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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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a settlement founded seven leag'ues from the place called the Puerto, but in 16GS they tied, all of them, to the mountains, although in the same year they returned back again to the settlement.

CHIRIGUANA, a large settlement of the province and government of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature, and the territory is level, fertile, and beautiful. It has besides the parish church a convent or house of entertainment of the religious order of St. Francis.

CHIRIGUANOS, a country and nation of the infidel Indians of the province and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru, from whence it lies 20 leagues to thes. It is bounded on the e. by the province of Tomina, and s. e. by that of Chuquisaca ; is composed of different settlements, each governed by its captain or cazique, subject, in a certain degree, to the above government. These people, though they refuse to adopt the Catholic religion, are in perfect amity with the Spaniards, trading with them in wax, cotton, and maize. This nation, by the incursions which tliey made, used at first to give frequent alarm to the province, and once had the address to capture the city of Chiquisaca. The Inca Yupanqui endeavoured in vain to subdue them, and neither he nor the Spaniards could avail aught with them ■until they were reduced by the missionaries, the regulars of the extinguished company of the Jesuits ; since that time they have been stedfast in supporting the Spaniards against the other infidels, serving them as a barrier, and having for their own line of defence the river Guapay. They are very valorous, but inconstant and faithless ; they are descended from the nations which are found to the e. of Paraguay ; and fled from thence, to the number of 4000, ^hen avoiding the threatened chastisement of the Portuguese, who were about to inflict condign punishment on them for having treacherously murdered the Captain Alexo Garcia in the time of the King Don Juan 111. of Portugal. They were foi'merly cannibals, and used to fatten their prisoners that these might become better fare ; but their intercourse and trade with the Spaniards has caused them by degrees to forget this barbarous practice, and even to give them a disgust at their savage neighbours, who still continue in the same practices. They are at the present day so greatly increased in numbers, that they are one of the most numerous nations of America ; are besides very neat and clean ; and it is not uncommon for them to rush out of their dwellings in the middle of the night to plunge and wash themselves in a river in the most severe seasons ; their wives too.

immediately after parturition, invariably do the same, and on their return lay themselves on a heap of sand, which they have for this purpose in the house; but the husband immediately takes to his bed, and being covered all over with very large leaves, refuses to take any other nourishment than a little broth made of maize ; it being an incorrigible error of belief amongst them that these ceremonies will be the cause of making their children bold and warlike. They have shewn great power and address in their combats with our troops when these first endeavoured to enter their territories, and they threw themselves in such an agile and undaunted manner upon our fire-arms that it was found necessary, on our part, to insert in the rants a lance-man between every two fusileers : the v are, moreover, so extremely nimble that it is impossible to take them prisoners but by surprise.

CHIRIMICHATE, a river of the province and government of Venezuela. It rises in the sierra opposite the point of Hicacos, and enters the sea in this point.

CHIRINOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito.

CHIRIQUI, a district of the province and government of Santiago de Veragua in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, the last district of this province ; dividing the government from that of Guatemala, and touching upon the province of Costarica. It is of limited extent ; the country is mountainous, and its climate hot and unhealthy, surrounded on all sides by infidel Indians. Here are bred numbers of mules, which are carried to be sold at Panama and Guatemala ; upon the coast of the S. sea are found crabs which distil a purple colour used for dyeing cotton, which, although it may fade a little, can never be entirely eradicated. They have plenty of swine, and some vegetable productions ; with which they carry on a trade, now fallen much to decay, with the city of Panama. The capital is Santiago de Alanje.

Same name, a river of the above province (Santiago de Veragua), which rises in the mountains on the s. and enters the sea, serving as limits to that province, and dividing it from that of Costarica in the kingdom of Guatemala.

CHIRIS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Huachos.

CHIRISU, a settlement of the province and corregimieto of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a rather cold temperature, and abounds in wheat, maize, barley, a/berjas, and S M 2

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CHOCOPE, San Pedro y San Pablo de, a small settlement of the province and corregimiento of Truxillo in Peru ; situate in the valley of Chicama, watered and fertilized by the river of this name. It produces in abundance grapes, sugar-canes, olives, and every kind of European fruit of the most excellent flavour. It was formerly a large population, since that the few inhabitants who had been lel't at Concepcion, and those of Licapa in the same valley, have incorporated themselves here. It has a very large and handsome church, although this underwent some damage from an earthquake experienced in this province in 1759; the settlement suffered much also in 17S6, as did all the other towns of the coast, as, very contrary to the custom of the climate here, it rained without cessation for a period of 40 days, from five o’clock in the evening to the same hour in the following morning, so that the houses were almost all entirely destroyed. Itis 10 leagues from the capital, in the royal road which leads to Lima, and which is called De Valles. Lat. 7° 52' s.

