The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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AIAPANGO, the head settlement of the districtof the akaldia mayor of Chaleo in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 100 families of Indians, and isannexed to the curacy of Amecaraeca, at twoleagues to the s. of its capital.
AIAPATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, and veryopulent, on account of its silver mines. The sandson the banks of the rivers here have been known sorichly impregnated with this metal, that lumps ofit have been at different times picked up. It is themost considerable population in the province, andthe temperature is so salutary, that it is very com-mon to meet with persons of 90 years of age, andmany also of 100.
AIAPEL, a town of the province and govern-ment of Antioquia, in the new kingdom of Gra-nada, situate on the bank of a large lake or swampof the same name, and which is formed from thewaters of the rivers Cauca, San Jorge, and others.In its district are the lavaderos, or washing placesfor gold, of La Cruz, San Mateo, Thuansi, Can,Ure, Man, San Pedro, and La Soledad.
AIATASTO, a large river of the province andgovernment of Tucuman, in the district and juris-diction of the city of Salta, on the banks of whichare some pasture grounds of the same name, uponwhich are fed 40,000 head of neat cattle, and 6000of horses for breeding.
AIAUIRI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lamoa in Peru. In its vicinity aresome forts, which were built by the Indians in thetime of their gentilism, and now in a state of greatdilapidation. There is a lake of warm water here,the bottom of which has never yet been found.The water always keeps at one height, so that it ispresumed that it finds its way out through somesubterraneous channel. There is also another warm
water spring at two leagues distance, which is verynoxious, and, as it runs, has the property of petri-fying, in like manner as the spring of water inGuancavelica.
AIAUTLA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teutila inNueva España, of a warm temperature, and inha-bited by 100 Indian families, who support them-selves by cultivating and selling the vaynilla plant.Nine leagues s. of its capital.
AICAROPA, a small river Of the province andgovernment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. Itrises in the country of the Armocotos Indians, runsfrom e. to w. with a slight inclination to the s. andenters the Caura.
AIMARAEZ, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded n. w. and w. by the province ofAndahuailas, of the bishopric of Guamanga, s. byParinacocha of the same, s. e. by Ghumbivilcas,and e. by Cotabamba. It is 40 leagues in lengthfrom «. to s. and 26 in width from e. to ti). includ-ing in its figure on the w. side the last mentionedprovince. It js one of the most uneven soils in thekingdom, being full of lofty sierras and snowymountains. It is on this account that its climate isvery cold, excepting, however, in some vallies,where it is more temperate, and where, on somesmall sloping grounds, the inhabitants sow seed andgrain, and cultivate fruit trees and cane plantations,
name. Tlie religion of these idolaters is very sin-gular, for they acknoAvledge a supreme being, who,they imagine, manifests himself to them in thefigure of some animal which feeds in their fields ;and when this dies, tlvey substitute another, afterhaving signified very great demonstrations of re-gret for the fate of the one whicli is lost.
Akansa (river), a river of the above province andgovernment. It rises in the country of the Oza-ques Indians, runs many leagues s. e. as far as thetown of Satovis, Avhen, turning to the s. it entersby two mouths into the Mississippi, being through-out subject to large cataracts.
[ALABAHA, a considerable river of Georgia,which pursues a s. course to thegulph of Mexico,100 miles w. of the head of St. Mary’s river. Itsbanks are low, and a trifling rain sAvells it to morethan a mile in Avidth. In a freshet the current israpid, and those Avho pass are in danger of being^entangled in vines and briars, and droAvned ; theyare also in r<'ul danger from great numbers of hun-gry alligators. The country for nearly iOO mileson each side of this river, that is to say, from thel)ead of St. Mary’s to Flint river, Avhicli is 90miles w. of the Alabaha, is a continued soft, miryAvaste, affording neither water nor food for men orbeasts ; and is so poor indeed, as that the commongame of the Avoods are not found here. Thei ountry on the of Alabaha is rather preferableto that on the e.l
ALABAMA, an Indian village, delightfullysituated on the banks of the Mississippi, on severalswelling green hills, gradually ascending from theverge of the river. These Indians are the remainsof the ancient Alabama nation, who inhabited thee. arm of the Great Mobile river,. Avhich still bearstheir name, now possessed by the Creeks, or Mns-cogulges, who conquered the former.]
