The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
mules, poultry, cheese, and salt meats. It has likewise some mines in its district, which are not altogetlier neglected, though the advantages derived from them would be immensely increased, if the number of labourers were greater. It is governed by a lieutenant nominated by the governor of Santiago de Veragua. [Lat. 8° 12' n. Long. 80“ 40' a;.l
ALAQUINES, a branch of the head settlement of the district of Tamazunchale, and alcaldia mayor of Valles, in Nueva España, situate on the shore of a large river which divides this jurisdiction from that of Guadalcazar.
[ALASKE, a long peninsula on the n. w. coast of America, formed by Bristol bay and the ocean on the n. w. and n. and by the ocean and the waters of Cook’s river on the s. and s. e. At its extremity are a number of islands, the chief of which, in their order westward, are, Oonemak, Oonala.sha, and Ocumnak, which form part of the chain or cluster of islands called the Northern Archipelago. Captain Cook, on his return in 1779, passed through the channel e. of Oonemak island. See North-avest Coast of America.]
ALATAMALIA, a large river of the province and government of Florida. It runs nearly due e. and enters the sea opposite the Georgean isles. [This river, Avliich is navigable, is more properly of Georgia. It rises in the Cherokee mountains, near the head of a western branch of Savannah river, called Tugulo. In its descent through the mountains it receives several auxiliary streams ; thence it Avinds, with considerable rapidity, through the hilly country 250 miles, from Avhcnce it throAvs itself into the open flat country, by the name of Oakmulgee. Thence, after meandering for 150 miles, it is joined by the Oconee, which likewise has its source in the mountains. After this junction it assumes the name of Alatamalia, Avhen it becomes a large majestic river ; and flow'ing Avith a gentle current through forests and plains 100 miles, discharges itself into the Atlantic by several mouths. The n. channel glides by the heights of Darien, about 10 miles above the bar, and after several turnings, enters the ocean between Sapelo and Wolf islands. The s. channel, which is esteemed the largest and deepest.
after its separation from the >?. descends gently,, taking its course between MDntosh and Broughton islands, and at last by the w. coast of St. Simon’s sound, betAveen the s. end of the island of that name, and the n. end of Jeky! island. At its confluence with the Atlantic it is 500 yards Avide.]
ALAUSI, a province and small corregimiento or district of the kingdom of Quito ; bounded «. by the province of Riobamba, n. w. by Chimbo, s. by Cuenca, w. by the district of Yaguache, and e. by that of Macas. It is Avatered by the rivers Uzogoche, Gussuntos, Pinancay, Alausi, and others of less note. It abounds in mountains, the most lofty of Avhich are tOAvard the©.; the country is pleasant, and yields liberally every kijid of fruit and grain that are common either to America or Europe. It contains many sugar mills, and the sugar is the best intlie kingdom. The air here is mild and healthy, and the climate cannot be said to be inconveniently hot. It is governed by the corregidor, who resides in the capital.
Alausi, the capital of the above province. It has in its district some mineral fountains of hot water, established with suitable conveniences by some families of consideration residing there. Its trade consists in cloths, baizes, and cotton garments, Avhich are wrought in its manufactories. It has a very good parish church, and a convent of the order of St. Francis. [Lat. 2“ 12' «. Long. 78° 39' ©.]
ALBANIA, or Albany, a county of the province and colony of New York. It contains a certain number of plains fertile in grain, in AA'hich, and in planks of pine, its principal commerce consists. The Avinter is extremely cold, and the river Hudson is generally frozen for 100 miles, so a* to bear immense burthens. The gveat cpiautity of snow that falls at this season is useful, not only because it covers the grain, and keeps it from pe rishing by the frost, but because, when it melts, it so increases the waters of the river, as to facilitate thereby the transportation of the productions of the country.
[Albany County Lies Between Ulster And Saratoga ; Its Extent 46 Miles By 28|ALBANY County lies between Ulster and Saratoga ; its extent 46 miles by 28. By the state census, .fan. 20, 1796, the number of electors in this county were 6087, and the number of towns 11.]
close to those of Perlas and Mosquitos ; they are three in number, small and desert.
Carnero, Punta del, another, on the coast of the kingdom of Chile ; it is very low, extending itself with a gentle slope towards the sea. The e. winds are prevalent here, rendering it dangerous to be passed.
Carnero, Punta del, another point of land on the coast of the same kingdom.