[CHOCORUA, a mountain in Grafton county, New Hampshire, on the n. line of Strafford county, n. of Tamworth.]

[CHOCUITO. See Chucuito.]

CHOGUY. See Laches.

[CHOISEUL Bay, on the n. w. coast of the islands of the Arsacides, w. of port Praslin. The inhabitants of this bay, like those at port Praslin, have a custom of powdering their hair with lime, which burns it and gives it a red appearance.]

CHOIX, a port of the w. coast of the island of Newfoundland.

CHOLCHOL, a settlement of the district of Repocura in the kingdom of Chile ; situate at the mouth of the river Rumulhue before it enters the Cauten.

CHOLCO-COCHA, a great lake of the province and corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru, upon the heights of the mountains of the Andes. It is navigated by rafts made by the Indians; fish it has none, from the excesisve cold of its waters ; from it springs the river Caica-mayu. Mr. De la Martiniere confounds this lake, which is called Chocolo-cocha, with the city of Castro Vireyna, maintaining that the Indians call it by the latter name, but which is erroneous.

CHOLI, a settlement and establishment of the English in S. Carolina, and country of the Cherokees Indians; situate at the source of the river Apalachicola.

CHOLIQUE, San Pablo de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxaraarca la Grande in Peru.

CHOLOAPA, San Bartolome de, a settlement of the head settlement of Huitepec, and alcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva Espana. It contains 84 families of Indians.

CHOLOSCOPO, San Mateo de, a settlement of the district, and alcaldia mayor of Mexilcaltzingo, in Nueva Espana, somewhat more than half a league’s distance to the m. of ^his place. It contains 102 families of Indians, and has a handsome convent of the strict observers of St. Francis, which is also a college for studies.

CHOLULA, a district and jurisdiction of an alcaldia mayor in Nueva España. Its extent is very limited, being only three leagues in length at the widest part ; but it is nevertheless well filled with inhabitants ; its territory is level, and very fertile in wheat, maize, and pepper, which is here called chile^ as also in other seeds, of which abundant crops are gathered ; it formerly acquired agreat emolument from the sale of cochineal, but this is laid aside and entirely abandoned. The Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mulattoes, busy themselves in making cloths and woven stuffs of cotton, and they have many workshops, by which they supply with these articles the other provinces. Its population consists of 43 settlements of Indians, which are,

San Juan Quantlazingo, Sta. Maria Quescomate, Santiago de Momospan, San Bernardino,

Santa Barbara, Sta. Clara Ocovica,

Todos Santos, Sta. Maria Malacatepe»

San Luis, que,

San Gregorio de Saca- Sta. Maria Coronango, pecpan, S. Miguel Coztla,

S. Francisco de Quapan, San Francisco Ocotlan

S. Diego Cuaucotla, San Antonio, ^

S. Sebastian, San Francisco,

S. Juan Cuautla, San Mateo,

Tonanchin, San Gabriel,

Santa MariaZacatepeque, San Lucas,

San Geronimo, San Martin,

San Pablo Zochimehua, San Lorenzo,

San Andres de Oiolula, TIantenango,

San Francisco Acate- Santa Isabel, peque, Los Santos Reyes,

San Bernardo Tlaxcal- S. Pablo Ahuatempa, zingo, S. Mateo, distinct from

S.AntonioCacalotepeque, the other,

Santa Ana, S. Miguel Papalotla,

San Martin TIanapa, S. Andres de Cholula.

[The district of Cholula contained in 1793 a population of 22,423 souls. The villages amounted to 42, and the farms to 45. Cholula, Tlaxclala, and Huetxocingo, are the three republics which resisted the Mexican yoke for so many centuries, although the pernicious aristocracy of theiff

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constitution left the lower people little more freedom than they would have possessed under the government of the Aztec kings.]

