LatAm Digital Edition and Gazetteer


The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]




which the inhabitants trade. These are composed of 34 Indian families. It is a little more than three leagues from its head settlement,

AIOZINGO, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Chaleo in Nueva España, situate on the shore of the lake of Mexico, with a good port, at which are embarked the fruits of many provinces for the supply of that capital, (Chaleo), which is within eight or ten hours sail from hence. It has a good convent of S. Augustin, where a most beautiful image of the virgin is reverenced, and supposed to be wonder-working. Its inhabitants consist of 120 Indian families and some Spanish. It is distant one league s, s. e. from its capital.

AIQUILE, a settlement of the province of Mizque in Peru.

AIRICOS, a nation of Indians who inhabit the plains of Cazanare and Meta, of the new kingdom of Granada, to the c. of the mountains of Bogota, on the borders of the river Ele. It is numerous, and feared by all its neighbours, on account of its valour and dexterity in the use of arms.

Airicos, with the dedicatory title of San Francisco Xavier, a settlement which belonged to the Jesuits, and founded in 1662 by father Antonio de Monteverde, and composed of some of those Indians who were thus reduced to the Catholic faith.

AIRIHUANCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cotabamba in Peru.

AIRS, a small city of the province and colony of New Jersey, in the county of Burlington.

AIUDA, Nuestra Senora be la, a village and settlement of the Portuguese, in the province and captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situate upon the sea-coast, and on the shore of the river S. Miguel.

Aiuda, another settlement in the province and captainship of Puerto Seguro, situate upon the coast on the shore of the port.

AIUILA, a river of the province and alcaldia mayor of Soconusco, in the kingdom of Guatemala: It runs into the S. sea between the settlement of Suchitepec and the river Coatlan.

AIUINOS, a nation of Indians of the province and government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana, converted to the faith by father Francisco Olinano, of the abolished society of the Jesuits, in 1624. They live towards the n. of the above province, and in the times of their heathenism they dwelt in the lofty mountains, in order that they might defend themselves from the other nations with whom they were at war. They are docile, well-inclined, and of good habits.

AIUN, or luMERi, a river of the province and


viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres. It runs s. and enters the Rio Negro.

AIUNCHA, Pago BE, a settlement of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district and jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero, from whence it is 22 leagues distant. It is situate on the shore of the river Dulce.

AIUTLA, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold temperature, containing 187 Indian families, and a convent of the religious order of S. Domingo ; distant 13 leagues to the e. of its capital.

Aiutla, another settlement in the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Autlan of the same kingdom, with 23 Indian families, who have large stores of pulse and fruit, so rich and fertile is their country. It is annexed to the curacy of Tenamaztlani, from whence it lies one league s,

AlUA, a small town of the island of St. Domingo, situate in the line which divides the Spanish territory from the French. It was the inhabitants of this town who chiefly contributed to ensure the victory which was gained against the Spaniards in the plain of Puerto Real, by the president Don Francisco de Segura y Sandoval, in 1691.

AIX, Palmar be, a large beach on the coast of Florida, within the channel of Bahama, near the point of Canaveral ; memorable for the shipwreck of 22 vessels, composing the fleet of Nueva Espana, which took place in 1715, being under the command of Don Antonio de Ubila ; memorable also for the loss of two galleons from Tierra Firme, commanded by Don Antonio de Echevers ; the loss of the one and the other amounting to nearly 20 million dollars.

Aix, a river of the same province, which runs into the sea very near the Palmar.

AJOIANI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Coaza.

[AJOS, a parish situate on the foot of the mountains which separate the rivers Paraguay and Parana, about 24 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23° 26' 34" s. Long. 56° 30' w.~\

AJOUES, a settlement of Indians of the province and government of Louisiana, in which the French held a garrison and fort for its defence, on the shore of a lake near the Missouri.

A joues, another settlement of the same province and government, situate on the shore of the river Missouri.

AKANCEAS, a nation of savage Indians of N. America, who live at the conflux of the rivers Mississippi, and another abundant stream of its

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those which form its different mouths : also the island of its name, inhabited by the Guaranos Indians.

CAPUXA, a small settlement of the jurisdiction and alcaldía mayor of Ixmiquilpán, and of the capital of Orizava, in Nueva España.

