LatAm Digital Edition and Gazetteer


The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]




which the inhabitants trade. These are composed of34 Indian families. It is a little more than threeleagues from its head settlement,

AIOZINGO, a settlement of the alcaldía mayorof Chaleo in Nueva España, situate on the shoreof the lake of Mexico, with a good port, at whichare embarked the fruits of many provinces for thesupply of that capital, (Chaleo), which is withineight or ten hours sail from hence. It has a goodconvent of S. Augustin, where a most beauti-ful image of the virgin is reverenced, and sup-posed to be wonder-working. Its inhabitants con-sist of 120 Indian families and some Spanish. Itis distant one league s, s. e. from its capital.

AIQUILE, a settlement of the province of Mizque in Peru.

AIRICOS, a nation of Indians who inhabit theplains of Cazanare and Meta, of the new kingdomof Granada, to the c. of the mountains of Bogota,on the borders of the river Ele. It is numerous,and feared by all its neighbours, on account of itsvalour and dexterity in the use of arms.

Airicos, with the dedicatory title of SanFrancisco Xavier, a settlement which belongedto the Jesuits, and founded in 1662 by father An-tonio de Monteverde, and composed of some ofthose Indians who were thus reduced to the Catho-lic faith.

AIRIHUANCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cotabamba in Peru.

AIRS, a small city of the province and colonyof New Jersey, in the county of Burlington.

AIUDA, Nuestra Senora be la, a villageand settlement of the Portuguese, in the provinceand captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situateupon the sea-coast, and on the shore of the riverS. Miguel.

Aiuda, another settlement in the province andcaptainship of Puerto Seguro, situate upon thecoast on the shore of the port.

AIUILA, a river of the province and alcaldiamayor of Soconusco, in the kingdom of Guate-mala: It runs into the S. sea between the settle-ment of Suchitepec and the river Coatlan.

AIUINOS, a nation of Indians of the provinceand government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana,converted to the faith by father Francisco Olinano,of the abolished society of the Jesuits, in 1624.They live towards the n. of the above province,and in the times of their heathenism they dwelt inthe lofty mountains, in order that they might de-fend themselves from the other nations with whomthey were at war. They are docile, well-inclined,and of good habits.

AIUN, or luMERi, a river of the province and


viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres. It runs s. and entersthe Rio Negro.

AIUNCHA, Pago BE, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucuman, in the districtand jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero,from whence it is 22 leagues distant. It is situateon the shore of the river Dulce.

AIUTLA, the head settlement of the district ofthe alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana.It is of a cold temperature, containing 187 Indianfamilies, and a convent of the religious order of S.Domingo ; distant 13 leagues to the e. of its capi-tal.

Aiutla, another settlement in the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Autlanof the same kingdom, with 23 Indian families, whohave large stores of pulse and fruit, so rich and fer-tile is their country. It is annexed to the curacy ofTenamaztlani, from whence it lies one league s,

AlUA, a small town of the island of St. Domin-go, situate in the line which divides the Spanishterritory from the French. It was the inhabitantsof this town who chiefly contributed to ensure thevictory which was gained against the Spaniards inthe plain of Puerto Real, by the president DonFrancisco de Segura y Sandoval, in 1691.

AIX, Palmar be, a large beach on the coastof Florida, within the channel of Bahama, nearthe point of Canaveral ; memorable for the ship-wreck of 22 vessels, composing the fleet of NuevaEspana, which took place in 1715, being under thecommand of Don Antonio de Ubila ; memorablealso for the loss of two galleons from Tierra Firme,commanded by Don Antonio de Echevers ; theloss of the one and the other amounting to nearly20 million dollars.

Aix, a river of the same province, which runsinto the sea very near the Palmar.

AJOIANI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Carabaya in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Coaza.

[AJOS, a parish situate on the foot of the moun-tains which separate the rivers Paraguay and Pa-rana, about 24 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23°26' 34" s. Long. 56° 30' w.~\

AJOUES, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and government of Louisiana, in which theFrench held a garrison and fort for its defence, onthe shore of a lake near the Missouri.

A joues, another settlement of the same provinceand government, situate on the shore of the riverMissouri.

AKANCEAS, a nation of savage Indians of N.America, who live at the conflux of the riversMississippi, and another abundant stream of its

Last edit almost 2 years ago by MJG

This page is not corrected, please help correct this page

Last edit almost 2 years ago by Romina De León



those which form its different mouths : also theisland of its name, inhabited by the Guaranos In-dians.