The capital is the city of the same name, founded as far back as the time ofthegentilism of the Mexican empire, when this nation was at enmity with that of Chichimeca ; it was then one of the most populous cities, and contained 30,000 inhabitants and 300 temples, and served as a barrier to Moctezuma, in the attack against the republic of Tlaxclala ; the latter place never having been subjected to the Mexican yoke. This was the city which of all others most thwarted the designs of Hernan Cortes, but the inhabitants were discovered in the conspiracy they had laid against him, when they pretended to receive him with open arrhs and a peaceable and friendly disposition, and were made by him to suffer severely for their hypocrisy ; after which he and his whole army escaped uninjured. This city has many monuments denoting its antiquity ; and although in ancient times idolatry was here carried to its highest pitch, yet the light of the gospel has spread widely around its enlivening rays. It is of a mild and healthy temperature, rather inclined to cold than heat, being situate on a level, fertile, and beautiful plain. It has a good convent of the order of St. Francis, which is also a house of studies. Its inhabitants are composed of 50 families of Spaniards, 458 of Mustees, Mulattoes and Negroes, and 606 of Indians. On a lofty spot which lies close to the entrance, on the c. side of the city, is a handsome chapel, in which is venerated the image of the blessed virgin, which also bears the dedicatory title of Los Rentedios. It is a little more than 20 leagues to the e. of Mexico, and four from Tlaxclala. Long. 98° 14'. Lat. 19° 4'. [Its population is at present estimated at about 16,000 souls.]

CHONE, a settlement which in former times was considerable, but now much impoverished, in the ancient province of Cara, which is at present united to that of Esmeraldas. It lies upon the shore of the river Chones to the n. and is of an hot and moist climate, in lat. 33° s.

CHONES, a large river of the province of Cara in the kingdom of Quito. It runs to the w. and collects the waters of the Sanchez and theTossagua on the n. and on the s. those of the Camaron and the Platanal. At its entrance on the n. stood the city of Cara, of which the vestiges still remain. Where it runs into the sea it forms the bay of Cara, between the s. point of Bellaca and the n. point of laca. Its mouth is nearly two miles and an half wide.

CHONGO, San Miguel de, a settlement of the alcaldíta mayor of Huamelula. It is of a very cold temperature, from its being situate in the vicinity of the sierra Nevada (or Snowy) of the Chontales, which lies on the n. side of it. Its inhabitants amount to 24 families of Indians, who trade in cochineal, seeds, and fruits, of which the country, being naturally luxuriant, produces great quantities. It is watered by rivers which pass at a little distance, and is annexed to the curacy of Tepaltepec of the jurisdiction and alcaldia mayor of Nexapa, from whence it lies 20 leagues. It is-, on account of this great distance, combined with the badness of the roads, that the natives so seldom can avail themselves of any instruction in the holy faith ; dying, as they often do, without the administration of the sacraments. Indeed, there is only one day in the year, which is the 29th of September, and on which the Indians celebrate the festival of their titular saint Michael, when they are visited by their curate, who then hears their confessions and says mass. At this time this settlement has somewhat the appearance of a Catholic people ; but being all the rest of the year left to themselves, it is not to be wondered that many relapse into their pristine state of gentilisra and idolatry. Three leagues w. of its capital.

CHONGON, a settlement of Indians of the province and government of Guayaquil in the kingdom of Quito; situate near a small torrent, renowned for the stones which it washes down, of a certain crystallized matter, which being polished, resemble brilliants, and are used as buttons, rings, and other trinkets.

CHONGOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Xauxa in Peru.

CHONTA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Abancay in Peru.

Other, another settlement in the province and corregimiento of Guamalies of the same kingdom, famous for its mine of quicksilver.

CHONTAI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chorrillo.

CHONTALES, a district of the corregimiento or alcaldia mayor of Matagulpa, in the kingdom of Guatemala and province of Nicaragua. It is but small, and its natives have this name from the Spaniards, who would by it express their natural uncouthness and stupidity.

CHOPADA, a settlement of the Portuguese, in the kingdom of Brazil and country of the Guayazas Indians ; situate on the bank and at the source of the river Tocantines.

CHOPARE, a river of the province and government of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito. It flows

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CHOTE, a settlement of Indians of N. Carolina ; situate on the shore of the river Tennessee.