[Alabama River is formed by the junctionof the Coosa or Coosee, or High Town river, andTallapoosee river, at Little Tallasee, and runs ina s. w. direction, until it meets Tombigbee riverfrom the n. w. at the great island which it thereforms, 90 miles from the mouth of Mobile bay, inthegulph of Mexico. This beautiful river has agentle current, pure waters, and excellent fish.It runs about two miles an hour, is 70 or 80 rodswide at its head, and from 15 to 18 feet deep inthe driest season. The banks are about 50 feethigh, and seldom, if ever, overfloAved. Travellershave gone down in large boats, in the month ofMay, in nine days, from Little Tallasee fo Mobilebay, Avhich is about 350 miles by water. Its banksabound Avith valuable productions in the vegetableand mineral kingdoms.
[ALABASTER, or Eleutheua, one of theBahama or Lucayo islands, on which is a small fortand garrison. It is on the Great Bahama bank.The soil of this island and Harbour island, whichlies at the n. end of it, is better tlian Providenceisland, and produces the greatest part of the pine-apples that are exported ; the climate is veryhealthy. Lat. 24° 40' to 26° 30' n. Long. 76° 22'to 76° 56' W.1
[ALACHUA Savannah is a level green plain,in the country of the Indians of that name inE. Florida, situate about 75 miles w. from St.Augustine. It is about 15 miles over, and 50 incircumference ; and scarcely a tree or bush of anykind to be seen on it. It is encircled Avith highsloping hills, covered with Avaving forests, andfragrant orange groves, rising from an exube-ranfly fertile soil. The ancient Alachua townstood on the borders of this savannah ; but theIndians mnoved to Cuscowilla, two miles distant,on account of the unhealthiness of the former site,occasioned by the stench of the putrid fisli andreptile.s, in the summer and autumn, driven onshore by the alligafors, and <he noxious exhulu-tions from the marshes of ti)e savannah. Thoughthe horned cattle and horses bred in these meadowsare large, sleek, sprightly, and faf, yet they aresubject to mortal diseases; such as the water rot,or scald, occasioned by the warm Avater of the sa-vannah ; Avhile those which, range in the highforests are clear of this (lisonler.1 °
(CANNARES, Indians of the province ofQuito in Peru. They are very well made, andvery active ; they wear their hair long, whichthey weave and bind about their heads in form ofa crown. Their clothes are made of wool or cot-ton, and they wear fine fashioned boots. Theirwomen are handsome and fond of the Spaniards ;they generally till and manure the ground, whilsttheir husbands at home card, spin, and weavewool and cotton. Their country had many richgold mines, now drained by the Spaniards. Theland bears good wheat and barley, and has finevineyards. The magnificent palace of Theoma-bamba was in the country of the Cannares. SeeCANARIS.)
(CANNAVERAL Cape, the extreme point ofrocks on the e. side of the peninsula of E. Florida.It has Mosquitos inlet n. by w. and a large shoals. by e. This was the bounds of Carolina bycharter from Charles II. Lat. 28° 17' n. Long. 80° 20' w.')
CANOGANDl, a river of the province and
government of Chocó in the kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises in the sierras of Abide, runs tothe w. and enters the Paganagandi.
CANOMA or Guarihuma, or Guarihuma, a river of theprovince and country of the Amazonas, in thepart possessed by the Portuguese. It rises in theterritory of the Andirases Indians, and enters a kindof lake formed by different branches of the riverMadera.
CANONA, a lake of the province and countryof the Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese,and in one of those numerous islands which formthe arms of the river Madera, on the side of theisland of Topinambas.
