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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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Luis de Cabrera, to make an cfl’ecliial discovery of this nation, but he did not succeed. In 1662 the innermost part of this country was penetrated by Fatlier Geronimo Montemayor, of the extinguished company of Jesuits. He discovered a nation of Indians, whose manners corresponded with this ; but he did not succeed in establishing missions, for want of labourers, and from other obstacles which arose.

CEUADAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom of Quito. On its n. side is a large estate called Zeogun.

Ceuadas, a very abundant river of the same province and kingdom, from which the above settlement borrowed its title. It rises from the lake of Coraycocha, Avhich is in the desert mountain or "pararno of Tioloma. It runs n. and passing by the former settlement, becomes united witli another river, formed by two streams flowing down fronrthe paramo of Lalangiiso, and from the waste waters of the lake Colta ; it then passes through the settlement of Pungala, its course inclining slightly to the e. and at a league’s distance from the settlement of Puni, is entered by the Riobamba near the Cubigies, another river which flows down from the mountain of Chimborazo, and following its course to the«. for some distance, turns to the c.as soon as it reaches the w. of the mountain of Tungaragua, and at last empties itself into the Maranon ; rvhen it passes through the settlement of Penipe, it flows in so large a body that it can be passed only by means of a bridge, which is built there of reeds ; and before it reaches the ba/ios or baths, it collects the Avaters of the Tacunga, Ambato, and other rivers, Avhich flowing doAvn from the one and the other cordillera, have their rise in the s. summit of Eiinisa, and in the s. part of Ruminambi and Cotopasci.

CEUALLOS, Morro de los, an island of the river Taquari, formed by this dividing itself into two arms to enter the river Paraguay, in the province and government of this name.

CEUICO, a small river of the island of St. Domingo. It rises in the mountains of the e. head, runs n. n. e. and enters the grand river Juna, a little before it runs into the sea.

CHABACONDE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Callahuas in Peru.

(CHABAQUIDDICK Isle belongs to Duke’s county, Massachusetts. It lies near to, and extends across the e. end of Martha’s Vineyard island.)

CHABIN, a river of the province and corregimiento of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile. It

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runs from w. to e. being navigable by small vessels till it enters the S. sea.

CHABUCO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile.

CHACAIAM, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru.

CHACAICO, a settlement of Indians of the island of Laxa in the kingdom of Chile ; situate at the source and on the shore of the river Renayco.

CHACALTANGUIS, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, is of a moist temperature, and situate on the shore of the large river Alvarado. It contains seven families of Spaniards, 18 of Mulattoes and Negroes, and 75 of Popolucos Indians. Within its district are 19 engines or mills for making refined sugar ; and its territory produces maize and cotton in abundance ; is three leagues to the e. of its capital.

CHACALTONGO , Natividad de, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula, is of a cold temperature, and surrounded by eight wards within its district ; in all of which there are 160 families of Indians, who cultivate much maize and wheat ; is seven leagues between the e. and s. of its capital.

CHACANORA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in the same kingdom.

CHACAO, a city of the island of Chiloe in the kingdom of Chile. It is the residence of the governor, is garrisoned with a small guard, and has the best port in the island. Lat. 41° 50' s.

CHACAPA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Challana.

Chacapa, another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chicas and Tarija, in the district of the former ; annexed to the curacy of Tupisa.

CHACAPALAPA, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Ygualapa in Nueva Espana, is three leagues to the n. of that place.

CHACAPALPA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Guarochiri in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Santa Olaya.

(CHACAPOYAS. See Chachapoyas.)

CHACARACUIAN, a settlement of the proprovince and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate in the middle of the serrania of that province. It is under the care of the Catalanian Capuchin fathers ; and, according to Cruz, on the coast of the sea of Paria.

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CHACARMARCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Vilcas Huaman in Peru.

CHACARO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cotabambas in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Tanibobamba.

CHACAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Conchucos in Peru.

