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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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state to maintain itself. Thus the colonists lived for some years, and in time the productions in which their commerce consisted, increased to such a degree as to have caused them to excel all the other English colonies,

ALUEMAur.E, another county or part of Vir ginia, washed by the river Fluvana on the s. which divides itself into several branches, and adds much to the fertility of the country. It is bounded e. by the county of Goochland, w. divided by a chain of mountains of Augusta, and by that of Louisa on the «. [It contains 12,585 inha bitants, including 5579 slaves. Its extent, about S5 miles square.]

Albemarle, a strait, which is the mouth or entrance into the sea of the river Roanoke.

ALBERTO, a small settlement or ward of the head settlement of the district of Tlazintla, and alcafdia mayor of Ixmiqailpan, in Nueva Espana.

[ALBION, New, the name given by Sir Francis Drake to California, and part of the n. w. coast of America, when he took possession of it. A large uncertain tract of the n. w, coast is thus called. Its limits, according to Mr. Arrow smith’s chart, are between 27° 12' and 41° 15' 71. lat. Humboldt asserts, that, agreeably to sure historical data, the denomination of New Albion ought to be limited to that part of the coast which extends from the 43° to the 48°, or from Cape White of Martin de x\guilar, to the entrance of Juan de Fuea. Besides, he adds, from the mis sions of the Catholic priests to those of the Greek priests, that is to say, from the Spanish village of San Francisco, in New California, to the Russian establishments on Cook river at Prince William’s bay', and to the islands of Kodiac and Unalaska, there are more than a thousand leagues of coast inhabited by' free men, and stocked with otters and Phocre! Consequently, the discussions on the extent of the New Albion of Drake, and the pre tended rights acquired by certain European na tions, from planting small crosses, and leaving inscriptions fastened to trunks of trees, or the burying of bottles, may be considered as futile. The part of the coast on which Capt. Cook landed on the 7th of March 1778, and which some desig nate as Nezo Albion, is in n. lat. 44° 33'. e. long. 235° 10', which he thus describes : “ The land is lull of mountains, the tops of w hich are covered with snow, while the vallies between them, and the grounds on the sea-coast, high as well as low, are covered with trees, which form a beautiful prospect, as of one vast forest. At first the natives seemed to prefer iron to every other article of

commerce; at last they preferred brass. They were more tenacious of their property than any of the savage nations that had hitherto been met with ; so that they would not part with wood, water, grass, nor the most trifling article without a compensation, and were sometimes very unrea sonable in their demands.” See Calii^ornia, New.]

ALBOR, a small island of the N. or Atlantic sea, one of the Bahamas, between those of Neque and 8. Salvador.

ALBUQUERQUE, Santa Rosa de, a settle ment and real of the silver mines of the alcaldia mayor of Colotlan in Nueva Espana. It is 19 leagues s. w. of the head settlement of the district of Tlaltcnango.

Albuquehque, a townof New Mexico, situate on the shore of the Rio Grande (large river) of the N. [opposite the village of Atrisco, to the w. of tlie Sierra Obseqra. Population 0000 souls.]

Albuquerque, a small island, or low rocks, of the N. sea, near that of 8. Andres.

ALCA, a settlement of the province and corre gimienlo of Condensuyos of Arequipa in Peru.

ALCALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa, and kingdom of Gua temala, in the division and district of that city.

ALCAMANI, a branch of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Igualapa in Neuva Espana, and two leagues to the n. of the same.

ALCANTARA, S. Antonio de, a town of the province and captainship of Maranam' in the kingdom of Brazil. It luis been frequently invaded by the infidel Indians, who destroyed its work shops, so that its inhabitants have been much reduced.

Alcantara, S. Antonio de, another settle ment in the province and district of Chanco, in the kingdom of Chile, near the shore of the rivec Mataquino.

ALCARAI, a small river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and enters the river La Plata between those of Lay man and Gomez.