CAROLINA, a province of N. America, and part of that extensive country anciently called Florida, bounded n. by Virginia, s. by the true Florida, w. by Louisiana, and e. by the Atlantic. It is divided into N. and S. Carolina. Its extent is 135 leagues in length, nearly from s. w. to n. e. and 75 in width from e. to w. from 30® to 36° 30' of lat. It was discovered by Juan Ponce de Leon in 1512, though it was not settled by the Spaniards then, but abandoned until the reign of Charles IX. king of France, when the French established themselves in it, under the command of admiral Chatilon, protector of the Protestants. He founded a colony and a fort called Charles fort, and gave the name of Carolina to the country, in lionour to his monarch. This establishment, however, lasted but a short time, for it was destroyed by the Spaniards, who put to the sword the new colonists, and went away under the impression that they had now left the country in a perfectly abandoned state. But the English, at this time, were maintaining a footing here, under the command of Sir Walter Raleigh, though they were not under any formal establishment until the reign of Charles II. in 1663, when the country was granted as a property to the following nobility, viz. the Count of Clarendon, Duke of Albemarle, Count of Craven, John Berkley, John Ashley, afterwards Count of Shaftsbury, George Carteret, John Colleton, and William Berkley; by these it was divided into as many counties, and by them names were given to the rivers, settlements, &c. Their privilege of proprietorship and
jurisdiction extended from lat. 31° to 36° «. and they had an absolute authority to form establishments and governments, according to the laws and statutes laid down by that famous and renowned philosopher John Locke ; accordingly the government partook largely of the despotic, and the rulers had the power of acknowledging or renouncing laws, of conferring titles, employments, promotions, and dignities, according to their own caprice. They divided the population into three classes: The first was composed of those entitled the Barons, and to these were given 120,000 acres of land; the second were two lordships, with the title of Counts, to whom were given 240,000 acres ; and the third, who were called Landgraves, a title corresponding to Dukes, had a portion of 480,000 acres. This last body formed the high councilchamber, and the lower was composed of the representatives of the counties and cities, both of these together forming the parliament, this being the real title, and not assembly, as in the other colonies. The first establishment was the city of Charlestown, between two navigable rivers called Ashley and Cowper ; the same offered an asylum to the Europeans, who on account of religious disturbances fled from Europe, and who having suffered great distresses there, had afterwards to encounter a very unfriendly reception from the Indians. Such was the state of affairs until 1728, when this city was taken under the protection of the English crown ; a corresponding recompence having been paid to the lords, the proprietors, who yielding it up, thus made a virtue of necessity ; the Count Grenville, however, persisted in keeping his eighth share. From that time it was divided into two parts, called North and South. The climate differs but little from that of Virginia, although the heat in the summer is rather more powerful here ; the winter, however, is shorter and milder ; the temperature is serene and the air healthy ; tempests and thunder storms are frequent, and this is the only part of this continent wherein have been experienced hurricanes; although they are but rare here, and never so violent as in the islands. The half of March, the whole of April, May, and the greater part of June, the season is mild and agreable ; in July, August, and nearly all September, the heat is intense ; but the winter is so mild, especially when the w.tw. wind prevails, that the water is seldom frozen. It is extremely fertile, and abounds in wheat, barley, rice, and all kinds of pulse, flowers, and fruits of an exquisite flavour; and the soil, which is uncultivated, is covered with all kinds of trees. The principal
Chuquibamba, and the other settlements of its jurisdiction, -which comprehend nine curacies, are the following :
San Pedro de Illotnas, Andaray, Yanaquihua, Chorunga,
Cliilca and Marca, Viraco,
H uancarama, Orcopampa,
San J nan Crisostomo de Choco,
CONDOROMA, a settlement and asiento of the silver mines of the province of Canes and Canches or Tinta in Peru, -where, during tempests of thunder and lightning, is experienced a singular phenomenon ; namely, a certain prickly sensation upon the hands and face, -which they called moscas, (flies), though none of these insects are ever seen. It is indeed attributed to the air, which is at that time highly charged with electric fluid ; the effects of which may be observed on the handles of sticks, buckles, lace, and other metal trinkets ; the same effects ceasing as soon as the tempest is over. It is observed, that in no other parts is the same phenomenon known to exist.
CONDUITE, or CoNDUITA, a small river of the province and country of the Iroquees Indians. It runs w. forming a curve, and enters the lake Oswego.
CONEUAGUANET, a small river of the pro-
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vince and colony of Pennsylvania and counfy of Cumberland. It runs c. and enters the Susquehanna.
(CONEGOCHEAGUE Creek rises near Mercersburg, Franklin county, Pensylvania, runs s. in a -winding course, and after supplying a number of mills, empties into the Potowmack, at William port, in W ashington county, Maryland ; 19 miles s. e. of Hancock, and eight miles s, of the Pennsylvania line.)
(CONEMAUGH River, and Little Cor emaugh, are the head waters of Kiskemanitas, in Pennsylvania : after passing through Laurel hill and Chesnut ridge, Conemaugh takes that name, and empties into the Alleghany, 29 miles n. e. of Pittsburg. It is navigable for boats, and there is -a portage of 18 miles between it and the Frankstown branch of Juniata river.)
CONESTOGA, a settlement of Indians of the same province and colony as the former river ; situate between the e. and w. arms of the river Susquehanna, where the English have a fort and establishment for its defence.
Conestoga, a river of this province, whichruns w. then turns s. and enters the Susquehanna.
CONFINES. See Villanueva de los Infantes.
CONFUSO. See Togones.