CHACAYACU, a river of the province of Quixos in the kingdom of Quito. It runs from e. to w. then turns its course to s. w. and shortly after, passing tlirough the settlement of Loreto, enters the river Suno on its w. shore.

CHACCUMAS, a settlement of South Carolina, situate on the shore of a small river. The English have a fort and establishment in it.

CHACHAGUI. See Tambo Pintado.

CHACHAPOIAS, a province and corregimiento of Peru ; bounded e. and s. by the mountains of the infidel Indians, n. w. by the provinces of Luya and Chillaos, and w. by C.axaraarca. Its greatest length is 38 leagues from n. w. to s. e. and its breadth is nearly as great. Its temperatuse is for the most part mild, though in some places exceedingly hot, and in others equally cold, since a branch of the cordillera intersects it. Upon this account also it abounds greatly in all productions, such as wheat, maize, and other seeds, and in all kinds of herbs and fruits. It produces a good proportion of sugar ; but the principal sources of its commerce are cotton and tobacco ; these productions belonging peculiarly to the district of Mayobamba, three leagues distant to the s. e. and being held in great estimation. The women spin cotton, of which they manufacture canvass for the sails of ships, also for bags : they spin likewise another sort of delicate thread, of which they make linen for garments ; the men employing tliemselves in the looms and in the cultivation of cotton and tobacco : of this they used to gather yearly 600 measures, consisting of 200 mazos or rollos each, each mazo being valued at one real. At present less is cultivated, from the prohibition of commerce, so that the settlement has become much poorer, and the price of the cotton for making sails is now at two reals per lb. ; thougli that which is very fine, at a dollar. As there is no current coin, the inhabitants make barters in kind for the necessaries they want. Thus also they pay liieir tributes, duties, and taxes ; and the treaties amongst them for canvass and linen cloths are consequently very large, the prices being regulated amongst themselves. They cultivate coca, and with this they supply some of the neighbouring provinces.

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They breed cattle of every sort, horses, sheep, and cows ; of whose hides, when tanned and dried by the fire, they manufacture trunks, saddles, chests, &c. It has but a tew mines, and of these, one only is gold, and a few of salt are worked. It is watered by several rivers ; but the principal are the Moyobamba and the Uccubaraba. Its inhabitants amount to 10,000, and are divided into 43 settlements. Its reparti mi etHo amounted to 32,000 dollars ; and it paid nearly 256 for alcavala,

San Juan de la Fron- Nixaque, tera, Corobamba,

Santa Ana, Pomacocha,

San Lazaro, Quispis,

El Santo Christo de Bur- Santo Tomas,

gos.

Chisquilla,

San Christoval de las Junvilla,

Balzas, Tiata,

Chuquibamba, Mitmas,

San Pedro de Utac, Yambrasbamba,

Santo Tomas de Guillai, Chirta,

San lldefonso, Yapa,

Tingo, Chiliquin,

Ponaya, Goncha,

La Magdalena, San Miguel de los 01-

Taupa, leros,

Yurraanca, Diosan,

Quinjalca, Yambajaica,

Coellcho, Tauli,

Vilaga, Casmal,

Moyobamba, city, Palanca,

Y rinari, Thoe,

Yantala, Huambo.

Avisada,

Chachapoias, a river of the above province, which runs «. w. and enters the Marafion.

CHACAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Condesuyos of Arequipa in Peru.

CHACHICHILCO, a settlement of the head settlement of Aytitlan, and alcaldia mayor of Amola, in Nueva España. It has very few inhabitants, and lies 11 leagues to the w. of its head settlement.

CHACHOPO, a small settlement of the government and jurisdiction of Maracaibo, is of a mild temperature, and produces wheat, maize, papas, and fruits peculiar to the climate.

CHACHUAPA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Nochiztlan in Nueva Espana. It contains 78 families ot Indians, and is one league n. sy. of its capital.

CHACILATACANA, San Francisco del

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Brocal de la Mina de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru ; finnexed to the curacy of Santa Barbara.

CHACLAIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Ambana.

CHACLIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Santa Olaya.

