The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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AGUADILLA, a river of the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains on the s. and enters the large river Chagre very near its mouth, and the castle of this name. Here ships take in water, on account of the convenience of a bay, for the defence of which there is, upon the shore, a battery belonging to the same castle, which was built under the directions of Don Dionisio de Alcedo, in 1743.
AGUADORES, River of the, in the island of Cuba. It runs into the sea on the s. coast of this island, having at its mouth a watch-tower and guard to give notice of vessels which may enter the port of Santiago de Cuba, from whence it is seven leagues distant.
AGUAIO, a settlement of the province and government of Sierra Gorda, in the bay of Mexico, and kingdom of Nueva España, founded in the year 1748 by the Colonel of the militia of Queretaro, Don Joseph de Escandon, Count of Sierra Gorda.
AGUALULCO, a settlement and capital of the jurisdiction of [Izatlan]] in Nueva Galicia. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, and in 1745 it contained upwards of 100 families of Indians, including the wards of its district; 17 leagues w. of Guadalaxara. Lat. 20° 44' n. Long. 103° 33' w.
AGUAMENA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of Santiago de las Atalayas, and government of San Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, annexed to the curacy of that city. It is of a hot temperature, and produces the same fruits as the other settlements of this province.
AGUANATO, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Puruandiro, ^.nAalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a cold temperature, situate at the foot of the sierra of Curupo, and contains 36 families of Indians, who gain their livelihood by trading in dressed hides. Sixteen leagues from Pasquaro or Valladolid.
AGUANOS, San Antonio de, a settlement of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito ; one of those which belonged to the missions held there by the Jesuits, and thus called from the nation of Indians of whom it is composed. It was founded in 1670 by the father Lorenzo Lucero.
AGUAPAI, a river of the province and government of Paraguay. It rises between the Parana and the Uruguay, near the settleiment of San Carlos, runs j. forming a curve, and returning c. enters the last of the above rivers not far from the settlement of La Cruz.
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and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero, on the shore of the river Choromoros.
(CHAUDIERE River, a s. e. water of the St. Lawrence, rising in Lincoln and Hancock counties, in the district of Maine. The carrying place from boatable waters in it, to boatable Avaters in the Ketmebeck, is only five miles.)
(CHAUDIERE Falls are situate about nine miles above Quebec, on the opposite shore, and about three or four miles back from the river St. Lawrence, into which the river Chaudiere disembogues itself. The river is seen at a distance, emerging from a thick wood, and gradually expanding from an almost imperceptible stream till it reaches die cataract, whose breadth is upwards of 360 feet. Here the disordered masses of rock, which iippear to have been rent from their bed by some violent convulsion of nature, break the course of the waters, and precipitate them from a height of 120 feet into an immense chasm below. In some parts large sheets of water roll over the precipice, and fall unbroken to the bottom ; while in other places the water dashes from one fragment of the rock to another, with wild impetuosity, bellowing and foaming with rage in every hollow and cavity that obstructs its progress ; from thence it rushes down with the rapidity of lightning into the boiling surge beneath, where it rages with inconceivable fury, till driven from the gulf by fresh columns, it hurries away and loses itself in the waters of the St. Lawrence. The scenery which accompanies the cataract of Chaudiere is beautiful and romantic beyond description. In the centre, a large fragment of rock, which first divides the water, at the summit of the precipice, forms a small island ; and a handsome fir-tree, which grows upon it, is thus placed in a most singular and picturesque situation. The forest on either side the river consists of firs, pines, birch, oak, ash, and a variety of other trees and shrubs, intermingled in the most wild and romantic manner. Their dark green foliage, joined with the brown and sombre tint of the rocky fragments over which the water precipitates itself, form a striking and pleasing contrast to the snowy whiteness of the foaming surge, and the columns of sparkling spray which rise in clouds and mingle with the air.)
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mayor of Juxtlahuaca, in Nueva España. It contains 57 families of Indians.
CHAYANTA, or Charcas, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded n. by that of Cochabamba, n. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, e. by the province of Yamparaez, s. e. and s. by that of Porco, and w. by that of Paria ; is 36 leagues in length from w. to e. and 44 in width, n. s. Its temperature is various, since it contains the settlements of Puna and Valles ; in the former of these are found in abundance the productions of the sierra^ and in the latter wheat, maize, and other seeds and herbs : they have equally a traffic with the surrounding provinces, especially in the articles of wheat and flour of maize. Here are bred
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the river Marailon has its rise in tins lake ; its real origin being in the lake Lauricociia, as may be seen under that article.
CHINCHERO, a settlement of the province and correghniado of Calca y Lares in Perú. The cemetery of its church is composed of some large, thick Avails of Avrouglit stone, well fitted together, and having in them certain niches similar to sentry boxes ; so that they appear as having formerly belonged to some fortress.
Same name, a river of this province, which rises from the mountain desert or paramo of La Sabanilla. It Avashes the city and territory of Valladolid, and on its c. side receives the rivers Nnmballa, Vergel, Patacones, Sangalla, San Francisco, and Nambacasa ; and on its zs. side those of Palanda, Simanchi, Namballe, and Guancabamba ; when, being sAA'^elled to a considerable size by all of these, it enters the Maranon on the n. shore, to the w. w. of the settlement of Tompenda.
