The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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Villas. It contains 34 families of Indians, who cultivate and trade in grain, pulse, coal, and the bark of trees. A little more than two leagues to the w. with a slight inclination to the s. of its head settlement.
Agustin, San, a point or cape of the coast of Brazil, in the province and captainship of Pernambuco, between the port Antonio Vaz and the river Tapado. One hundred leagues from the bay of Los Miiertos ; [300 miles n. e. from the bay of All Souls. Lat. 8° 38' s. Long. 35° 11' tc.]
Agustin, San, a river of the province and government of Antioquia, in the new kingdom of Granada. It runs from s. to n. and afterwards, with a slight inclination to the w. enters the river S. Juan, of the province of Choco.
Agustin, San, a small island of the gulph of California, or Red Sea of Cortes ; situate in the most interior part of it, and near upon the coast of Nueva España, opposite the bay of San Juan Baptista.
AHOME, a nation of Indians, who inhabit the shores of the river Zuaque, in the province of Cinaloa, and who are distant four leagues from the sea of California : they were converted to the Catholic faith by father Andres de Rivas, a Jesuit. Their country consists of some extensive and fertile plains, and they are by nature superior to the other Indians of Nueva España. Moreover, their Heathenish customs do not partake so much of the spirit of barbarism. They abhorred polygamy, and held virginity in the highest estimation : and thus, by way of distinction, unmarried girls wore
a small shell suspended to their neck, until the day of their nuptials, when it was taken off by the bridegroom. Their clothes were decent, composed of wove cotton, and'they had a custom of bewailing their dead for a whole year, night and morning, with an apparently excessive grief. They are gentle and faithful towards the Spaniards, with whom they have continued in peace and unity from the time of their first subjection. The principal settlement is of the same name, and lies at the mouth of the river Fuerte, on the coast of the gulph of California,* having a good, convenient, and well sheltered port.
AHUACATLAN, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of San Francisco del Talle, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva España. It is of a cold temperature, inhabited by 51 families of Indians, and distant three leagues s. of its head settlement.
Ahuacatlan (Zochicoatlan), another settlement of’the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan in Nueva España. It is of a cold temperature, situate on a small level plain, surrounded by hills and mountains. It contains 13 families of Indians, and is seven leagues to the n. of its capital.
Ahuacatlan, with the dedicatory title of San Juan, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan in Nueva España. Its inhabitants are composed of 450 families of Indians, and 60 of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes, including the settlements of the district. Five leagues from its capital, and separated by a mountainous and rugged road, as also by a very broad river, whose waters, in the winter time, increase to such a degree as to render all communication between the above places impracticable.
Ahuacatlan, another, of the head settlement of the district of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in the above kingdom. It contains 160 families of Indians, who trade in chia^ (a white medicinal earth), and grain, with which its territory abounds. It lies n, w. of its head settlement.
rection to be drowned in the lake Yaguarcocha, which from thence takes its name, and signifies the lake of blood, with which it was quite polluted ; tlie Indians stating, .according to their traditions, that no less than 20,000 people were thus sacrificed. Part of this province is at present comprehended in that of Ibarra, and part in that of Otavalo.
CARAQUES, Bay of, on the S. sea-coast, and in the province and government of Guayaquil. It is close to cape Pasao, and near the equinoctial line. There was a settlement here, bearing the same name, the ruins of which are still visible.
CARARE, a large river of the new kingdom of Granada. It rises in the valley of Alferez, to the n. of the city of Tunja, runs from s. ton. and joining the Zarbe, enters the large river of Magdalena. On the e. side, near the narrow pass which forms its shores, the French have constructed a fort to guard against invasion from the infidel Indians.
CARARI, a strait of the large river Magdalena, formed by great rocks. There was formerly here a fort, which has been moved to a place at some little distance. The course of the waters in the above strait is so rapid as to render it sometimes impossible for vessels and canoes to pass through it.
Carauele, a small island of the N. sea, situate near the n. e. coast of the island of Martinique, on the n. side of Carauele point.
CARAUELLES, a river of the province and captainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil. It rises at the foot of the « Fria, and describing a small circle, runs s. e. and according to Cruz, e. and enters the sea opposite the island of Pajaros.
Carbet, two very high mountains of the above island. They are full of sharp points similar to those on Montserrat in Cateluila. They are near the coast, lying towards the n. w. part ; and the French call them Pitons de Carbet.
Carbet, a point on the e. coast of the island
close to those of Perlas and Mosquitos ; they are three in number, small and desert.
Carnero, Punta del, another, on the coast of the kingdom of Chile ; it is very low, extending itself with a gentle slope towards the sea. The e. winds are prevalent here, rendering it dangerous to be passed.
Carnero, Punta del, another point of land on the coast of the same kingdom.