CHACMA, or Chamaca, a valley of the province of Cuzco and kingdom of Peru, near the coast of the S. sea. It was well peopled in former times, and abounds now in sugar-cane, from which sugar is made. It was conquered and united to the empire by Huaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor.

CHACNA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Colcabamba.

CHACO, a province of the kingdom of Peru, called the Gran Chaco, is an extensive country ; having as its boundary to the e. the river Paraguay, and being bounded on the [n.e. by the province of the Chiquitos Indians ; on the n. by that of Santa Cruz de la Sierra ; on the zo. it touches upon the provinces of Mizque, Tomina, Pornabamba, Pilaya, Paspaya, Tarija, and Tucuman. On the s. it extends as far as the jurisdiction of the government of Buenos Ayres, which is its farthest limits. Towards the n. it is 150 leagues wide from e. to w. and 250 leagues long from n. to s. ; but to make these distances, it requires many months, owing to the unevenness and roughness of the territory. It is called Chaco, or, with more propriety, Chacu, which, in the Quechuan language, signifies junta, or company, from the circumstance of its having been formed of Indians of several countries, who had fled from the conquering arms of the Incas, and afterwards from those of the Spaniards. Towards the w. it has some serraniasj which are branches of the cordilhrn ; where, on account of their immense height, the cold is very great ; but in the low grounds, which are for the most part plains, the temperature is hot. It is full of thick woods, and in many parts is swampy and wet ; particularly in the part lying towards the e. on the road to Paraguay. In the wet season, which lasts from the month of November to April, the rivers leave their beds and form various lakes, some of which dry up, and some remain. This province has some rivers of note ; such are the Salado and the Bermejo ; is one of the most fertile provinces in America, and would, if it were cultivated, afford, in the greatest abundance, those productions wnich are now thrown away upon the infinite number of barbarous na-

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tions who inhabit it. It produces a great variety of fine woods and fruit-trees; such as walnuts and nuts, although different from those of Europe, but which arc extremely well tasted ; beautiful cedars ; quebrachos^ thus called on account of their hardness ; guqyacanes, carob-trees, balsams, marias, palms, some of which are more than 30 yards in height; almonds, cacaos, ceihas, whicli are very large trees, bearing in the pods a remarkable soft wool, used for quilts, since it cannot be spun ; cotton-trees, mistoles, of the heart of which the Indians make darts and cimeters ; myrrh, sarzafraztrees, bark, and others, which have the interior bark so delicate and white as occasionally to serve instead of writing paper; others there are, whicli, at one or two yards up their stems, form a kind of barrel or pipe, and being of a very tough bark, are accustomed to be ripped open by the Indians, and thus serve as vessels, in which these keep their liquor called chieha ; it is from this that they whimsically call this plant palo borracho, or drunken tree. In this province are found also canes for walking sticks, as fine as those of Asia ; and in the trunks of trees, in holes of the rocks and below the ground, are quantities of honey and wax wrought by bees, of which there are reckoned to be more than 12 sorts : some of the wax, besides being transparent, is extremely fragrant and delicious to the taste, whilst some is so sour as to resemble the juice of boiled lemons. One sort of these bees fabricate, with great skill, excellent hives of mud upon the branches of trees, and of the shape of a decanter, which are so hard that they will not break in falling down upon the ground ; they, morever, are filled Avith exquisite wax and Avell-flavoured honey. The fruit-trees which this province produces, are oranges, cedars, lemons, apples, pears, melocotones^ (or peaches engrafted on quinces), figs, nuts, prunes, and olives, also passion-floAvers ; all of which have been brought hither from the city of Santiago de Guadalcazar. Here are palms Avhich have cups containing 25 kernels each, differing only slightly from the palms of Europe by having a flavour of the cocoa, and being somewhat larger. Here is also a plant called chahuar, having prickles like the savine, of which are made threads similar to hemp, for the manufacture of nets, bags, and some sorts of coarse garments : its root serves as food for the Indians, as do also yucas, potatoes, and others. It has an innumerable quantity of birds, namely, Avild pigeons, ducks, herons, mountain-peacocks’ pheasants, crows, condors, partridges, falcons, SAvans, periguanas, ostriches, parrots, and one kind of bird which exactly imitates an organ, and

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de Granada, rises in the valley of Cerinza, runs n. and passing tlirough the city of San Gil, turns to the w. and enters the Suarez or Sabandija.