CHOTECHEL, a settlement of Indians of the kingdom of Chile ; situate in the interior of it, and on the shore of the river ComoLeuvre.

CHOUEE, Montañas de, mountains in the province and colony of N. Carolina, which follow the course of the river Tennessee,

CHOUMANS, a settlement or village of the province and colony of Louisiana ; situate on the bank, and at the source of the river Maligna or Sabloniere.

CHOUSSIPI, a small river of the country of Labrador. It runs s. w. and enters that of St. Lawrence.

CHOWAN, a district and jurisdiction of the province and colony of Virginia, between that of Pequima and the river Pansemond. The principal settlement bears the same name.

[Chowan County, in Edenton district, N. Carolina, on the n. side of Albemarle sound. It contains 5011 inhabitants, of whom 2588 are slaves. Chief town, Edenton.]

[Chowan River, in N. Carolina, falls into the n. w. corner of Albemarle sound. It is three miles wide at the mouth, but narrows fast as you ascend it. It is formed, five miles from the Virginia line, by the confluence of Meherrin, Nottaway, and Black rivers, which all rise in Virginia.]

CHOXLLA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cicasica in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Yanacache.

[CHRIST CnuacH, a parish in Charleston district, S. Carolina, containing 2954 inhabitants, of whom 566 are whites, 2377 slaves.]

[CHRISTENOES, a wandering nation of N. America, who do not cultivate, nor claim any particular tract of country. They are well disposed towards the whites, and treat their traders Avith respect. The country in which these Indians rove is generally open plains, but in some parts, particularly about the head of the Assinniboin river, it is marshy and tolerably Avell furnished with timber, as are also the Fort Dauphin mountains, to which they sometimes resort. From the quantity of beaver in their country, they ought to furnish mofe of that article than they do at present. They are not esteemed good beaver-hunters. They might probably be induced to visit an establishment on the Missouri, at the Yellow Stone river. Their number has been reduced by the small-pox since they Avere first known to the Canadians.]

[CHRISTIANA, a post-town in Newcastle county, Delaware, is situated on a navigable creek of its name, 12 miles from Elkton, nine s. w. of Wilmington, and 37 s. w. of Philadelphia. The town, consisting of about 50 houses, and a Presbyterian church, stands on a declivity which commands a pleasant prospect of the country towards the Delaware. It carries on a brisk trade with Philadelphia in flour. It is the greatest carrying place between the navigable Avaters of the Delaware and Chesapeak, which are 13 miles asunder at this place. It was built by the Swedes in 1640, and thus called after their queen.]

[Christiana Creek, on which the above town is situated, falls into Delaware river from the w. a little below Wilmington. It is proposed to cut a canal of about nine miles in length, in a s. to. direction from this creek, at the toAvn of Christiana (six miles w. s. w. of Newcastle) to Elk river in Maryland, about a mile below Elkton. See Delaware and Wilmington.]

[Christiana, St. one of the Marquesa isles, called by the natives Waitahu, lies under the same parallel with St. Pedro, three or four leagues more to the w. Resolution bay, near the middle of the w. side of the island, is in lat. 9° 58' s. long. 139'^ 840' w. from Greenwich ; and the w. end of Dominica 15 71. Captain f^ook gave this bay the name of his ship. It Avas called Port Madre de Dios by the Spaniards. This island produces cotton of a superior kind. A specimen of it is deposited in the museum of the Massachusetts Historical Society.]

CHRISTIANO, San, a settlement of the province and captainship of Serigipé in Brazil ; situate on the coast, and at the mouth of the river Cirii.

[CHRISTIANSBURG, the chief town of Montgomery county, Virginia. It contains A’ery few houses ; has a court-house and goal, situated near a branch of Little river, a water of the Kanhaway. Lat. 37° 5' ».]

[CHRISTIANSTED, the principal town in the island of Santa Cruz, situated on the n. side of the island, on a fine harbour. It is the residence of the Danish governor, and is defended by a stone fortress.]

[CHRISTMAS Island, in the Pacific ocean, lies entirely solitary, nearly equally distant from the Sandwich islands on the n. and the Marquesas on the s. It Avas so named by Captain Cook, on account of his first landing there, on Christmas day. Not a drop of fresh Avater was found by digging. A ship touching at this desolate isle must expect nothing but turtle, fish, and a few birds. It is about 15 or 20 leagues in circumference, and bounded by a reef of coral rocks, on the xc. side of

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teopan, and alcaldia mayor of Zaqualpa. 11 contains 204 families of Indians.