CAQUETA, a very large and abundant river rising in the province of Sucumbios in the kingdom of Quito, in the mountains of Mocoa, this name being also given to it: it runs from w. to e. On the s. it gathers the waters of the San Pedro, Santa Cruz, and Arevalo, and on the n. those of the Lucia, Pato, Tango, Tabaquero, Cascabeles, Iscanzé, and others of an inferior description. It divides itself into two arms, the one of which takes the name of Yupura, and which, running nearly to the same point as the Marañon, separates itself into other branches, which enter into this latter river in 4° of lat. and immediately become as large and considerable as if they were the main stream : the other arm is also divided into two, the one taking a n. e. course, and entering the Orinoco, and the other running s. e. and bearing the name of the Rio Negro ; by means of which, in the year 1744, some Portuguese came from Marañon to Orinoco, and proved the communication of these rivers, which before was doubted : also by one of the arms of the Yupura, Gonzalo Ximenes de Quesada found his way to the new kingdom of Granada when he undertook its conquest. Some maintain that this river was the Orinoco, and thus has Don Pedro Maldonado represented it in his map published in the year 1750; but that of the Father Bernado Rosella, missionary of the abolished society of the Jesuits in Orinoco, made after the notes and instructions of the Father Manuel Roman, attributes with some confidence another origin to the Orinoco, and speaks of the Caquetá as one of the rivers which enter it on the w. side. The Spanish geographer Cruz, in his General Chart of America, makes no distinction between the Yupura and the Caquetá, and only speaks of one stream, which runs continually to the s. s. e. through the territory of the Cavauris Indians, before it enters the Marañon. He delineates the same as throwing out four branches to the w. and three to the e. all which join the latter river ; and he further states, that before it becomes thus divided, it forms on its n. side two large lakes called Ynabavú and Cumapi ; from the whole of which may be easily inferred how great is the abundance of its waters.

CAQUEZA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Ubaque in the new kingdom of Granada, situate in a warm but pleasant and agreeable soil, although much infested by venomous snakes called tayas :


it abounds in the productions of a warm climate, contains more than 200 housekeepers, and is nine leagues to the s. w. of Santa Fe, in the road which leads from San Juan de los Llanos to this capital.

CAQUIAUIRI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pacages in Peru.

CAQUINGORA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pacages in Peru.

CARA, an ancient province of the kingdom of Quito towards the w. It extends itself along the coast of the Pacific sea from the point of Pajonal to the bay of Quaquez, for the space of 19 or 20 leagues ; is watered by the rivers Tasagua and Chonos to the s. and by the Jama to the n. The whole of the lands lie low, and are uncultivated and full of wood ; the climate is hot and moist. It is at present united to the province of Esmeraldas.

CARA, the capital, which is now destroyed, was founded by Francisco de Ribas in the year 1562. It was situate in the bay of Cara, which is formed by the mouths of the two rivers Tasagua and Chones : its ruins are still to be seen, and from these was built the settlement of Canoa, at six leagues distance, which was the residence of the lieutenant governor. This settlement was in 31' s. lat.

Cara, with the addition of BELLA, a small settlement of the Portuguese in the province and captainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil ; situate at the source of the river Prieto, and in the territory or country of the Pories Indians.

CARABAIA, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded on the e. by Larecaja, w. by Quispicanchi, n. w. and n. by the territories of the infidel Indians, called Carangues, Sumachuanes, and others, who are separated by the famous river Inambary; s. w. by the province of Canes and Canches or Tinta, and s. by Lampa and Asangaro, and in part by Puno or Paucarcolla. According {o the nice measurements which were made with regard to this province as well as of the others, it is said to be 40 leagues from n. to s. and 50 at the most from e. to w. Its furtherest limits are only 14 leagues distant from Cuzco, although on horseback it is necessary to go a round of 60 leagues. Its climate is various, according to the more or less elevated situation of the country; so that it is in some parts very cold, and in others more temperate. The pastures are good, consequently there is no want of cattle, and in the neighbourhood of the Andes they gather three or four crops of coca in the year. In this province is included that called San Gaban, which was united to it; many settlements having been at the same time added to the provinces of Larecaja, Lampa and Asangaro. It has abounded more in gold than any other province