CHINCHULAGUA, a very lofty desert mountain or paramo, covered with eternal snow, in the province and corregimiento of Tacunga in the kingdom of Quito. It lies five leagues to the n. of Tacunga, Avith a slight inclination to the n. c.
CHINCONTLA, a settlement of the head settlement of Olintla, and alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan, in Nueva Espana ; situate in a delightful defile or narroAV tract, watered by various rivers. Eight leagues from its head settlement.
CHINGA, a fortress of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; one of the six Avhich were held by the %ipas or kings of Bogota, against the Punches nation, who border upon their country ; 10 leagues to the s. w. of Bogota.
CHINU, a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena in the kingdom ofTierra Firme ; founded in the sahanas, and formed by a re-union of other settlements, in 1776, by the G'oA^ernor Uon Juan Piraiento.
CHIPALZINGO, a settlement and head ettlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tixtlan in Nueva Espana. It contains 353 families of Indians, and of Spaniards, Mustces, and Mnlattoes, and lies three leagues from the sett lemcn!, of Zurnpango.
CHIPANGA, a river of the province and government of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom oi Quito. It rises in the sierra, Avhich divides the district of Macas from the province of Mainas, runs from n. to s. and enters the Morona.
CHIPAQUE, a settlement of the corregimiento of Ubaque in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a mild temperature, and abounds in fruits and seeds peculiar to a warm climate. It consists of 150 housekeepers, and of as many Indians. It is so infested with snakes, that it is impossible to find any part of it clear of them. Eight leagues .9. . of Santa Fe, in the road which leads to San Juan de los Llanos.
CHIPASAQUE, a settlement of the corregimiento of Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature, lying 24 leagues to the s. e. of Santa Fe, and close to the settlement of Chaqueta, in the road Avhich leads to San Juan dc
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down from the mountains to the jy. of the Rachcs Indians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. until it enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix, opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto, which lies to the s.
CHOPO, a settlement of the government and jurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a very mild climate, and abounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and many sorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branch of its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them for sale to the capital, which lies at a small distance from hence, in the road leading to M6rida and Gibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost as many indigent settlers.
[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are three miles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]
CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians, of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwelling immediately upon the mountains and forests of Fosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitch their huts near the river Bermejo. But little is known of their customs and of their country.
CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plains or llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touching toAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogoles, and extending n. as far as the mountains of the Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They are at present reduced to the Catholic religion, and are mixed with those of other nations ; but some few of them still persist in their idolatry, and live dispersed upon the mountains.
[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province and government of Buenos Ayres, near a small lake about 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35° 33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]
[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, though only two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth. It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions, in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they found its temperature to be intensely sultry.]
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corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Anco.
CHUNIANIS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the lands of Magellan, in the vicinity of the straits of Magellan. It is a tribe descended from the Huyellanes. They are numerous and ferocious ; the men and women go entirely naked ; their arms are bows and arrows, the latter being pointed with well-filed flints ; they are robust, of great strength, and fine appearance. Some travellers pretend that these are the fabulous giants of whom so many have written.
CHUPACHOS, a river of Peru, which flows down from the mountains of the Andes. It rises from the lake Patancocho, in lat. 10° 4P s . ; washes the country of the Chupachos Indians, from whence it takes its name, and finishes its course by emptying itself into the Mollobamba, on the®, side, in lat. 7° 21' s.
CHUPANA, a river of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. It rises iu the cordillera of the Andes, to the n. of the city of Guanuco in Peru, and after collecting the waters of several other rivers in its protracted course, enters the river Maranon in a very broad stream.
CHUPAS, an extensive valley or plain of the province and corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru, near to the city. It is celebrated for the battle which was fought here by the Licentiate Baca de Castro, of the royal council of Castille, governor of Peru, on the 16th September 1542, against the army of the rebels commanded by Diego de Almagro the younger, and son of the conqueror of the same name, when the latter was routed and taken prisoner with the loss of more than 700 men.
CHUQUIABO. See PAZ.
CHUQUICARA, a river of the province and corregimiento of Guamachuco. It rises in the same province, and enters the river Santa, changing its own name to this, immediately that it touche* the boundary of this jurisdiction, which it divide* from those of Truxillo and Guamachuco.
CHUQUINGA, a settlement close to that of Nasca, and nearly upon the shore of the river Amancay, where there is a narrow pass, through which two men cannot without great difficulty go abreast ; for on one side rises the mountain nearly perpendicular, and on the other is a precipice which runs into the river ; this is the spot where a signal victory was obtained by the rebel Francisco Hernandez Giron, in 1554, against the Brigadier Alonzo de Alvarado, both of them leaders of factions, maintaining the separate interests enkindled in the civil wars of Peru.
CHUQUIRIBAMBA, a large settlement of Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito ; on the shore of a small river which enters the Catamayu, on which account some maintain that it is the origin of the latter. It is surrounded by a beautiful and fertile