CAROLINA, a province of N. America, and part of that extensive country anciently called Florida, bounded n. by Virginia, s. by the true Florida, w. by Louisiana, and e. by the Atlantic. It is divided into N. and S. Carolina. Its extent is 135 leagues in length, nearly from s. w. to n. e. and 75 in width from e. to w. from 30® to 36° 30' of lat. It was discovered by Juan Ponce de Leon in 1512, though it was not settled by the Spaniards then, but abandoned until the reign of Charles IX. king of France, when the French established themselves in it, under the command of admiral Chatilon, protector of the Protestants. He founded a colony and a fort called Charles fort, and gave the name of Carolina to the country, in lionour to his monarch. This establishment, however, lasted but a short time, for it was destroyed by the Spaniards, who put to the sword the new colonists, and went away under the impression that they had now left the country in a perfectly abandoned state. But the English, at this time, were maintaining a footing here, under the command of Sir Walter Raleigh, though they were not under any formal establishment until the reign of Charles II. in 1663, when the country was granted as a property to the following nobility, viz. the Count of Clarendon, Duke of Albemarle, Count of Craven, John Berkley, John Ashley, afterwards Count of Shaftsbury, George Carteret, John Colleton, and William Berkley; by these it was divided into as many counties, and by them names were given to the rivers, settlements, &c. Their privilege of proprietorship and
jurisdiction extended from lat. 31° to 36° «. and they had an absolute authority to form establishments and governments, according to the laws and statutes laid down by that famous and renowned philosopher John Locke ; accordingly the government partook largely of the despotic, and the rulers had the power of acknowledging or renouncing laws, of conferring titles, employments, promotions, and dignities, according to their own caprice. They divided the population into three classes: The first was composed of those entitled the Barons, and to these were given 120,000 acres of land; the second were two lordships, with the title of Counts, to whom were given 240,000 acres ; and the third, who were called Landgraves, a title corresponding to Dukes, had a portion of 480,000 acres. This last body formed the high councilchamber, and the lower was composed of the representatives of the counties and cities, both of these together forming the parliament, this being the real title, and not assembly, as in the other colonies. The first establishment was the city of Charlestown, between two navigable rivers called Ashley and Cowper ; the same offered an asylum to the Europeans, who on account of religious disturbances fled from Europe, and who having suffered great distresses there, had afterwards to encounter a very unfriendly reception from the Indians. Such was the state of affairs until 1728, when this city was taken under the protection of the English crown ; a corresponding recompence having been paid to the lords, the proprietors, who yielding it up, thus made a virtue of necessity ; the Count Grenville, however, persisted in keeping his eighth share. From that time it was divided into two parts, called North and South. The climate differs but little from that of Virginia, although the heat in the summer is rather more powerful here ; the winter, however, is shorter and milder ; the temperature is serene and the air healthy ; tempests and thunder storms are frequent, and this is the only part of this continent wherein have been experienced hurricanes; although they are but rare here, and never so violent as in the islands. The half of March, the whole of April, May, and the greater part of June, the season is mild and agreable ; in July, August, and nearly all September, the heat is intense ; but the winter is so mild, especially when the w.tw. wind prevails, that the water is seldom frozen. It is extremely fertile, and abounds in wheat, barley, rice, and all kinds of pulse, flowers, and fruits of an exquisite flavour; and the soil, which is uncultivated, is covered with all kinds of trees. The principal
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DEL PUERTO, a city of the province and government of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; founded by Gaspar de Kodas, on the spot of the Matanza of Valdivia, in 1676. It has changed its place several times, on account of the badness of.its temperature : and, lastly, in the year 1588, it was removed by Francisco Redondo to the spot where it now stands : is one league from the river Cauca, on a very steep declivity, which is also of an unhealthy temperature, although abounding greatly in gold mines, which are, however, but little worked. Jt is the native place of,
Fr. Marcos Vetancur, provincial of St. Domingo in Santa Fe:
Fr. Lorenzo de Figueroa, of the province of San Francisco :
Don Andres de Vetancur, elected bishop of La Concepcion in Chile;
Fr. Diego de Figueroa, provincial of San Augustin in Santa Fe : and
Don Luis de Vetancur, precentor of Quito, inquisitor of Lima, and bishop-elect of Popayan ; all brothers, and men of singular virtue and learning.
CECILIA, Dona, a settlement of the province and government of Santa Marta in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore of the large river Magdalena, opposite the lake Zapatosa, three leagues from the town of Mompox.
(CEDAR Point, a port of entry in Charles county, Maryland, on the e. side of Potowmac river, about 12 miles below port Tobacco, and 96 s. by w. of Baltimore. Its exports are chiefly tobacco and Indian corn, and in 1794 amounted in value to 18,593 dollars.)
Cedar, a river of the province and colony of
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Pennsylvania, which traverses New Jersey, and enters the sea.
CELAYA, a town of the intendancy of Guanaxuato in the kingdom of Nueva Espana. Sumptuous edifices have been recently constructed here, as also at Queretaro and Guanaxuato. The church of the Carmelites of Celaya has a fine appearance ; it is adorned with Corinthian and Ionic columns. Its height is 1833 metres, or 6018 feet.
CENGUYO, San Pedro de, a settlement of the head settlement of Yrimbo, and alcaldia mayor of Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacan, and kingdom of Nueva Espaiia. It contains 60 families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n. zo. of its head settlement.