The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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vince of Orinoco, and part of the Saliva nation, forming a separate district, and situate in the plains of San Juan, of the new kingdom of Granada, near the river Sinaruco. It was destroyed by the Caribee indians in 1684.
AERIUCTUQUEN, a mountain of the province and colony of Surinam, or part of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions. It is the beginning of the great sierra of Binocote, between the rivers Cutini and Caroni.
AFUERA, one of the islands of Juan Fernandes, on the S. sea coast, in the kingdom of Chile. About 400 leagues to the n. of Cape Horn. This coast swarms with sea lions and wolves. Lat. 33° 47' s. Long. 80° 41' w.
[Aga|AGA]], a mountain of the province and captainship oi Rio Janeiro in Brazil. It is between the rivers Irutiba and Tapoana, on the sea-coast.
AGACES, a nation of Indians, of the province of Paraguay, on the shore of the river of this name, towards the e. The people are numerous, valiant, and of a lofty stature. In ancient times they were masters of that river, cruising about in it, and being the enemies of the Guaranies ; but after several conflicts, they were at last subjected by Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, governor of the province, in 1642.
AGAMENTIGUS, a river of the province and colony of New England, of York county, district of Maine. It is indebted to the ocean for its waters, through Pascataqua bay ; having no considerable aid from streams of fresh water. Its mouth is about four miles s. from Cape Neddie river. Small vessels can enter here.]
43' w. from Greenwich. It is a nofed land-mark for seamen, and is a good directory for the entry of Pascataqua harbour, as it lies very nearly in the same meridian with it and with Pigeon hill, on Cape Ann. The mountain is covered witli wood and shrubs, and affords pasture up to its summit, where there is an enchanting prospect. The cultivated parts of the country, especially on the s. and s. w. appear as a beautiful garden, intersected by the majestic river Pascataqua, its bays and branches. The immense ranges of mountains on the «. and n. w. afford a sublime spectacle ; and on the sea side the various indentings of the coast, from Cape Ann to Cape Elizabeth, are plainly in view in a clear day ; and the Atlantic stretches to the e. as far as the power of vision extends. At this spot the bearing of the following objects were taken, with a good surveying instrument, October 11, 1780.
Summit of the White mountains, n. 15° w.
Cape Porpoise, n. 63° e.
Rochester hill, n. 64° w,
Tuckaway South peak, s. 80° w.
Frost’s hill, Kittery, s. 57° w.
Saddle of Bonabeag, w. 14° w.
Isle of Shoals Meeting-house, s. 6° r.
Varney’s hill, in Dover, distant 10| miles by mensuration, «. 89° zo. Variation of the needle, 6° te).]
AGENAGATENINGA, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese territory. It rises in the country of the Anamaris Indians, runs n. and enters the abundant stream of the Madera.
[1803 amounted to 5,500,000, and the exports consisted of produce to the value of 4,000,000 dollars. He also states the population in 1808 at 900,000 souls. The receipts of Caracas, Guatemala, and Chile, are consumed within the country. The population of some of the chief cities is thus stated ; Caracas 40,000, La Guaira 6000, Puerto Cabello 7600, Coro 10,000. The harbour, or La Vela de Coro, as it is commonly called, and its environs, are supposed to contain not less than 2000. In 1797 three state prisoners were sent from Spain to Caracas, on account of their revolutionary propensities. Being treated with great indulgence by the officers and soldiers to whose care they were committed, they formed the project of a conspiracy against the government. They engaged a number of persons, some of them of consequence, in their party. After gaining their first converts, the spirit did not spread. The coldness and apathy of the people did not admit of the effervescene they desired. After the plot had been kept a secret for many months it was disclosed to the government. Some of the ringleaders escaped, and others were taken. It was found that seventy-two had entered into the conspiracy; six were executed. The rest either escaped, or were sent to the galleys or banished from the country. For an account of the recent revolution in Caracas, see Venezuela.]