CAPUXA, a small settlement of the jurisdictionand alcaldía mayor of Ixmiquilpán, and of the ca-pital of Orizava, in Nueva España.

CAQUETA, a very large and abundant riverrising in the province of Sucumbios in the kingdomof Quito, in the mountains of Mocoa, this namebeing also given to it: it runs from w. to e. Onthe s. it gathers the waters of the San Pedro, SantaCruz, and Arevalo, and on the n. those of theLucia, Pato, Tango, Tabaquero, Cascabeles,Iscanzé, and others of an inferior description. Itdivides itself into two arms, the one of which takesthe name of Yupura, and which, running nearly tothe same point as the Marañon, separates itself intoother branches, which enter into this latter river in4° of lat. and immediately become as large andconsiderable as if they were the main stream : theother arm is also divided into two, the one takinga n. e. course, and entering the Orinoco, and theother running s. e. and bearing the name of the RioNegro ; by means of which, in the year 1744, somePortuguese came from Marañon to Orinoco, andproved the communication of these rivers, whichbefore was doubted : also by one of the arms of theYupura, Gonzalo Ximenes de Quesada found hisway to the new kingdom of Granada when heundertook its conquest. Some maintain that thisriver was the Orinoco, and thus has Don PedroMaldonado represented it in his map published inthe year 1750; but that of the Father BernadoRosella, missionary of the abolished society of theJesuits in Orinoco, made after the notes and in-structions of the Father Manuel Roman, attributeswith some confidence another origin to the Orinoco,and speaks of the Caquetá as one of the rivers whichenter it on the w. side. The Spanish geographerCruz, in his General Chart of America, makes nodistinction between the Yupura and the Caquetá,and only speaks of one stream, which runs con-tinually to the s. s. e. through the territory of the Ca-vauris Indians, before it enters the Marañon. Hedelineates the same as throwing out four branchesto the w. and three to the e. all which join the latterriver ; and he further states, that before it becomesthus divided, it forms on its n. side two large lakescalled Ynabavú and Cumapi ; from the whole ofwhich may be easily inferred how great is theabundance of its waters.

CAQUEZA, a settlement of the corregimiento ofUbaque in the new kingdom of Granada, situate ina warm but pleasant and agreeable soil, althoughmuch infested by venomous snakes called tayas :


it abounds in the productions of a warm climate,contains more than 200 housekeepers, and is nineleagues to the s. w. of Santa Fe, in the road whichleads from San Juan de los Llanos to this capital.

CAQUIAUIRI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Pacages in Peru.

CAQUINGORA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Pacages in Peru.

CARA, an ancient province of the kingdom ofQuito towards the w. It extends itself along thecoast of the Pacific sea from the point of Pajonal tothe bay of Quaquez, for the space of 19 or 20leagues ; is watered by the rivers Tasagua andChonos to the s. and by the Jama to the n. Thewhole of the lands lie low, and are uncultivated andfull of wood ; the climate is hot and moist. It is atpresent united to the province of Esmeraldas.

CARA, the capital, which is now destroyed, wasfounded by Francisco de Ribas in the year 1562.It was situate in the bay of Cara, which is formedby the mouths of the two rivers Tasagua andChones : its ruins are still to be seen, and from thesewas built the settlement of Canoa, at six leaguesdistance, which was the residence of the lieutenantgovernor. This settlement was in 31' s. lat.

Cara, with the addition of BELLA, a small set-tlement of the Portuguese in the province and cap-tainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil ; situate at thesource of the river Prieto, and in the territory orcountry of the Pories Indians.

CARABAIA, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded on the e. by Larecaja, w. by Quis-picanchi, n. w. and n. by the territories of theinfidel Indians, called Carangues, Sumachuanes,and others, who are separated by the famous riverInambary; s. w. by the province of Canes andCanches or Tinta, and s. by Lampa and Asangaro,and in part by Puno or Paucarcolla. According {othe nice measurements which were made with re-gard to this province as well as of the others, it issaid to be 40 leagues from n. to s. and 50 at themost from e. to w. Its furtherest limits are only 14leagues distant from Cuzco, although on horsebackit is necessary to go a round of 60 leagues. Itsclimate is various, according to the more or lesselevated situation of the country; so that it is insome parts very cold, and in others more temperate.The pastures are good, consequently there is nowant of cattle, and in the neighbourhood of theAndes they gather three or four crops of coca inthe year. In this province is included that calledSan Gaban, which was united to it; many settle-ments having been at the same time added to theprovinces of Larecaja, Lampa and Asangaro. Ithas abounded more in gold than any other province