CHALCAXINGO, a settlement of the head settlement of Xonacatepéc, and alcaldía mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva España.

CHALCHILGUITES, a settlement of the province and government of Nueva Vizcaya; situate close to that of Sombrerete.

CHALCHITLAN, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Capanabastla in the kingdom of Guatemala.

CHALCO, Hamanalco, a district and alcaldía mayor of Nueva España ; situate between the n. and s. of the city of Mexico, at eight leagues distance ; is very fertile, and abounds in productions and the necessaries of life, especially in wheat and maize; the crops of the former usually amount to 30,000 (argas (a measure containing four bushels) yearly, and of the latter to 25,000. Besides this it produces great quantities of seeds, woods, sugar, honey, and the fruits of a hot climate, all of which arc carried to Mexico, as well by land carriage as by the lake, which is so favourable to its commerce. In the sierra of the volcano of this jurisdiction, there are silver mines, but they are not worked, on account of the great expence. The population consists of 46 settlements, of which 16 are head settlements of districts, and in 15 of these there are parish churches. Tlie capital is of the same name, and it is situate on the shore of a lake enjoying a mild temperature, and well known from the fair which it celebrates every Friday throughout the year, to which flock a great number of people from the neighbouring provinces with merchandize ; some even coming from the most distant parts in canoes by the lake, or with droves of mules on land. It lies between the rivers Fiamanalco and Tenango, which run into the lake, and the waters of this serve, when it is necessary, to replenish the lake of Mexico, for which purpose there are proper sluices provided. It contains 350 families of Indians, and some Spaniards and Mustees ; is seven leagues from Mexico. The other settlements are,

Fiamanalco, Atlautla,

San Pedro de Ecazingo, Ayapango,

Tepozozolco, Ixtapalucan,

San Juan Tenango, Ayozingo,

Amecameca, Mexquique,

Zentlalpan, Hahuac,

Chimalhuacan, Themamatla,

Tepetuxpan, Ozumba.

CHALCO, with the dedicatory title of San Agustin, another settlement of the head settle-

ment of Coxcotlan, and the alcaldia mayor of Valles, in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Aquismon ; is of an extremely hot and moist temperature, on account of which it has been abandoned by several Indian families who resided in it formerly ; 12 of these families only are now remaining ; is 23 leagues from its capital.

CHALCO, another, of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan ; situate in the plain of a deep break or hole made by mountain floods ; is of a hot temperature, and contains 35 families of Indians ; lies 12 leagues to the n. of its capital.

(Chalco Lake. See Mexico.)

CHALCOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Cahuanca.

CHALEUAPAN, a settlement of the province and government of Nicaragua in the kingdom of Guatemala.

CHALEURS, a bay on the coast of the province of Nova Scotia or Acadia, and gulf of St. Lawrence. It is large and convenient.

CHALEURS, another bay on the s. coast of the island of Newfoundland, near the point which looks to the w.

(CHALEURS, a deep and broad bay on the w. side of the gulf of St. Lawrence. From this bay to that of Verte, on the s. in the s. e. corner of the gulf, is the n. e. sea line of the British province of New Brunswick.)

CHALINGA, a settlement of Indians of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile.

CHALIQUE, San Pablo de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru.

CHALLABAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Paucartambo in Peru.

CHALLACATA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Paria in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Garu Mendoza.

CHALLACOLLO, a settlement of the same province and corregimiento as the former, belonging to the archbishopric of Charcas. It has a convent of monks of the order of St. Augustin.

CHALLAHUACHO, a river of the province and corregimiento of Chilques y Masques in Peru. It rises near the settlement of Capi, runs in a serpentine course to the n. n. w. and enters the Apurirnac.