Caracas, some islands of the N. sea near the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Cumana. They are six in number, all small and desert, serving as places of shelter to the Dutch traders, who carry on an illicit commerce on that coast.
CARACHIS, San Carlos de a settlement of the province and country of the Amazonas ; a reduccion of the missions which belonged to the abolished order of the Jesuits. It is at the mouth of the river Huerari, where this enters the Maranon.
CARAIMILLA, a settlement on the coast of the province and corregimiento aforementioned, between point Caraima Alta, and the isle of Obispo.
CARAMANTA, a city of the province and government of Antioquia in the new kingdom of Gratiada ; founded by Sebastian de Benalcazar in 1543, near the river Cauca. Its temperature is hot and unhealthy, but it is fertile in maize, vegetables, grain, and abounds with herds of swine : near it are many small rivers which enter the Cauca, and some salt pits of the whitest salt. On the mountains within its jurisdiction, are some settlements of barbarian Indians very little known. This city is indifferently peopled, and is 65 leagues distant to the n. e. of Popayan, and 50 from Antioquia. Long. 75° 33' w. Lat. 5° 58' «.
CARAMPANGUE, a river of the province and corregimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile ; it runs n. n. w. near the coast, and enters the sea between the rivers Laraquite and Tibiil. At its entrance the Spaniards have the fort of Arauco.
CARANGAS, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded on the n. by the province of Pacages, e. by Paria, s. by Lipes, and w. by Arica ; it is 36 leagues in length, n. to s. and 30 in width at the most. Its climate is extremely cold and subject to winds, so that it produces no other fruits than such as are found upon the sierra. It has considerable breeds of cattle both of the large and small kind, huacanos^ sheep peculiar to the country, called llamas, and no small quantity of vicunas ; also in that part which borders upon the province of Pacages are some herds of swine. Its silver mines are much worked, and of these the most esteemed is that called Turco, in which is found the metal mazizo. Towards the w. are some unpeopled sandy plains, in which pieces of silver are frequently found, commonly called of these,
lumps have been picked of such a size as to weigh 150 marks. It is watered by some streams, but by no considerable rivers ; the corregidor used here to have a repartimiento of 340,526 dollars, and it used to pay annually 436 dollars for alcavala. The inhabitants, who are almost all Indians, amount • to 1100, ajid they are divided into 25 settlements. The capital is Tarapaca, and the others are.
Asiento de Carangas, Ribera de Todos Santos. Negrillo.
corregidor used to reside, until they were removed to Tarapaca, at 30 leagues distance. It thus became reduced to a scanty population of Indians, annexed to the curacy of Huachacalla.
CARANGUES, formerly a barbarous nation of Indians, to the n. of the kingdom of Quito ; the district of which at present belongs to the corregi~ miento of the town of Ibarra, wliere, on a large plain, are still to be seen the ruins of a magnificent palace which belonged to the Incas : in its vicinity is a settlement called Carangui, distant 23 leagues s. of the town of Ibarra.
Carangues, with the dedicatory title of St. An.tonio, another settlement of the same province and corregimiento, situate in the road which leads down from Popayan.
(CARANKOUAS, Indians of N. America, who live on an island or peninsula in the bay of St. Bernard, in length about 10 miles, and five in breadth ; the soil here is extremely rich and pleasant ; on one side of which there is a high bluff, or mountain of coal, which has been on fire for many years, affording always a light at night, and a strong thick smoke by day, by which vessels are sometimes deceived and lost on the shoally coast, which shoals are said to extend nearly out of sight of land. From this burning coal, there is emitted a gummy substance the Spaniards call cheta, which is thrown on the shore by the surf, and collected by them in considerable quantities, which they are fond of chewing; it has the appearance and consistence of pitch, of a strong, aromatic, and not disagreeable smell. These Indians are irreconcileable enemies to the Spaniards, always at war with them, and kill them whenever they can. The Spaniards call them cannibals, but the French give them a different character, who have always been treated kindly by them since Mons. de Salle and his party were in their neighbourhood. They are said to be 500 men strong, but we have not been able to estimate their numbers from any very accurate information. They speak the Attakapo language ; are friendly and kind to all other Indians, and, we presume, are much like all others, notwithstanding what the Spaniards say of them.)