Last edit almost 2 years ago by kmr3934


in America, and they reckon the gold it has pro-duced at 33 millions of dollars, without countingthat which has been concealed ; but at present theyscarce procure from it 200 pound weight a year,on account of the increased charges of labour, andthe want of energy in the inhabitants. Many lumpsof gold have been found here, among which thereis still remembered to have been one of the figure ofa horse, which weighed 100 weight and some oddpounds, and which was carried to the EmperorCharles V. ; and likewise another lump which wassent to Philip II. bearing a resemblance to thehead of a man, which, however, was lost togetherwith much other riches in the channel of Bahama.This latter lump was found in the washing place ofYnahuaya. Nearly the whole of the territory of thisprovince is interspered with gold. The most cele-brated washing places that it had were called SanJuan del Oro, Paulo Coya, Ananea, and that whichwas superior to all, Aporoma. In the year 1713, alump of silver also was discovered in the mountainof Ucuntaya, being of a very solid piece of metal,and of prodigious value ; in its rivers are foundsands of gold, to which at certain times of the year,the Indians have recourse, in order to pay their tri-butes. There are also other mines of silver andcopper in various parts, and springs of hot water.It is very liable to earthquakes, and according tothe tradition of the Indians, there was one whichtook place before the conquest, so large as to over-turn mountains, and that, opening the earth, itswallowed up in an abyss many towns with theirinhabitants. They likewise assert, that in the year1747, another earthquake, throwing out of theground a dirty and muddy water, thereby infectedthe rivers to such a degree as to cause a dreadfuland general mortality. It has some large riversas well as small ; all of which empty themselvesinto the Ynambari, thus rendering this river ex-tremely abundant : towards the n. and n. e. which,as we have observed, is bounded by the infidel In-dians, there are large tracts of ground covered withcoca and rice, with an abundance of mountainfruits. In the aforesaid river they are accustomedto take shad and large dories by shooting themwith muskets, or by piercing them with arrows ordarts. There are also some lakes, which, althoughwithout fish, abound in ducks, snipes, and otheraquatic fowl. The infidel Indians have made va-rious irruptions into this province: its capital isSandia, and its natives, who amount to 28,000, aredivided into 26 settlements, as follows : The repar-timiento received by the corregidor used to amountto 82,800 dollars, and it paid 662 yearly for alcavala.



Sandia, Coaza,

Cuiocuio. Cruzero,

Laqueique, Ajoiani,

Yñacoreque, Usicaios,

Queneque, Esquena,

Patambuco, Cuntuquita,

S. Juan del Oro, Ynambari,

Quiaca, Ayapata,

Sina, Ytuata,

Para, Macusani,

Limbani, Ollachea,

Chejani, Azaroma,

Aporoma, Corani.

CARABAILLO, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Cercado in Peru. It rises in theprovince of Canta from three lakes to the n. of thecapital, and continues its course until it join thesea close to the point of Marques.

CARABAILLO, a settlement of this province andcorregimiento.

CARABANA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana, which runs to the s. andenters the Orinoco between the Corquina and theArrewow. According to Bellin, in his map of thecourse of part of the Orinoco, it is distant fromthe other river called Corobana, which also en-ters the Orinoco on the opposite side.

CARABATANG, a river of the province andcaptainship of Rio Grande in Brazil. It rises inthe sierra of the Tiguares Indians, near the coast,runs s. s. e. and enters the sea between the Congand the Goyana.

CARABELAS, River of the, in the provinceand captainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil. Itrises in the cold sierra of the Pories Indians, runss. e. and according to Cruz, e. and enters the seaopposite the bank of the Escollos (hidden rocks).

Carabelas, Grandes, a port of the islandof Cuba, on the n. part.

Carabelas, Chicas, a bay in the same island,and on the same coast, between the settlement ofGuanajo and the Puerto del Poniente (w. port.)

CARABERES. See article Guarayos.

