Pages That Mention New South Wales
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
river Hudson. It is small, but has a great trade from the contiguity of the Iroquese Indians. It contains 350 houses, buiH afterthe Dutch fashion ; and that of the magistracy, which consists of a mayor, six aldermen, and a recorder, is very beautiful. The city is defended by a regular fort with four bastions, the rest of the fortification consisting of palisades. Here the treaties and alliances have been made with the Indians. It was taken by Robert Car in 1664, and added to this province by Colonel Dongan. [It is 160 miles «. of the city of New York, to which it is next in rank, and 340 s. of Quebec. This city and suburbs, by enumeration in 1797, contained 1263 buildings, of which 863 were dwelling houses, and 6021 inhabitants. Many of them are in the Gothic style, with the gable end to the street, which custom the first se^ttlers brought from Holland; the new houses arc built in the modern style. Its inhabitants are collected from various parts of tlie world, and speak a great variety of languageJ^, but the English predominates ; and the use of efery other is gradually lessening. Albany is urfrivalled for situation, being nearly at the head of sloop navigation, on one of the noblest rivers in the world. It enjoys a salubrious air, and is the natural emporium of the increasing trade of a large extent of country ay. and w. — a country of an excellent soil, abounding in every article for the W. India market; plentifully watered with navigable lakes, creeks, Snd rivers ; settling with unexampled rapidity ; and capable of aftbrdingsubsistenceto millions of inhabitants. The public buildings are, a low Dutch church, of ancient and very curious construction, one for Episcopalians, two for Presbyterians, one for Germans'or Higli Dutch, and one for Methodists ; an hospital, city hall, and a handsome brick jail. In the year 1609, Henry II udson, whose name the river bears, ascended it in his boat to Aurnnla, the spot on which Albany now stands. The improvements in this city have, of late years, been very great in almost all respects. Wharfs have been built on the river, the streets have been paved, a bank instituted, a new and handsome style of building introduced. One mile n. of this city, in its suburbs, near the manor-house of lieutenant-governor Van Renssalaer, are very ingeniously constructed extensive and useful works, for the manufacture of Scotch and rappee snuff, roll and cut tobacco of dilferent kinds, chocolate, mustard, starch, hair-powder, splitpease, and hulled barley. These valuable works are the property of Mr. James Caldwell, who unfortunately lost a complete set of similar works by fire, in Jidy 1791, with the stock, valued at
37,500 dollars. It is a circumstance worthy of remark, and is evincive of the industry and enterprise of the proprietor, that the whole of the pre« sent buildings and machinery were begun and completed in the short space of eleven mouths. These works are decidedly superior to any of the kind in America. All the articles above enumerated, even to the spinning of tobacco, are manufactured by the aid of water machinery. For the invention of this machinery, the proprietor has obtained a patent. These Avorks give employment and subsistence to 40 poor boys, and a number of workmen.] Long. 73° 42' w. Lat. 42° 40' n.
Albarrada, another settlement, with the dedicatory title of San Miguel, in the head settlement of the district of Mitla, and alcaldia mayor of Tentitlan, in Nueva España. It contains 22 Indian families, and is seven leagues n. of its head settlement.
ALBARREGAS, a large and abundant river of the new kingdom of Granada, which descends from the mountains of Bogota, irrigates the country and the city of Merida, running n. of this city until it enters the lake Maracaibo.
ALBEMARLE, a county of the province and colony of N. Carolina, and that part of it which is most agreeable, fertile, and salutary. It produces various sorts of fruits and pulse, and the winter is very temperate. This colony was established in 1670 by the lords and proprietors of it, who equipped, at their own expence, three ships, and a coiisiderable number of persons, with provisions for 18 months, and an abundance of merchandize, tools, and arms fit for the new establishment ; to which they sent resources yearly, in the proportion . required, until it appeared tube in a fit
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datorj parties against the settlements in their vicinity. The Creeks are very badly armed, having few rifles, and are mostly armed with muskets. For near 40 years past, the Creek Indians have had little intercourse with any other foreigners but those of the English nation. Their prejudice in favour of every thing English, has been carefully kept alive by tories and others to this day. Most of their towns have now in their possession British drums, with the arms of the nation and other emblems painted on them, and some of their squaws preserve the remnants of British flags. They still believe that “ the great king over the water” is able to keep the whole world in subjection. The land of the country is a common stock ; and any individual may remove from one part of it to another, and occupy vacant ground where he can find it. The country is naturally divided into three districts, viz. the Upper Creeks, Lower and Middle Creeks, and Seminoles. The upper district includes all the waters of the Tallapoosee, Coosahatchee, and Alabama rivers, and is called the Abbacoes. The lower or middle district includes all the waters of the Chattahoosee and Flint rivers, down to their junction ; and although occupied by a great number of different tribes, the whole are called Cowetaulgas or Coweta people, from the Cowetan town and tribe, the most warlike and ancient of any in the whole nation. The lower or s. district takes in the river Appalachicola, and extends to the point of E. Florida, and is called the Country of the Seminoles. Agriculture is as far advanced with the Indians as it can well be, without the proper implements of husbandry. A very large majority of the nation being devoted to hunting in the winter, and to war or idleness in summer, cultivate but small parcels of ground, barely sufficient for subsistence. But many individuals, (particularly on Flint river, among the Chehaws, who possess numbers of Negroes) have fenced fields, tolerably well cultivated. Having no ploughs, they break up the ground with hoes, and scatter the seed promiscuously over the ground in hills, but not in rows. They raise horses, cattle, fowls, and hogs. The only articles they manufacture are eartlien pots and pans, baskets, horse-ropes or halters, smoked leather, black marble pipes, wooden spoons, and oil from acorns, hickery nuts, and chesnuts.)
(Creeks, confederated nations of Indians. See Muscogulge.)
(CREGER’S Town, in Frederick county, Maryland, lies on the w. side of Monococy river, between Owing’s and Hunting creeks, which fall into that river ; nine miles s. of Ermmtsburg, near the Pennsylvania line, and about 11 n. of Frederick town.)
CRISTO. See Manta.
(CROCHE, a lake of N. America, in New South Wales, terminated by the portage La Loche, 400 paces long, and derives its name from the appearance of the water falling over a rock of upwards of 30 feet. It is about 12 miles long. Lat. 36° 40'. Long, 109° 25' w.)
CROIX, or Cross, a river of the province and government of Louisiana, the same as that which, with the name of the Ovadeba, incorporates itself with the Ynsovavudela, and takes this name, till it enters the Mississippi.
(Croix, St. See Cruz, Santa.)