The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ACARAI, a settlement of the province and government of Paraguay, founded near the river Paraná, and rather towards the W by the missionary Jesuits, in 1624, where they also built a fort to protect it against the incursions of the infidel Indians.
ACARI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Camaná, in Perú, situate in a beautiful and extensive valley, in which there is a very lofty mountain, which they call Sahuacario, composed of misshapen stones and sand, in which, at certain times of the year, especially in the months of December and January, is heard a loud and continued murmuring, which excites universal astonishment, and which, no doubt, is to be attributed to the air in some of its cavities. On its skirts are two fortresses, which were built in the time of the gentilism of the Indians. There is a port halfway between the town of St. Juan and the city of Arequipa, which is 8 leagues distant from the latter, and 11 from the former. It is very convenient, and has an excellent bottom, but is frequented only by small vessels. It is in lat. 15° 15'. S Long. 75° 8' 30" W
another river, of the province and capitainship of Pará in the kingdom of Brasil. It is small, runs N afterwards inclines to the N N W and enters the river of Las Amazonas, just where this empties itself into the sea.
[ACASATHULA, a sea-port, situated on a point of land, in the province of Guatemala Proper, in Mexico, on a bay of the S. sea, about four leagues from Trinidad. It receives the greatest part of the treasures from Perú and Mexico. In its neighbourhood are three volcanoes.]
ACATEPEC, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Thehuacan, where there is a convent or vicarage of the order of St. Francis. It contains 860 Indian families (including those of the wards of its district) in a spacious valley, which begins at the end of the settlement and extends itself above a league. In this valley are 12 cultivated estates, on which live 40 Indian families. It is four leagues S S W of its capital.
another settlement in the head settlement and district of Chinantla, of the alcaldía mayor of Cozamaloapan. It is situate in a very pleasant plain, and surrounded by three lofty mountains. The number of its inhabitants is reduced. A very rapid and broad river passes near this settlement; and as this is the direct way to the city of Oaxaca and other jurisdictions, and as the travellers, who come here in great numbers, must necessarily cross the river in barks or canoes, the Indians, who are very expert in this sort of navigation, contrive by these means to procure themselves a decent livelihood. 10 leagues W of its head settlement.
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from which they are enabled to make sugar. It isintersected by three rivers, which are of no usewhatever to it, being too low in their beds ; but theyunite and form the Pachachaca, which enters theprovince of Abancay, and has more than 40 bridgesof wood and cord thrown over it in different parts.There are innumerable veins of gold and silver orein this province, which are not worked, from thewant of energy, and from the poverty existingamong the inhabitants ; and thus only some tri-fling emoluraeul is now and then derived from oneor the other. It was otherwise in former times,but these mines are now almost all filled with water.Some mines of quicksilver have been discovered,but the working of them has been forbid. Hereis little of the cattle kind, and no cloth manufac-tures peculiar to the country arc made here, withthe exception of a sort of thick quilt, which theycall Chuces ; and a kind of grain is gathered here,known by the name of Maino. This province wasunited to the empire of Peru by Capac Yupan-qui V. Emperor of the Incas. The language of thenatives is the same as that which is most universalthroughout the kingdom. The capital formerlyconsisted of a large and w ell ordered settlement,which was called Tintay, but which is at presentbut thinly inhabited, on account of the scarcity ofwater, and from a plague, in which almost all itsinhabitants perished. The number of souls in thewhole of the province may amount to 15,000. Iteontains 50 settlements within its jurisdiction. Theyearly tribute received by the corregidor used toamount to 800,100 dollars, and the duties paidupon the alcavahif (a centage on goods sold), to688 dollars.
The settlements of its jurisdiction are ;
AINACOLCA, a gold mine of the province andcorregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. It is famousfor the excellent quality of this metal, but it is verydifficult to be worked, on account of the hardnessof its stone.
AIOCUESCO, Santa Maria de, the headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofAntequera, in the province and bishopric of Me-choacan in Nueva España. It is of a hot tem-perature, contains a convent of the religious orderof Santo Domingo, and 400 Indian families, whocarry on some commerce in the cochineal, (theplant producing which they cultivate), and a veryconsiderable one in the manufacture of Pulgues^on account of the abundance of Magueyes whichare found here. Seven leagues s. of its capital.
