The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
Presurapscot river. It has a good harbour at its mouth for small vessels, and has several mills upon it ; two miles higher a fall obstructs the navigation. Between it and Kennebeck there are no rivers ; some creeks and harbours of Casco bay throw themselves into the main land, affording harbours for small vessels, and intersecting the country in various forms.)
CASIBANI, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas : it rises in the cordillera of the Mochovos and Pichambios Indians, runs in a serpentine course to the n. then inclining for many leagues to the s. e. enters the Maranon or Amazonas, near the settlement of N uestra Seilora de Guadalupe.
CASIDI, a river of the province and government of Guayana : it enters the Orinoco, according to Beilin, but which is afterwards contradicted by his own map, since it is^there represented as having its source to the e. of the city of Pamplona, and as running into the river Apure.
CASIMENA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of the city of Santiago de los Atalayas, in the government of San Juan de los Llanos, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada : it is of a very hot temperature, and abounds in fruits of a similar climate. Its natives, who are numerous and consist of the Neolitos Indians, are very industrious, docile, and of good dispositions, having been reduced to the faith by the missionaries of the extinguished society of Jesuits. The settlement is at present in the charge of the barefooted order of St. Francis, and lies three leagues from the settlement of Surimena, on the shore of the large river Meta.
CASIPA, a large lake of the province of Nueva Andalucía Austral or South, to the w. ofthe Vacaronis Indians : it is 30 leagues in length from n. to s. and 24 in width from e. to w. Four large rivers flow from it, the principal of which areArous or Aroi and Caroa, the which enter the Orinoco on its e. side. Its woods are inhabited by some barbarous
nations of Caribes Indians, such as are the Canuris to the n. the Bsparagois to the e. the Aravis to the s. and the Chaguas and Lasipagotes to thezw. In this lake tortoises and alligators abound ; its waters are hurtful, and the climate here is unhealthy; hurricanes are frequent here, from the winds which blow from the neighbouring mountains.
Casipoure, a cape or point of the coast opposite the side of cape Orange.
CASIRI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Parinacocha in Peru ; annexed to the .curacy of its capital : in its vicinity is an elevated mountain, in which great Indian wealth is said to be secreted.
CASIRIAQUI, Cano de, a large and copious arm of the river Negro, by which this communicates with the Orinoco, and through that with the Maranon or Las Amazonas ; which communication, however, has been frequently doubted and controverted since the short time of its having been discovered.
CASIRRUENTI, a large and copious river abounding in fine fish, of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos : it passes through the llanuras of Cazanare and Meta, and, near the settlement of San Joaquin de Atanari, enters the Meta.
CASIUINDO, a settlement of the province and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of the city of Xuxuy ; annexed to the curacy of Cochinoca ; it has two hermitages, which serve as chapels of ease, with the dedicatory title of Rinconada and Rio de San Juan. The natives fabricate powder of excellent quality, and in its district are gold mines, which are not worked.
CASMA, Alta, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Santa in Peru ; situate on the coast of the S. sea, with a moderately good port. It was sacked in 1586 by Edward David, an English pirate.
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lar way by a river of its name. It abounds in large alligators and mosquitoes, which render its navigation very troublesome. Its shores are covered with beautiful trees, which are inhabited by a variety of birds and apes of several species, which make an incredible chattering and noise. It was by this river that the pirate John Morgan came when he took and sacked Panama in 1670. It was discovered by Hernando de la Serma in 1527, when he called it the river of Lagartos, but its mouth was before discovered by Lope de Olano in 1510. Here are found, at certain seasons, a very small fish of the size of a pin, called titles, and these are so abundant, that putting into the water a large basket, it is certain to be drawn out full ; they are fried, and make very savoury fritters.
CHAGRE, with the dedicatory title of San Lorenzo, a settlement of the same province and kingdom ; situate upon the top of a mountain at the entrance or mouth of the former river. It has for its defence a strong castle, which was built by the order of Philip 11. by the famous engineer J uan Bautista Antoneli. This was taken by the pirate John Morgan, after having made a glorious defence, in 1668, when the settlement was burnt and sacked ; and in 1740 it was taken by the English, commanded by Admiral Vernon, who entirely destroyed it ; its loss in that war being supplied by two strong batteries, which hindered the English from making a breach, for the third time, when they came with three frigates of war : but they were driven back by Captain Don Juan de Hermida, who was formerly captain of the regiment of Granada. In 1752 this castle was rebuilt, in the most perfect manner, by the lieutenant-general and engineer Don Ignatio de Sala, governor of Cartagena, who came hither for this purpose by order of the king. In this fortress several personages of distinction' have been held prisoners, ami amongst others the Marquis of La Mina, ])resiilent, governor, and captain-general of the kingiUmi in 1694. Is 13 leagues from Portobelo.
the channels of the Orinoco as far as the gulf Triste.
CHAIPI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru, annexed to the curacy of the corregimiento of Pullo ; in which was venerated, ever since the time of the conquest, a beautiful image of the Virgen del Rosario, which, with the temple, was burnt a few years since, and the parishioners being much afflicted at their loss, the Marquis of Selva Alegre, president of Quito, sent them another equal to the first : at the celebration of the festival people assemble from all the neighbouring districts.
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CHARACATO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. In its church is a miraculous image of Nuestra Senora de la Purificacion or Candelaria, to which singular devotion is paid.
(CHARAIBES, See Caribe.)