CAOTEPEC, Santa Maria, another (settlement), with the dedicatory title of Santa Maria, of the alcaldia mayor of Tacuba. It is very poor and much reduced.

Same name, another (settlement), the capital of the alcaldia mayor of the same kingdom ; the jurisdiction of which comprehends three head settlements of the district. It is of a moderate temperature, abounding in seeds and grain, which are cultivated in many estates of its territoiy ; and in these some cattle also are bred. It contains 340 families of Indians, 15 of Spaniards, and Mulattoes, with a good convent of monks of St. Domingo. Nine leagues to the no. of Mexico.

Same name , another (settlement), of the head settlement of Amatepec, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in the same kingdom. It contains 20 families of Indians, who maintain themselves by breeding large cattle, and in sow ing some fruits and maize. Four leagues to the n. of its head settlement.

COATEPEQUE, S. Paulo de, a settlement of the head settlement of Zitaquaro, of the alcaldia mayor of Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 179 families of Indians, and is one eighth of a league’s distance from its head settlement towards the s.

COATETELCO, S. Juan de, a settlement of the head settlement of Mazatepec, and alcaldia of Cuernavaca, in Nueva Espafia ; situate in a valley of a hot temperature. It contains 94 families of Mexican Indians, who pride themselves on their nobility, and suffer no other people to come and dwell among them. Here is a lake formed by the winter rains, in which are caught mojarras^ a fish much esteemed in Mexico.

COATINCHAN, a head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of the Puebla de los Angeles in Nueva Espana. It has, besides the parish church, a convent of monks of St. Francis, 324 families of Indians, and 50 of Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mulattoes, with those of the wards of its vicinity. Two leagues s. e. of its capital.

COATININGA, a river of tlie country of Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions. It runs n. n. w. and enters the Madera.

COATLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of Metlatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Papantla, in Nueva Espana. It contains 25 families of Indians, and is little more than three leagues to the s. w. of its head settlement.

COATLAN, San Pablo, another (settlement), with the dedicatory title of San Pablo, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Miahuatlau in the same kingdom, being of a mild temperature. It con-


tains 532 families of Indians, with those of its immediate wards, all of them employing thennselves in the cultivation of maize and other fruits ofthis region. It lies 12 leagues between the e. and s. of its capital.

Same name, another (settlement), the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Nexapa a in the same kingdom. It has a convent of monks of St. Dcmiingo, and contains 114 families of Indians, employed in the cultivation and sale of grain and

cotton garments.

It lies 12 leagues to the n. of

the capital.

Same name, another (settlement), of the head settlement of Cozcatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Tasco, in the same kingdom. It contains 130 families of Indians, and lies three leagues to thee, of its capital.

Same name, a river of the province and alcaldia mayor of Soconusco in the kingdom of Guatemala, which runs into the S. sea, to the e. ofthe capital.

COATLINCHAN, San Miguel de, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tezcuco in Nueva Espana. It contains 218 families of Indians, including those of its immediate wards, and is one league to the s. of its capital.

COAUCAZINTLA, a settlement of the district and head settlement of Tlacolula, and alcaldia mayor of Xalapa, in Nueva Espana ; situate between three lofty mountains, and in the midst of others with which its territory is covered. It is of a mild temperature, the soil is tortile, but produces only maize and French beans, in which consists the commerce of the inhabitants. These are composed of 44 families of Indians. One league to the n. e. of its head settlement.

COAUTITLAN, the district and alcaldia mayor of Nueva España ; being one of the most fertile and rich territories, however inconsiderable in size, covered with cultivated grounds and estates, which produce quantities of maize, wheat barley, and other grain. It is a grand plainj watered by the river of its name, which traverses it, and runs from s. to n. It has a lake called Zumpango, close to the settlement of Coyotepec which filling itself from the waters of the river* empties itself into the lake Ecatepec. This jurisdiction contains the following settlements :

The capital of the same San Miguel de los Xa«







Santa Barbara,



The capital, which is the residence of the alcaldia mayor., lies in the direct road from Mexico to the interior of the provinces, and upon this account 3 Q

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