AIOTITLAN, the head settlement of the dis-trict of the alcaldia mayor of Amola in NuevaEspana, immediately upon the coast of the S. sea,and situate between two deep ravines. Its tem-perature is very hot and troublesome to live in, onaccount of the various venomous animals and in-sects that abound in its territory. It contains 76Indian families, whose trade consists in makingtroughs and trays very finely painted. This set-tlement, in which there is a convent of the orderof St. Francis, is beautifully surrounded withplantations. Fifteen leagues distant from its capital.
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state to maintain itself. Thus the colonists lived for some years, and in time the productions in which their commerce consisted, increased to such a degree as to have caused them to excel all the other English colonies,
ALUEMAur.E, another county or part of Vir- ginia, washed by the river Fluvana on the s. which divides itself into several branches, and adds much to the fertility of the country. It is bounded e. by the county of Goochland, w. divided by a chain of mountains of Augusta, and by that of Louisa on the «. [It contains 12,585 inha- bitants, including 5579 slaves. Its extent, about S5 miles square.]
Albemarle, a strait, which is the mouth or entrance into the sea of the river Roanoke.
[ALBION, New, the name given by Sir Francis Drake to California, and part of the n. w. coast of America, when he took possession of it. A large uncertain tract of the n. w, coast is thus called. Its limits, according to Mr. Arrow- smith’s chart, are between 27° 12' and 41° 15' 71. lat. Humboldt asserts, that, agreeably to sure historical data, the denomination of New Albion ought to be limited to that part of the coast which extends from the 43° to the 48°, or from Cape White of Martin de x\guilar, to the entrance of Juan de Fuea. Besides, he adds, from the mis- sions of the Catholic priests to those of the Greek priests, that is to say, from the Spanish village of San Francisco, in New California, to the Russian establishments on Cook river at Prince William’s bay', and to the islands of Kodiac and Unalaska, there are more than a thousand leagues of coast inhabited by' free men, and stocked with otters and Phocre! Consequently, the discussions on the extent of the New Albion of Drake, and the pre- tended rights acquired by certain European na- tions, from planting small crosses, and leaving inscriptions fastened to trunks of trees, or the burying of bottles, may be considered as futile. The part of the coast on which Capt. Cook landed on the 7th of March 1778, and which some desig- nate as Nezo Albion, is in n. lat. 44° 33'. e. long. 235° 10', which he thus describes : “ The land is lull of mountains, the tops of w hich are covered with snow, while the vallies between them, and the grounds on the sea-coast, high as well as low, are covered with trees, which form a beautiful prospect, as of one vast forest. At first the natives seemed to prefer iron to every other article of
commerce; at last they preferred brass. They were more tenacious of their property than any of the savage nations that had hitherto been met with ; so that they would not part with wood, water, grass, nor the most trifling article without a compensation, and were sometimes very unrea- sonable in their demands.” See Calii^ornia, New.]
ALBOR, a small island of the N. or Atlantic sea, one of the Bahamas, between those of Neque and 8. Salvador.
ALBUQUERQUE, Santa Rosa de, a settle- ment and real of the silver mines of the alcaldia mayor of Colotlan in Nueva Espana. It is 19 leagues s. w. of the head settlement of the district of Tlaltcnango.
Albuquehque, a townof New Mexico, situate on the shore of the Rio Grande (large river) of the N. [opposite the village of Atrisco, to the w. of tlie Sierra Obseqra. Population 0000 souls.]
Albuquerque, a small island, or low rocks, of the N. sea, near that of 8. Andres.
ALCA, a settlement of the province and corre- gimienlo of Condensuyos of Arequipa in Peru.
ALCALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa, and kingdom of Gua- temala, in the division and district of that city.
ALCAMANI, a branch of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Igualapa in Neuva Espana, and two leagues to the n. of the same.
ALCANTARA, S. Antonio de, a town of the province and captainship of Maranam' in the kingdom of Brazil. It luis been frequently invaded by the infidel Indians, who destroyed its work- shops, so that its inhabitants have been much reduced.
Alcantara, S. Antonio de, another settle- ment in the province and district of Chanco, in the kingdom of Chile, near the shore of the rivec Mataquino.
ALCARAI, a small river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and enters the river La Plata between those of Lay- man and Gomez.