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in America, and they reckon the gold it has produced at 33 millions of dollars, without counting that which has been concealed ; but at present they scarce procure from it 200 pound weight a year, on account of the increased charges of labour, and the want of energy in the inhabitants. Many lumps of gold have been found here, among which there is still remembered to have been one of the figure of a horse, which weighed 100 weight and some odd pounds, and which was carried to the Emperor Charles V. ; and likewise another lump which was sent to Philip II. bearing a resemblance to the head of a man, which, however, was lost together with much other riches in the channel of Bahama. This latter lump was found in the washing place of Ynahuaya. Nearly the whole of the territory of this province is interspered with gold. The most celebrated washing places that it had were called San Juan del Oro, Paulo Coya, Ananea, and that which was superior to all, Aporoma. In the year 1713, a lump of silver also was discovered in the mountain of Ucuntaya, being of a very solid piece of metal, and of prodigious value ; in its rivers are found sands of gold, to which at certain times of the year, the Indians have recourse, in order to pay their tributes. There are also other mines of silver and copper in various parts, and springs of hot water. It is very liable to earthquakes, and according to the tradition of the Indians, there was one which took place before the conquest, so large as to overturn mountains, and that, opening the earth, it swallowed up in an abyss many towns with their inhabitants. They likewise assert, that in the year 1747, another earthquake, throwing out of the ground a dirty and muddy water, thereby infected the rivers to such a degree as to cause a dreadful and general mortality. It has some large rivers as well as small ; all of which empty themselves into the Ynambari, thus rendering this river extremely abundant : towards the n. and n. e. which, as we have observed, is bounded by the infidel Indians, there are large tracts of ground covered with coca and rice, with an abundance of mountain fruits. In the aforesaid river they are accustomed to take shad and large dories by shooting them with muskets, or by piercing them with arrows or darts. There are also some lakes, which, although without fish, abound in ducks, snipes, and other aquatic fowl. The infidel Indians have made various irruptions into this province: its capital is Sandia, and its natives, who amount to 28,000, are divided into 26 settlements, as follows : The repartimiento received by the corregidor used to amount to 82,800 dollars, and it paid 662 yearly for alcavala.



Sandia, Coaza,

Cuiocuio. Cruzero,

Laqueique, Ajoiani,

Yñacoreque, Usicaios,

Queneque, Esquena,

Patambuco, Cuntuquita,

S. Juan del Oro, Ynambari,

Quiaca, Ayapata,

Sina, Ytuata,

Para, Macusani,

Limbani, Ollachea,

Chejani, Azaroma,

Aporoma, Corani.

CARABAILLO, a river of the province and corregimiento of Cercado in Peru. It rises in the province of Canta from three lakes to the n. of the capital, and continues its course until it join the sea close to the point of Marques.

CARABAILLO, a settlement of this province and corregimiento.

CARABANA, a river of the province and government of Guayana, which runs to the s. and enters the Orinoco between the Corquina and the Arrewow. According to Bellin, in his map of the course of part of the Orinoco, it is distant from the other river called Corobana, which also enters the Orinoco on the opposite side.

CARABATANG, a river of the province and captainship of Rio Grande in Brazil. It rises in the sierra of the Tiguares Indians, near the coast, runs s. s. e. and enters the sea between the Cong and the Goyana.

CARABELAS, River of the, in the province and captainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil. It rises in the cold sierra of the Pories Indians, runs s. e. and according to Cruz, e. and enters the sea opposite the bank of the Escollos (hidden rocks).

Carabelas, Grandes, a port of the island of Cuba, on the n. part.

Carabelas, Chicas, a bay in the same island, and on the same coast, between the settlement of Guanajo and the Puerto del Poniente (w. port.)

CARABERES. See article Guarayos.