(CANONNICUT Island, in Newport county,Rhode island, lies about three miles w. of New-port, the s. end of which, (called Beaver Tail,on which stands the light-house), extends aboutas far s. as the s. end of Rhode island. It extendsn. about seven miles, its average breadth beingabout one mile ; the e. shore forming the w. partof Newport harbour, and the w. shore being aboutthree miles from the Narraganset shore. On thispoint is Jamestown. It was purchased of the In-dians in 1657, and in 1678 was incorporated bythe name of Jamestown. The soil is luxuriant,producing grain and grass in abundance. James-town contains 507 inhabitants, including 16sIaves.)
(CANONSBURGH, a town in Washingtoncounty, Pennsylvania, on the n. side of the w.branch of Chartier’s creek, which runs n. by e.into Ohio river, about five miles below Pittsburg.In its environs are several valuable mills. Hereare about 50 houses and an academy, seven milesn. e. by e. of Washington, and 15 s. w. of Pitts-burg.)
CANOTS, or Canoas, a river of the kingdomof Brazil, in the province and captainship of SanPablo. It rises near the coast opposite the islandof Santa Catalina, runs to the w. in a serpentinecourse, and serves as the source of the large riverUruguay.
(CHICKASAW Bluff is on the e. bank of theMississippi, witiiin the territories of the UnitedStates, in lat. 35 n. The Spaniards erected herea strong stockaded fort, with cannon, and furnishedit with troops, all in the space of 24 hours, in themonth of June 1795. It has since been given up,.according to the treaty of 1796.)
(Chickasaw, a creek which falls into theWabash from the c. a little below Post St. Vin-cent.)
(Chickasaw, a river which empties into theMississippi, on the e. side, 104 miles from themouth of Margot, and 67 s. w. of Mine au Fer.Tlie lands here are of an excellent quality, andcovered with a variety of useful timber, canes, &c.This river may be ascended during high floods up-wards of SO miles with boats of several tons burden.)
(Chickasaws, a famous nation of Indians, whoinhabit the country on the e. side of the Mississippi,on the head branches of the Tombigbee, Mobile,and Yazoo rivers, in the n. zo. corner of the state ofGeorgia, and n. of the country of the Chactaws.Their country is an extensive plain, tolerably wellwatered from springs, and of a pretty good soil.They have seven towns, the central one of whichis in lat. 34° 23' «• long. 89° 30' w. The num-ber of souls in this nation has been formerlyreckoned at 1725, of which 575 were fighting men.There are some Negroes among the Chickasaws,who either were taken captive in war, or ran awayfrom their masters, and sought safety among theIndians. In 1539, Ferdinand de Soto, with 900men, besides seamen, sailed from Cuba with a de-sign to conquer Florida. He travelled n. to theChickasaw country, about lat. 35° or 36° ; and threeyears after died, and was buried on the bank ofMississipi river.)
Chico, a river of the province and governmentof Panamá in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the mountains to the s. of the istmo, oristhmus, near the settlement of Chepo ; and runss. ze. and enters the sea in the bay or gulf of Pa-nama.
CHICOLAPA, a settlement of the head settle-ment, and alcaldla mayor of Coatepec, in NuevaEspana ; annexed to the curacy of its capital. Itcontains 187 families of Indians, who celebrateevery Friday throughout the year a teanguis orfair, at which are sold cattle and other productionsof the country. At these times it is a place of ge-neral rendezvous for the inhabitants of all the con-tiguous provinces ; and this fair has, from the greatconcourse of people usually assembling here, ob-tained the title of the famous teanguis of S. Vi-cente de Chicolapa. It is extremely fertile and plea-sant, and surrounded by several very small settle-ments or wards.
CHICOMESUCHIL, a settlement and headsettlement of tlie alcaldia mayor of Yxtepexi ofthe province and bishopric of Oaxaca in NuevaEspana, is of a hot temperature, and contains300 families of Indians, who exercise themselves inthe making scarlet cloths and cotton garments.
CHICOMOCELO, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia mayor of Chiapa. in the kingdom ofGuatemala ; [having a cave very narrow at theentry, but spacious within, with a stagnant lake,which is, however, clear, and is two fathoms deeptowards the banks.]