CHARALA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of the town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is, at it were, a suburb to the settlement of Mongui, and it is (being very poor and reduced) annexed to the curacy of the same. Its temperature is mild, and abounds in pure good water, and in the productions of a hot climate.
CHARAPA, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Periban in Nueva España ; situate in the loftiest part of the sierra, from whence its temperature is so cold that it is seldom any crops can be gathered from the seeds that are sown. It contains 209 families of Indians, 80 in the wards of its district, and a convent of the religious order of St. Francis : lies e. of its head settlement.
CHARAPOTO, a settlement of the district of Puerto Viejo, and government of Guayaquil, in the kingdom of Quito, at a small distance from the sea-coast and bay of its name ; this title being also applied to the point which forms the same bay.
CHARBON, Rio del, a river of N. Carolina, which runs n. and enters the Conhaway. The whole of it abounds in cataracts, and its waters throw up immense quantities of coal, which was the cause of its being thus named.
CHARCA, a settlement of the province and
corregimiento of Chayanta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Sacaca.
CHARCAS, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, composed of various others. Its jurisdiction comprehends the district of this royal audience, which begins at Vilcanota, of the corregimiento of Lampa and bishopric of Cuzco, and extends as far as Buenos Ayres to the s. It is bounded on the e. by Brazil, the meridian serving as a limit ; and reaching w. as far as the corregimiento of Atacama, which is of its district, and forms the most n. part of this province in that direction, and being closed in on its other sides by the kingdom of Chile : is 300 leagues in length, including the degrees of latitude from 20° to 28° s . : is in many parts very thinly peopled, and covered with large desert tracts, and rugged and impenetrable mountains, and again by the elevated cordilleras of the Andes, and the spacious llanuras or pampas, which serve to mark its size and the relative distances of its territories. Its temperature throughout is extremely cold, although there are not wanting parts which enjoy a moderate warmth. At the time that this province was in the possession of the Indians, and previous to the entrance of the Spaniards, many well-inhabited provinces went jointly under the name of Charcas ; and the conquest of these was first undertaken by Capac Yupanqui, fifth Emperor ; but he was not able to pass the territory of the Tutiras Indians and of Chaqui. Here it was that his conquests terminated : nor did the subjection of these parts extend farther than Collaysuyo until after his death, when he was succeeded by his son the Inca Roca, sixth Emperor, who carried on still farther the victories which had been already gained, conquering all the nations as far on as that of Chuquisaca, where he afterwards founded the city of this name, called also La Plata. After that the Spaniards had reduced that part of Peru, extending from Tumbez to Cuzco, and that the civil wars and dissensions which existed between these were at an end, they endeavoured to follow up their enterprise by making a conquest of the most distant nations. To this end, in 1538, Gonzalo Pizarro sallied forth with a great force, and attacking the Charcas and the Carangues, found in them such a spirited opposition, that after several battles he was brought to think this object was nearly impracticable : this idea was strengthened by the reception he had met with from the Chuquisacas, who in many conflicts had given him convincing proofs of their valour and warlike spirit ; indeed it is thought, that had he not just
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and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero, on the shore of the river Choromoros.
(CHAUDIERE River, a s. e. water of the St. Lawrence, rising in Lincoln and Hancock counties, in the district of Maine. The carrying place from boatable waters in it, to boatable Avaters in the Ketmebeck, is only five miles.)
(CHAUDIERE Falls are situate about nine miles above Quebec, on the opposite shore, and about three or four miles back from the river St. Lawrence, into which the river Chaudiere disembogues itself. The river is seen at a distance, emerging from a thick wood, and gradually expanding from an almost imperceptible stream till it reaches die cataract, whose breadth is upwards of 360 feet. Here the disordered masses of rock, which iippear to have been rent from their bed by some violent convulsion of nature, break the course of the waters, and precipitate them from a height of 120 feet into an immense chasm below. In some parts large sheets of water roll over the precipice, and fall unbroken to the bottom ; while in other places the water dashes from one fragment of the rock to another, with wild impetuosity, bellowing and foaming with rage in every hollow and cavity that obstructs its progress ; from thence it rushes down with the rapidity of lightning into the boiling surge beneath, where it rages with inconceivable fury, till driven from the gulf by fresh columns, it hurries away and loses itself in the waters of the St. Lawrence. The scenery which accompanies the cataract of Chaudiere is beautiful and romantic beyond description. In the centre, a large fragment of rock, which first divides the water, at the summit of the precipice, forms a small island ; and a handsome fir-tree, which grows upon it, is thus placed in a most singular and picturesque situation. The forest on either side the river consists of firs, pines, birch, oak, ash, and a variety of other trees and shrubs, intermingled in the most wild and romantic manner. Their dark green foliage, joined with the brown and sombre tint of the rocky fragments over which the water precipitates itself, form a striking and pleasing contrast to the snowy whiteness of the foaming surge, and the columns of sparkling spray which rise in clouds and mingle with the air.)
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mayor of Juxtlahuaca, in Nueva España. It contains 57 families of Indians.
CHAYANTA, or Charcas, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded n. by that of Cochabamba, n. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, e. by the province of Yamparaez, s. e. and s. by that of Porco, and w. by that of Paria ; is 36 leagues in length from w. to e. and 44 in width, n. s. Its temperature is various, since it contains the settlements of Puna and Valles ; in the former of these are found in abundance the productions of the sierra^ and in the latter wheat, maize, and other seeds and herbs : they have equally a traffic with the surrounding provinces, especially in the articles of wheat and flour of maize. Here are bred