CARABUCO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Omasuyos in Peru ; in the vicinity of which are the ruins of a chapel, which was dedicated to St. Bartholomew ; and the Indians have a tradition that the above-mentioned saint appeared here and preached the gospel to them : thus, in the principal altar of the church, they reverence a large cross of very strong wood, and which is celebrated for having wrought many miracles ; splinters of it being anxiously sought after by the faithful, wherefrom to form small crosses ;

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rection to be drowned in the lake Yaguarcocha, which from thence takes its name, and signifies the lake of blood, with which it was quite polluted ; tlie Indians stating, .according to their traditions, that no less than 20,000 people were thus sacrificed. Part of this province is at present comprehended in that of Ibarra, and part in that of Otavalo.

CARAP, a small river of the province and government of Guayana. It rises between the Acamon and the Agualey, and taking its course between these two, enters the Caroni on the e. side.

CARAPAICURA, a small river of the province and government of Cumana. It rises in the serranla of I mataca, runs and enters the Cuyuni on the n. side.

CARAPANATUBA, a river of the province of Guayana, in the part belonging to the Portuguese. It runs s. s. e. and enters the mouth of the Maranon before you come to the town and fort of Macapa.

CARAPATO, a river of the province and corregimiento of Sicasica. It is but small, rises to there), of the settlement of Caracoto, runs n. and enters the Cliuquiavo.

(CARAPEGUAY, a parish of the province and government of Paraguay, situate near a small river, 11 leagues 5. e. of Asuncion. Lat. 25° 45' 31" s. Long. 57° 16' 56" w.)

CARAPO, asettlement of the province of Guayana, and government of Cumana, one of those belonging to the missions of the Catalatxian Capuchin fathers.

CARAPO, a river of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos in the new kingdom of Granada ; it rises in the country of the Chiricoas Indians, runs n. and enters the Meta.

CARAPU, a small river of the province and government of Guayana ; it rises near the lake Jeupa, runs from s. to n. and enters the Paragua.

CARAPUCHO, Morro de, a mountain on the coast of Peru, in the province and corregimiento of Carangas.

CARAQUES, Bay of, on the S. sea-coast, and in the province and government of Guayaquil. It is close to cape Pasao, and near the equinoctial line. There was a settlement here, bearing the same name, the ruins of which are still visible.

CARAQUET, a small island of the gulf of St. Lawrence, on tlie coast of Nova Scotia or Arcadia, by the Orphan’s bank.

CARARA, a small river of the province and captainship of Para in Brazil; it runs n. and enters the sea between the settlement of Senamboca and the island of San Juan.

CARARE, a large river of the new kingdom of Granada. It rises in the valley of Alferez, to the n. of the city of Tunja, runs from s. ton. and joining the Zarbe, enters the large river of Magdalena. On the e. side, near the narrow pass which forms its shores, the French have constructed a fort to guard against invasion from the infidel Indians.

CARARI, a strait of the large river Magdalena, formed by great rocks. There was formerly here a fort, which has been moved to a place at some little distance. The course of the waters in the above strait is so rapid as to render it sometimes impossible for vessels and canoes to pass through it.

==CARAS=, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Andajes.

CARASA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cochabamba in Peru.

CARASANI, asettlement of the province and corregmiento of Larecaja in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Combaya.

CARATE, a small island of the S. sea, near the coast.

CARATES, a river of the province and government of Maracaibo. It rises in the mountains of Lonia, runs s. w. and after many windings, enters the great lake of Maracaibo.

CARAVELAS, Mouth of the, the entrance of a bay on the n. coast of the island of Cuba.

CARAUELE, Point of the, an extremity of the coast looking to the e. in the island of Martinique, one of those two which run into the sea in the above direction.

Carauele, a small island of the N. sea, situate near the n. e. coast of the island of Martinique, on the n. side of Carauele point.

CARAUELI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cumana in Peru.

CARAUELLES, a river of the province and captainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil. It rises at the foot of the « Fria, and describing a small circle, runs s. e. and according to Cruz, e. and enters the sea opposite the island of Pajaros.

CARAZ, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huailas in Peru.

CARBET, a settlement of the island of Martinique, one of the Antilles ; situate on the n. s». coast, Avith a good port. It Avas a curacy of the regular order of Jesuits, now abolished.

Carbet, two very high mountains of the above island. They are full of sharp points similar to those on Montserrat in Cateluila. They are near the coast, lying towards the n. w. part ; and the French call them Pitons de Carbet.

Carbet, a point on the e. coast of the island

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