CHICONAUTA, St. Tomas de, a settlementof the alcaldia mayor of Ecatepec in NuevaEspana; annexed to the curacy of its capital;from whence it is distant one league to the n. n. e.It contains 160 families of Indians.
CHICONCUAC, S. Miguel de, a settlementof the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tez-cuco in Nueva Espana. It contains 123 familiesof Indians, and six of Spaniards. It produces agood proportion of grain, seeds, and cattte, fromthe fleeces of which they derive great emolument,as also from the coarse stuffs manufactured of thesame. It is one league to the n. of its capital.
CHICONCUASO, a settlement of the head
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into tlie Banos, and which, after the great cas-cade, is known by the name of Pastaza. To then. rises the Padregal, afterwards called Pita, as itpasses through the llanura of Chillo ; and at theskirt of the mountain of Guangopolo, where theplain terminates, it unites itself with the Ama-g^uaiia, and then turning w. takes the names ofTumbaco and Huallabamba, to enter the Esmeral-das, which disembogues itself into the S. sea. Atthe skirt of this great mountain are the estates ofSinipu, Pongo, Pucaguaita, and Papaurca, It isdistant from the settlement of Mula-halo half aleague, and five leagues from its capital. In lat.40° IPs. (The height of this volcano was dis-covered, in 1802, to be only 260 feet lower thanthe crater of Antisana, which is 19,130 feet abovethe level of the sea.)
COTOPAXI. See Cotopacsi.
COTUI, a town of St. Domingo ; founded, in1504, by Rodrigo Mexia deTruxillo, by the orderof the cometidador mayor of Alca.ntara, Nicolasde Obando, 16 leagues to the n. of the capital, St.Domingo, on the skirt of some mountains whichare 12 leagues in height, and at the distance oftwo leagues from the river Yauna. It is a smalland poor town. Its commerce depends upon thesalting of meats, and in preparing tallow and hidesto carry to St. Domingo, and in the chase of wildgoats, which are sold to the French. In its moun-tains is a copper mine, two leagues to the s. e. ofthe town. The Bucaniers, a French people of theisland of Tortuga, commanded by Mr. Pouancy,their governor, took and sacked it in 1676. (In
1505, the gold mines were worked here. Thecopper mine above alluded to is in the mountain ofMeymon, whence comes the river of the samename, and is so rich, that the metal, when refined,will produce eight per cent, of gold. Here are alsofound excellent lapis lazuli, a streaked chalk, thatsome painters prefer to bole for gilding, load-stone, emeralds, and iron. The iron is of the bestquality, and might be conveyed from the chain ofSevico by means of the river Yuna. The soilhere is excellent, and the plantains produced hereare of such superior quality, that this manna of the
Antilles is called, at St. Domingo, Sunday plan-tains. The people cultivate tobacco, but arechiefly employed in breeding swine. The inhabi-tants are called clownish, and of an unsociablecharacter. The town is situated half a leaguefrom the s. w. bank of the Yuna, which becomesunnavigable near this place, about 13 leagues fromits mouth, in the bay of Samana. It contains 160scattered houses, in the middle of a little savana,and surrounded Avith woods, SO leagues n. of St.Domingo, and 15 s.e. of St. Yago.)
CORUCO. Sec Cabo.
COUPEE, a point of the coast and shore of theMississippi in Canada, [it is also called CutPoint, and is a short turn in the river Mississippi,about 35 miles above Mantchac fort, at the gut ofIbberville, and 259 from the mouth of the river.Charlevoix relates that the river formerly made agreat turn here, and some Canadians, by deepen-ing the channel of a small brook, diverted thewaters of the river into if, in the year 1722. Theimpetuosity of the stream was such, and the soilof so rich and loose a quality, that in a short timethe point was entirely cut through, and the oldchannel left dry, except in inundations ; by whichtravellers save 14 feagues of their voyage. Thenew channel has been sounded Avith a line of SOfathoms, without finding bottom. The Spanishsettlements of Point Coupee extend 20 miles on thew. side of the Mississippi, and there are some plan-tations back on the side of La Fause Riviere,through Avhich the Mississippi passed about 70years ago. The fort at Point Coupee is a square