CARANQUE, an ancient province of the Indians, in the kingdom ofQuito, towards the «. From the same race is at the present day composed the town of St. Miguel de Ibarra. The natives rose against the Inca Huaina Capac, but he succeeded in reducing them to obedience by force of arms, causing the authors and accomplices of the insur-
escape the destruction which followed them whereever they fled. Still are the vestiges of this calamity to be seen, and there are large quantities of this mud or lava, now become hard, scattered on the s. side of the settlement.
CARHUACAIAN, a settlement of the same province and corregimiento as the former ; annexed to the curacy of Pomacocha.
CARI, a river of the province and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the Mesa (Table-land) de Guanipa, and runs s. being navigable to the centre of the province, and enters the Orinoco near the narrow part.
Cari, a settlement of the same province; one of those under the care of the religious order of S. Francisco, missionaries of Piritu. It is situate on the shore of the former river.
CARIACO, a large gulf of the coast of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Curnana. It is also called, Of Curnana, from this -capital being built upon its shores. The bajr runs 10 or 12 leagues from w. to c. and is one league toroad at its widest part. It is from 80 to 100 fathoms deep, and the waters are so quiet as to resemble rather the waters of a lake than those of the ocean. It is surrounded by the serramasy or lofty chains of mountains, which shelter it from all winds excepting that of the n. e. which, blowing on it as it were through a straitened and narrow passage, it accustomed to cause a swell, especially from 10
m the morning until five in the evening, after which all becomes calm. Under the above circumstances, the larger vessels ply to windward ; and if the wind be very strong, they come to an anchor ou the one or other coast, and wait till the evening, when the land breezes spring up from the s. e. In this gulf there are some good ports and bays, viz. the lake of Obispo, of Juanantar, of Gurintar, and others.
Cariaco, a river of the same province and government, taking its rise from many streams and rivulets which rise in the serrania, and unite be. fore they flow into the valley of the same Uame. After it has run some distance over the plain, it is cut off' to water some cacao plantations, and then empties itself into the sea through the former gulf. In the winter great part of the capital, which is situate upon its banks, is inundated, and the river is tlien navigated by small barks or barges ; but in the summer it becomes so dry that there is scarcely water sufficient to nqvigate a canoe.
Cariaco, a small city of the same province, situate on the shore of the gulf. [This city (according to Depons) bears, in the official papers and in the courts of justice, the name of San Felipe de Austria. The population is only 6500, but every one makes such a good use of his time as to banish misery from the place. The production most natural to the soil is cotton, the beauty of which is superior to that of all Tierra Firme. This place alone furnishes annually more than 3000 quintals ; and besides cacao they grow a little sugar. Lat. 10° SO' n. Long. 63° 39' w.
(CARIACOU is the ehief of the small isles dependent on Granada island in the West Indies; situate four leagues from isle Rhonde, which is a like distance from the «. end of Granada. It contains 6913 acres of fertile and well cultivated land, producing about 1,000,000 lbs. of cotton, besides corn, yams, potatoes, and plaintains for the Negroes. It has two singular plantations, and a town called Hillsborough.)
CARIATAPA, a settlement which belonged to the missions of the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province of Topia and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate in the middle of the sierra of this name, and on the shore of the river Piastla.
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Brocal de la Mina de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru ; finnexed to the curacy of Santa Barbara.
CHACMA, or Chamaca, a valley of the province of Cuzco and kingdom of Peru, near the coast of the S. sea. It was well peopled in former times, and abounds now in sugar-cane, from which sugar is made. It was conquered and united to the empire by Huaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor.