CHALLANA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

CHALLAPAMPA an ancient province of Peru, of small extent, and to the c. of Cuzco. It

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CHAQUIMINAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Asangaro in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Sandia in the province of Carabaya.

CHARABAYE, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of a river in the district of the city of Caracas, and to the e. of the town of Victoria.

CHARACATO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. In its church is a miraculous image of Nuestra Senora de la Purificacion or Candelaria, to which singular devotion is paid.

CHARAI, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Cinaloa ; situate on the shore of a river of the fort which lies between the settlements of Ziribijoa and Mochicauchi.

(CHARAIBES, See Caribe.)

CHARALA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of the town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is, at it were, a suburb to the settlement of Mongui, and it is (being very poor and reduced) annexed to the curacy of the same. Its temperature is mild, and abounds in pure good water, and in the productions of a hot climate.

CHARANDO, a settlement of the head settlement of Guimeo, and alcaldia mayor of Cirandaro, in Nueva Espafia ; annexed to the curacy of Turicato.

CHARAPA, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Periban in Nueva España ; situate in the loftiest part of the sierra, from whence its temperature is so cold that it is seldom any crops can be gathered from the seeds that are sown. It contains 209 families of Indians, 80 in the wards of its district, and a convent of the religious order of St. Francis : lies e. of its head settlement.

CHARAPE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito.

CHARAPOTO, a settlement of the district of Puerto Viejo, and government of Guayaquil, in the kingdom of Quito, at a small distance from the sea-coast and bay of its name ; this title being also applied to the point which forms the same bay.

CHARAZANI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

CHARBON, Rio del, a river of N. Carolina, which runs n. and enters the Conhaway. The whole of it abounds in cataracts, and its waters throw up immense quantities of coal, which was the cause of its being thus named.

CHARCA, a settlement of the province and

corregimiento of Chayanta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Sacaca.

CHARCANA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru.

CHARCAS, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, composed of various others. Its jurisdiction comprehends the district of this royal audience, which begins at Vilcanota, of the corregimiento of Lampa and bishopric of Cuzco, and extends as far as Buenos Ayres to the s. It is bounded on the e. by Brazil, the meridian serving as a limit ; and reaching w. as far as the corregimiento of Atacama, which is of its district, and forms the most n. part of this province in that direction, and being closed in on its other sides by the kingdom of Chile : is 300 leagues in length, including the degrees of latitude from 20° to 28° s . : is in many parts very thinly peopled, and covered with large desert tracts, and rugged and impenetrable mountains, and again by the elevated cordilleras of the Andes, and the spacious llanuras or pampas, which serve to mark its size and the relative distances of its territories. Its temperature throughout is extremely cold, although there are not wanting parts which enjoy a moderate warmth. At the time that this province was in the possession of the Indians, and previous to the entrance of the Spaniards, many well-inhabited provinces went jointly under the name of Charcas ; and the conquest of these was first undertaken by Capac Yupanqui, fifth Emperor ; but he was not able to pass the territory of the Tutiras Indians and of Chaqui. Here it was that his conquests terminated : nor did the subjection of these parts extend farther than Collaysuyo until after his death, when he was succeeded by his son the Inca Roca, sixth Emperor, who carried on still farther the victories which had been already gained, conquering all the nations as far on as that of Chuquisaca, where he afterwards founded the city of this name, called also La Plata. After that the Spaniards had reduced that part of Peru, extending from Tumbez to Cuzco, and that the civil wars and dissensions which existed between these were at an end, they endeavoured to follow up their enterprise by making a conquest of the most distant nations. To this end, in 1538, Gonzalo Pizarro sallied forth with a great force, and attacking the Charcas and the Carangues, found in them such a spirited opposition, that after several battles he was brought to think this object was nearly impracticable : this idea was strengthened by the reception he had met with from the Chuquisacas, who in many conflicts had given him convincing proofs of their valour and warlike spirit ; indeed it is thought, that had he not just

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