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320 CAR

close to those of Perlas and Mosquitos ; they are
three in number, small and desert.

CARNERO, Punta del, a point on the coast
of the S. sea, and of the province and government
of Guayaquil ; one of the two which form the
great bay of Tumbez. It is close to the point of
Santa Elena.

Carnero, Punta del, another, on the coast
of the kingdom of Chile ; it is very low, extend-
ing itself with a gentle slope towards the sea. The
e. winds are prevalent here, rendering it dangerous
to be passed.

Carnero, Punta del, another point of land
on the coast of the same kingdom.

Carnero, Punta del, a port of the coast of
the kingdom of Chile, between tlie mouth of the
river Lebo and the point of Rumena.

(CARNESVILLE, the chief town of Franklin
county, Georgia, 100 miles n. w. of Augusta. It
contains a court-house, and about 20 dwelling-

CAROLINA, a province of N. America, and
part of that extensive country anciently called
Florida, bounded n. by Virginia, s. by the true
Florida, w. by Louisiana, and e. by the Atlantic.
It is divided into N. and S. Carolina. Its ex-
tent is 135 leagues in length, nearly from s. w. to
n. e. and 75 in width from e. to w. from 30®
to 36° 30' of lat. It was discovered by Juan
Ponce de Leon in 1512, though it was not settled
by the Spaniards then, but abandoned until the
reign of Charles IX. king of France, when the
French established themselves in it, under the
command of admiral Chatilon, protector of the
Protestants. He founded a colony and a fort call-
ed Charles fort, and gave the name of Carolina to
the country, in lionour to his monarch. This es-
tablishment, however, lasted but a short time, for
it was destroyed by the Spaniards, who put to
the sword the new colonists, and went away under
the impression that they had now left the country
in a perfectly abandoned state. But the English,
at this time, were maintaining a footing here, un-
der the command of Sir Walter Raleigh, though
they were not under any formal establishment
until the reign of Charles II. in 1663, when the
country was granted as a property to the following
nobility, viz. the Count of Clarendon, Duke of
Albemarle, Count of Craven, John Berkley, John
Ashley, afterwards Count of Shaftsbury, George
Carteret, John Colleton, and William Berkley;
by these it was divided into as many counties,
and by them names were given to the rivers, settle-
ments, &c. Their privilege of proprietorship and


jurisdiction extended from lat. 31° to 36° «. and
they had an absolute authority to form establish-
ments and governments, according to the laws and
statutes laid down by that famous and renowned
philosopher John Locke ; accordingly the govern-
ment partook largely of the despotic, and the
rulers had the power of acknowledging or renounc-
ing laws, of conferring titles, employments, pro-
motions, and dignities, according to their own
caprice. They divided the population into three
classes: The first was composed of those entitled
the Barons, and to these were given 120,000 acres
of land; the second were two lordships, with the
title of Counts, to whom were given 240,000 acres ;
and the third, who were called Landgraves, a title
corresponding to Dukes, had a portion of 480,000
acres. This last body formed the high council-
chamber, and the lower was composed of the re-
presentatives of the counties and cities, both of
these together forming the parliament, this being
the real title, and not assembly, as in the other
colonies. The first establishment was the city of
Charlestown, between two navigable rivers called
Ashley and Cowper ; the same offered an asylum
to the Europeans, who on account of religious
disturbances fled from Europe, and who having
suffered great distresses there, had afterwards to
encounter a very unfriendly reception from the
Indians. Such was the state of affairs until 1728,
when this city was taken under the protection of
the English crown ; a corresponding recompence
having been paid to the lords, the proprietors, who
yielding it up, thus made a virtue of necessity ;
the Count Grenville, however, persisted in keep-
ing his eighth share. From that time it was divid-
ed into two parts, called North and South. The cli-
mate differs but little from that of Virginia, al-
though the heat in the summer is rather more
powerful here ; the winter, however, is shorter
and milder ; the temperature is serene and the
air healthy ; tempests and thunder storms are fre-
quent, and this is the only part of this continent
wherein have been experienced hurricanes; although
they are but rare here, and never so violent as in the
islands. The half of March, the whole of April,
May, and the greater part of June, the season is
mild and agreable ; in July, August, and nearly
all September, the heat is intense ; but the winter
is so mild, especially when the w.tw. wind prevails,
that the water is seldom frozen. It is extremely fer-
tile, and abounds in wheat, barley, rice, and all
kinds of pulse, flowers, and fruits of an exquisite
flavour; and the soil, which is uncultivated, is
covered with all kinds of trees. The principal

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