ALCATRACES, Ishmd of the, one of those which lie n. of St. Domingo, between the s. point of the Caico Grande, and the Panuelo Quadrado, (square handkerchief).

ALCIIICHlCd, 8 . Martin de, a ward of the head settlement erf the district and alcaldia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana, belonging to that of Santa Maria de la Asuncion.

ALCHIDOMAS, a settlement of the province of the Apaches in Nuevo Mexico, situate on the

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those which form its different mouths : also the island of its name, inhabited by the Guaranos Indians.

CAPUXA, a small settlement of the jurisdiction and alcaldía mayor of Ixmiquilpán, and of the capital of Orizava, in Nueva España.

CAQUETA, a very large and abundant river rising in the province of Sucumbios in the kingdom of Quito, in the mountains of Mocoa, this name being also given to it: it runs from w. to e. On the s. it gathers the waters of the San Pedro, Santa Cruz, and Arevalo, and on the n. those of the Lucia, Pato, Tango, Tabaquero, Cascabeles, Iscanzé, and others of an inferior description. It divides itself into two arms, the one of which takes the name of Yupura, and which, running nearly to the same point as the Marañon, separates itself into other branches, which enter into this latter river in 4° of lat. and immediately become as large and considerable as if they were the main stream : the other arm is also divided into two, the one taking a n. e. course, and entering the Orinoco, and the other running s. e. and bearing the name of the Rio Negro ; by means of which, in the year 1744, some Portuguese came from Marañon to Orinoco, and proved the communication of these rivers, which before was doubted : also by one of the arms of the Yupura, Gonzalo Ximenes de Quesada found his way to the new kingdom of Granada when he undertook its conquest. Some maintain that this river was the Orinoco, and thus has Don Pedro Maldonado represented it in his map published in the year 1750; but that of the Father Bernado Rosella, missionary of the abolished society of the Jesuits in Orinoco, made after the notes and instructions of the Father Manuel Roman, attributes with some confidence another origin to the Orinoco, and speaks of the Caquetá as one of the rivers which enter it on the w. side. The Spanish geographer Cruz, in his General Chart of America, makes no distinction between the Yupura and the Caquetá, and only speaks of one stream, which runs continually to the s. s. e. through the territory of the Cavauris Indians, before it enters the Marañon. He delineates the same as throwing out four branches to the w. and three to the e. all which join the latter river ; and he further states, that before it becomes thus divided, it forms on its n. side two large lakes called Ynabavú and Cumapi ; from the whole of which may be easily inferred how great is the abundance of its waters.

CAQUEZA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Ubaque in the new kingdom of Granada, situate in a warm but pleasant and agreeable soil, although much infested by venomous snakes called tayas :

CAR

it abounds in the productions of a warm climate, contains more than 200 housekeepers, and is nine leagues to the s. w. of Santa Fe, in the road which leads from San Juan de los Llanos to this capital.

CAQUIAUIRI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pacages in Peru.

CAQUINGORA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pacages in Peru.

CARA, an ancient province of the kingdom of Quito towards the w. It extends itself along the coast of the Pacific sea from the point of Pajonal to the bay of Quaquez, for the space of 19 or 20 leagues ; is watered by the rivers Tasagua and Chonos to the s. and by the Jama to the n. The whole of the lands lie low, and are uncultivated and full of wood ; the climate is hot and moist. It is at present united to the province of Esmeraldas.

CARA, the capital, which is now destroyed, was founded by Francisco de Ribas in the year 1562. It was situate in the bay of Cara, which is formed by the mouths of the two rivers Tasagua and Chones : its ruins are still to be seen, and from these was built the settlement of Canoa, at six leagues distance, which was the residence of the lieutenant governor. This settlement was in 31' s. lat.

Cara, with the addition of BELLA, a small settlement of the Portuguese in the province and captainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil ; situate at the source of the river Prieto, and in the territory or country of the Pories Indians.