ALCATRACES, Ishmd of the, one of those which lie n. of St. Domingo, between the s. point of the Caico Grande, and the Panuelo Quadrado, (square handkerchief).
ALCIIICHlCd, 8 . Martin de, a ward of the head settlement erf the district and alcaldia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana, belonging to that of Santa Maria de la Asuncion.
ALCHIDOMAS, a settlement of the province of the Apaches in Nuevo Mexico, situate on the
place on the 12th of January 1809 ; the Englishin this brave contest having been commanded byLieutenant-colonel Marques, and Captain Yeo.JBesides the capital tliere are in this island thetowns of Armire, inhabited by Jews, as likewisethose of Matuiri, Matahuri, Courrou, and Cona-nama, inhabited by French, Negroes, Mustees, andMulattoes ; but few by Indians, these living for themost part retired in the mountains and Avoods tothe s. These towns were converted to the faith bythe society of the Jesuits, who had here establisheda mission, Avhich afterwards fell to decay.
(The province of Cayenne is bounded on the n.by the Dutch colony of Surinam; w. by tlie woodsand mountains inhabited by barbarians, and s. bythe country of the Portuguese on the borders of theMaranon.) The principal rivers which water it,and which empty themselves into the Atlanticocean, are the Cabo, Apurvaca, Cayenne, Vuya,and Barca. Its chief commerce is in sugar, Avhichis manufactured in various mills by the Negroes.(In 1752 the exports of the colony were 260,541 lbs.of arnotto, 80,365 lbs. sugar, 17,919 lbs. cotton,26,881 lbs. coffee, 91,916 lbs. cacao, beside timberand planks.)
Cayenne, the capital of the above island, issmall, well built, and populous. It is at the n.point of the island, at the foot of the castle of Sanljuis, and defended by two other redoubts, the onecalled Courrow, and the other Sinarari, with ahandsome, convenient, and large port ; the greaterpart of the houses, which amount to about 200, arebuilt of wood. Besides the parish called San Sal-vador, there is a fine one which belonged to the Je-suits, as also an excellent house for the governor.The form of the city is an irregular hexagon, wellfortified ; in Lat. 5“ n. Long. 52° 16' w.
Cayenne, a river of the above province, (whichrises in the mountains near the lake of Parime, runsthrough the country of the Galibis, a nation ofCaribe Indians, and is 100 leagues long; theisland which it environs being 18 leagues in circuit.)
CAYETANO, San , a settlement of the provinceand government of Cartagena in the kingdom ofTierra Firme ; situate on the mountain of the di-vision of Maria ; six leagues to the n. n. e. of theswamp which takes the name of this town. It isone of those new establishments founded in the year1776 by the Governor Don Juan Pimienia.
Indians, on the banks of a river between the settle-ments of San Louis, and San Francisco Xavier.
(CAYLOMA, a jurisdiction under the bishop ofArequipa, 32 leagues e. of that city, in S. America,in Peru, famous for the silver mines in the moun-tains of the same name, which are very rich,though they have been worked for a long time.The country round it is cold and barren. Thereis an office here for receiving the king’s fifths andvending quicksilver. See Cailloma.)
(CAYMANS, three small islands, 55 leaguesn. n. w. of the island of Jamaica, in the West Indiesthe most s. of which is called the Great Caymans,which is inhabited by 160 people, who are descend-ants of the old Buccaniers. It has no harbour forships of burden, only a tolerable anchoring placeon the s. w. The climate and soil are singularlysalubrious, and the people are vigorous, and com-monly live to a great age. 'I'hey raise all kinds ofproduce for their own use and to spare. Theirchief employment is to pilot vessels to the adjacentislands, and to fish for turtle ; with w hich last theysupply Port Royal and other places in great quan-tities. Great Caymans lies in Lat. 19° 15' n. Long.81° 33' w.)
(CAYUGA, a beautiful lake in Onondaga,county, Ncav York, from 35 to 40 miles long,about two miles wide, in some places three, andabounds with salmon, bass, cat-fish, eels, &c. Itlies between Seneca and Owasco lake, and at the n.end empties into Scayace river, which is the 5 . e.part of Seneca river, Avhose waters run to lake On-tario. On each side of the lake is a ferry-house,where good attendance is given. The reservationlands of the Cayuga Indians lie on both sides of thelake, at its n. end.)
CAZERES, San Augustin de, or San Martin