CHACO, a province of the kingdom of Peru, called the Gran Chaco, is an extensive country ; having as its boundary to the e. the river Paraguay, and being bounded on the [n.e. by the province of the Chiquitos Indians ; on the n. by that of Santa Cruz de la Sierra ; on the zo. it touches upon the provinces of Mizque, Tomina, Pornabamba, Pilaya, Paspaya, Tarija, and Tucuman. On the s. it extends as far as the jurisdiction of the government of Buenos Ayres, which is its farthest limits. Towards the n. it is 150 leagues wide from e. to w. and 250 leagues long from n. to s. ; but to make these distances, it requires many months, owing to the unevenness and roughness of the territory. It is called Chaco, or, with more propriety, Chacu, which, in the Quechuan language, signifies junta, or company, from the circumstance of its having been formed of Indians of several countries, who had fled from the conquering arms of the Incas, and afterwards from those of the Spaniards. Towards the w. it has some serraniasj which are branches of the cordilhrn ; where, on account of their immense height, the cold is very great ; but in the low grounds, which are for the most part plains, the temperature is hot. It is full of thick woods, and in many parts is swampy and wet ; particularly in the part lying towards the e. on the road to Paraguay. In the wet season, which lasts from the month of November to April, the rivers leave their beds and form various lakes, some of which dry up, and some remain. This province has some rivers of note ; such are the Salado and the Bermejo ; is one of the most fertile provinces in America, and would, if it were cultivated, afford, in the greatest abundance, those productions wnich are now thrown away upon the infinite number of barbarous na-
tions who inhabit it. It produces a great variety of fine woods and fruit-trees; such as walnuts and nuts, although different from those of Europe, but which arc extremely well tasted ; beautiful cedars ; quebrachos^ thus called on account of their hardness ; guqyacanes, carob-trees, balsams, marias, palms, some of which are more than 30 yards in height; almonds, cacaos, ceihas, whicli are very large trees, bearing in the pods a remarkable soft wool, used for quilts, since it cannot be spun ; cotton-trees, mistoles, of the heart of which the Indians make darts and cimeters ; myrrh, sarzafraztrees, bark, and others, which have the interior bark so delicate and white as occasionally to serve instead of writing paper; others there are, whicli, at one or two yards up their stems, form a kind of barrel or pipe, and being of a very tough bark, are accustomed to be ripped open by the Indians, and thus serve as vessels, in which these keep their liquor called chieha ; it is from this that they whimsically call this plant palo borracho, or drunken tree. In this province are found also canes for walking sticks, as fine as those of Asia ; and in the trunks of trees, in holes of the rocks and below the ground, are quantities of honey and wax wrought by bees, of which there are reckoned to be more than 12 sorts : some of the wax, besides being transparent, is extremely fragrant and delicious to the taste, whilst some is so sour as to resemble the juice of boiled lemons. One sort of these bees fabricate, with great skill, excellent hives of mud upon the branches of trees, and of the shape of a decanter, which are so hard that they will not break in falling down upon the ground ; they, morever, are filled Avith exquisite wax and Avell-flavoured honey. The fruit-trees which this province produces, are oranges, cedars, lemons, apples, pears, melocotones^ (or peaches engrafted on quinces), figs, nuts, prunes, and olives, also passion-floAvers ; all of which have been brought hither from the city of Santiago de Guadalcazar. Here are palms Avhich have cups containing 25 kernels each, differing only slightly from the palms of Europe by having a flavour of the cocoa, and being somewhat larger. Here is also a plant called chahuar, having prickles like the savine, of which are made threads similar to hemp, for the manufacture of nets, bags, and some sorts of coarse garments : its root serves as food for the Indians, as do also yucas, potatoes, and others. It has an innumerable quantity of birds, namely, Avild pigeons, ducks, herons, mountain-peacocks’ pheasants, crows, condors, partridges, falcons, SAvans, periguanas, ostriches, parrots, and one kind of bird which exactly imitates an organ, and