CARABAIA, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded on the e. by Larecaja, w. by Quispicanchi, n. w. and n. by the territories of the infidel Indians, called Carangues, Sumachuanes, and others, who are separated by the famous river Inambary; s. w. by the province of Canes and Canches or Tinta, and s. by Lampa and Asangaro, and in part by Puno or Paucarcolla. According {o the nice measurements which were made with regard to this province as well as of the others, it is said to be 40 leagues from n. to s. and 50 at the most from e. to w. Its furtherest limits are only 14 leagues distant from Cuzco, although on horseback it is necessary to go a round of 60 leagues. Its climate is various, according to the more or less elevated situation of the country; so that it is in some parts very cold, and in others more temperate. The pastures are good, consequently there is no want of cattle, and in the neighbourhood of the Andes they gather three or four crops of coca in the year. In this province is included that called San Gaban, which was united to it; many settlements having been at the same time added to the provinces of Larecaja, Lampa and Asangaro. It has abounded more in gold than any other province

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C E R

ters the sea between the river Rosa and the settlement and parisli of Cul de Sac.

CERICUNCUA, a bay of the coast of Brazil, in the province and captainship of Seara, between the port of Tortuga and the settlement of Nuestra Seilora del Rosario.

CERINZA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Tunja in tlie Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of a cold temperature, and abounds in cattle and the productions peculiar to the climate. It contains 300 families, and lies in a valley, from which it takes its name.

CERMEN, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela ; situate on the side of the town of San Felipe, towards the e. between this town and the settlement of Agua Culebras, on the shore of the river Iraqui.

CERRALUO, a town and presidency of the Nuevo Reyno de Leon, garrisoned by a squadron of 12 soldiers and a captain, who is governor of this district, for the'purpose of restraining the bordering infidel Indians. Between the e. and n. is the large river of this name ; and from this begins a tract of extensive country, inhabited by barbarous nations, who impede the communication and commerce Avith regard to this part and the provinces of Tejas and Nuevas Felipinas. Is 35 leagues to the e. of its capital.

Cerraluo, a bay of the coast and gulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, opposite an island which is also thus called ; the one and theother having been named out of compliment to the Marquis of Cerraluo, viceroy of Nueva Espana. TJie aforesaid island is large, and lies between the former bay and the coast of Nueva Espana.

CERRITO, a settlement of the island and government of Trinidad, near the n. coast, and to the e. of the capital of San Joseph de Oruna.

Cerrito Verde, an open and insecure port in the bay of La Concepcion, of the kingdom of Chile, and Pacific sea.

Cerrito, another, with the surname of Santa Ana. See Ctuayaquie.

CERRITOS, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of Orizava, and alcaldia mayor of Ixmiquilpan, in Nueva España.

Cerritos, another settlement in the province and goverment of Popayán.

CERRO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru.

Cerro, another, in the province and corregimiento of Porco in the same kingdom.

Cerro, another, with the surname of Negro, in the province and corregimiento of Rede, and kingdom of Chile ; situate at the source of the river Itan.

==Cerro, another, called San Miguel de Cerro Gordo==, which is a garrison of the province of Tepeguana in the kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. Its situation is similar to the road which leads to it, namely, a plain level surface ; although, indeed, it is divided by a declivity, in ivhich there is a pool of water, and by Avhich passengers usually pass. This garrison is the residence of a captain, a Serjeant , and 28 soldiers, who are appointed to suppress the sallies of the infidel Indians. In its vicinity is a cultivated estate, having a beautiful orchard, abounding in fruit-trees and in zepas, which also produce fruit of a delicious flavour. The garrison lies 50 leagues n. w. of the capital Guadiana.

Cerros, San Felipe de los, a settlement of the head settlement of Uruapa, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mcchoacan. It contains 26 families of Indians, and lies eight leagues to the e. of its head settlement, and 10 from the capital.

Cerros, another, in the province and corregrmiento of Castro-Vireyna in Peru.

