces great quantities. It is watered by rivers which pass at a little distance, and is annexed to the curacy of Tepaltepec of the jurisdiction and alcaldia mayor of Nexapa, from whence it lies 20 leagues. It is-, on account of this great distance, combined with the badness of the roads, that the natives so seldom can avail themselves of any instruction in the holy faith ; dying, as they often do, without the administration of the sacraments. Indeed, there is only one day in the year, which is the 29th of September, and on which the Indians celebrate the festival of their titular saint Michael, when they are visited by their curate, who then hears their confessions and says mass. At this time this settlement has somewhat the appearance of a Catholic people ; but being all the rest of the year left to themselves, it is not to be wondered that many relapse into their pristine state of gentilisra and idolatry. Three leagues w. of its capital.
CHONGON, a settlement of Indians of the province and government of Guayaquil in the kingdom of Quito; situate near a small torrent, renowned for the stones which it washes down, of a certain crystallized matter, which being polished, resemble brilliants, and are used as buttons, rings, and other trinkets.
CHONTALES, a district of the corregimiento or alcaldia mayor of Matagulpa, in the kingdom of Guatemala and province of Nicaragua. It is but small, and its natives have this name from the Spaniards, who would by it express their natural uncouthness and stupidity.
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CINCO-SEÑORES, a settlement of the province of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; one of the missions of the Babosariganes Indians, held there by the regulars of the company of Jesuits. Within eight leagues to the s. of its district is a great unpeopled tract, called De las Manos, (Of the Hands), from the infidel Indians having nailed up against some temples in those parts many hands of some unfortunate Spaniards •whom they had killed, when the latter had entered the country under the idea of making proselytes.
CINGACUCHUSCAS, a barbarous nation of Indians, who inhabit the woods to the s. of the river Marañon. In 1652 they were united to the Pandabeques, and established themselves in the settlement of Xibaros of the missions of Maynas, with the exception of some few, who still remain in their idolatry, and lead a wandering life through the woods.
CINTU, a spacious llanura or plain, of the ancient province of Chimu, now Truxillo, on the coast of the S. sea. It was taken possession of by Huaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor of the Incas. It is very fertile, and of a good and healthy climate ; but it is but little inhabited.
CIPOYAY, a country and territory of the province and government of Paraguay, called also the province of Vera, towards the e. and where the nation of the Guaranis Indians dwell. It is of a hot climate, but very fertile, abounding in woods, and well watered by many rivers ; some of which run from e. to w. and enter the Uruguay, and others from s. to n. and enter the Plata.
CIPRE, a river of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito. It takes its course from e. to w. and opposite tlie river Sola, empties itself into that of Esmeraldas, on the w. side, in lat. 28' n.
CIRANDIRO, a settlement and the capital of the alcaldia mayor of Guimeo in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a hot temperature, and inliabited by 90 families of Tarascos Indians. In its vicinity is the estate of Quichandio, in which eight families of Spaniards, and 15 of Mustees and Mulattoes, are employed in making sugar. Also in the estate of Santa Maria are five families of the former. It is 75 leagues to the w. and one-fourth to the s. w. of Mexico.
[CIRENCESTER. See Marcus Hook.]
CIUAPA, a river of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile, towards the «. It is notorious from a species of fish caught in it, called tache, of an extrem.ely delicate flavour. It runs into the S. or Pacific sea, terming a small port of little depth.
CIUDAD REAL, a city of the province and government of Paraguay ; founded in 1557. by Rui Diaz Melgarejo, on the shore of the river Piquiri, three leagues from Parana. It Was destroyed by the Mamalukos Indians of San Pablo of Brazil, in 1630, and in its place was substituted the rich town of Espiritu Santo, the territory of which abounds in fruits, vines, and mines of copper. In the vicinity of the present town is a great waterfall, formed by the above river, upwards »f 3p 2