CARABUCO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Omasuyos in Peru ; in the vici-nity of which are the ruins of a chapel, which wasdedicated to St. Bartholomew ; and the Indianshave a tradition that the above-mentioned saint ap-peared here and preached the gospel to them :thus, in the principal altar of the church, they re-verence a large cross of very strong wood, andwhich is celebrated for having wrought many mi-racles ; splinters of it being anxiously sought afterby the faithful, wherefrom to form small crosses ;

Last edit almost 2 years ago by kmr3934

rection to be drowned in the lake Yaguarcocha,which from thence takes its name, and signifies thelake of blood, with which it was quite polluted ;tlie Indians stating, .according to their traditions,that no less than 20,000 people were thus sacri-ficed. Part of this province is at present compre-hended in that of Ibarra, and part in that ofOtavalo.

CARAP, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana. It rises between the Aca-mon and the Agualey, and taking its course be-tween these two, enters the Caroni on the e. side.

CARAPAICURA, a small river of the provinceand government of Cumana. It rises in the ser-ranla of I mataca, runs and enters the Cuyunion the n. side.

CARAPANATUBA, a river of the province ofGuayana, in the part belonging to the Portuguese.It runs s. s. e. and enters the mouth of the Mara-non before you come to the town and fort of Ma-capa.

CARAPATO, a river of the province and cor-regimiento of Sicasica. It is but small, rises tothere), of the settlement of Caracoto, runs n. andenters the Cliuquiavo.

(CARAPEGUAY, a parish of the province andgovernment of Paraguay, situate near a smallriver, 11 leagues 5. e. of Asuncion. Lat. 25°45' 31" s. Long. 57° 16' 56" w.)

CARAPO, asettlement of the province of Guay-ana, and government of Cumana, one of those be-longing to the missions of the Catalatxian Capuchinfathers.

CARAPO, a river of the province and go-vernment of San Juan de los Llanos in the newkingdom of Granada ; it rises in the country ofthe Chiricoas Indians, runs n. and enters the Meta.

CARAPU, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana ; it rises near the lakeJeupa, runs from s. to n. and enters the Paragua.

CARAPUCHO, Morro de, a mountain onthe coast of Peru, in the province and corregi-miento of Carangas.

CARAQUES, Bay of, on the S. sea-coast, andin the province and government of Guayaquil. Itis close to cape Pasao, and near the equinoctialline. There was a settlement here, bearing the samename, the ruins of which are still visible.

CARAQUET, a small island of the gulf of St.Lawrence, on tlie coast of Nova Scotia or Arca-dia, by the Orphan’s bank.

CARARA, a small river of the province andcaptainship of Para in Brazil; it runs n. and en-ters the sea between the settlement of Senambocaand the island of San Juan.

CARARE, a large river of the new kingdom ofGranada. It rises in the valley of Alferez, to then. of the city of Tunja, runs from s. ton. and join-ing the Zarbe, enters the large river of Magdalena.On the e. side, near the narrow pass which formsits shores, the French have constructed a fort toguard against invasion from the infidel Indians.

CARARI, a strait of the large river Magdalena,formed by great rocks. There was formerly herea fort, which has been moved to a place at somelittle distance. The course of the waters in theabove strait is so rapid as to render it sometimesimpossible for vessels and canoes to pass through it.

==CARAS=, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxatambo in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Andajes.

CARASA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cochabamba in Peru.

CARASANI, asettlement of the province andcorregmiento of Larecaja in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Combaya.

CARATE, a small island of the S. sea, near thecoast.

CARATES, a river of the province and go-vernment of Maracaibo. It rises in the mountainsof Lonia, runs s. w. and after many windings,enters the great lake of Maracaibo.

CARAVELAS, Mouth of the, the entrance ofa bay on the n. coast of the island of Cuba.

CARAUELE, Point of the, an extremity ofthe coast looking to the e. in the island of Marti-nique, one of those two which run into the sea inthe above direction.

Carauele, a small island of the N. sea, situatenear the n. e. coast of the island of Martinique,on the n. side of Carauele point.

CARAUELI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cumana in Peru.

CARAUELLES, a river of the province andcaptainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil. It risesat the foot of the « Fria, and describing a smallcircle, runs s. e. and according to Cruz, e. andenters the sea opposite the island of Pajaros.

CARAZ, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Huailas in Peru.

CARBET, a settlement of the island of Mar-tinique, one of the Antilles ; situate on the n. s».coast, Avith a good port. It Avas a curacy of theregular order of Jesuits, now abolished.

Carbet, two very high mountains of the aboveisland. They are full of sharp points similar tothose on Montserrat in Cateluila. They are nearthe coast, lying towards the n. w. part ; and theFrench call them Pitons de Carbet.

Carbet, a point on the e. coast of the island

Last edit almost 2 years ago by kmr3934
All 5 records