CESARA, a large and copious river of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, which was called by the Indians Pompatao, meaning in their idiom, “ the lord of all rivers,” is formed of several small rivers, which flow down from the snowy sierras of Santa Marta. It runs s. leaving the extensive llamtras of Upar until it reaches the lake Zapatosa, from whence itj issues, divided into four arms, which afterwards unite, and so, following a course of 70 leagues to the w, enters the Magdalena on the <?. side, and to the s. of the little settlement called Banco.

CESARES, a barbarous nation of Indians of the kingdom of Chile towards the s. Of them are told many fabulous accounts, although they are, in fact, but little known. Some believe them to be formed of Spaniards and Indians, being those Avho Avere lost in the straits of Magellan, and belonged to the armada which, at the beginning of the conquest of America, Avas sent by the bishop of Placencia to discover the Malucas. Others pretend that the Arucanos, after they had destroyed the city of Osonio, in 1599, took aAvay with them the Spanish Avomen ; and that it Avas from the production of these Avomen and the Indiatis that this nation of the Cesares arose. Certain it is, that they are of an agreeable colour, of a pleasing aspect, and of good dispositions. They have some light of Christianity, live without any fixed abode ; and some have affirmed that they have heard the sound of bells in their territorj". It Avas attempted in 1638, by the governor of Tucuman, Don Geronimo

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tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues to the w. n. w. of Mexico.

Chilchota, another settlement of the head settlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountain which is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80 families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading in cochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits. It is eight leagues from its head settlement.

Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory title of San Pedro. It is of the head settlement of Quimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de los Llanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 families of Indians.

CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlement and real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ixmiquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215 families of Indians, and in the real are 27 of Spaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. It is of an extremely cold and moist temperature, and its commerce depends upon the working of the lead mines. Some silver mines were formerly worked here, but these yielded so base a metal, and in such small quantities, that they were entirely abandoned for those of lead, which yielded by far the greatest emolument. Five leagues to the e. of its capital.

CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. America, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by the straits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on the e. by the provinces of Tucuman and Buenos Ayres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, and on the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios. 472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magallanicas from the straits and the plains or deserts of Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. The Inca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carried his conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, in lat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the first Spaniard who discovered this country, in the year 1335, and began its conquest, which was afterwards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pedro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, and afterwards met with a disgraceful death at the hands of the Indians, having been made prisoner by them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are the most valorous and warlike of all in America ) they have maintained, by a continual warfare, their independence of the Spaniards, from whom they are separated by the river Biobio. This is the limit of the country possessed by them ; and though the Spaniards have penetrated through different entrances into their territories, and there built various towns and fortresses, yet have all these been pulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-

fenders of their liberty and their country. They are most dexterous in the management of the lance, sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macana wood ; and although they are equally so in the practice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom, saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” They are very agile and dexterous horsemen, and their horses are excellent, since those which run wild, and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have not degenerated, or become at all inferior to the best which that country produces. The part which the Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends its whole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapo to the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond the isle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues, at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, as it were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera of the Andes ; from these descend infinite streams and rivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys, and forming a country altogether charming and luxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for the convenience and enjoyment of life, producing, in regular season, all the most delicate fruits of America and Europe. The summer here begins in September, the estio (or hot summer) in December, the autumn in March, and the winter in June. The climate is similar to that of Spain, and the temperature varies according to the elevation of the land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru, and which are very low, are of a warm temperature, and lack rain, having no other moisture than what they derive from some small rivers descending from the cordillera^ and running, for the space of 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the other provinces it rains more frequently, in proportion as they lay more to the s. especially in the winter, from April to September ; for which reason they are more fertile. These provinces are watered by more than 40 rivers, which also descend from the cordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snow melted in the summer, swelling them to a great height. They generally abound in fish of the most delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~ gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and many others. The sea-coast is of itself capable of maintaining a vast population by the shell-fish found upon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the most delicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ; here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasy a species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados, pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes, and tunnies, which come at their seasons on the coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadrabas of Andaluda. For some years past they salt down cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a

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