The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ACACUNA, a mountain of Peru, in the province and corregimiento of Arica in Peru. It is very lofty, and is four leagues distant from the S. sea; is very barren, and situate between the promontory of Ilo and the river Sama. Lat. 70° 29' S [Long. 18° 35' W.]
ACADIA, a province and peninsula of N. America, on the E coast of Canada, between the island or bank of Newfoundland and New England, by which it is bounded on the w. It is more than 100 leagues in length from N W S E and nearly 80 in width, from NE to SW from the gulph of St. Lawrence to the river Santa Cruz. It was discovered in 1497 by Sebastian Cabot, sent thither from England by Henry VII. The French, under the command of Jacob Cartier, of St. Maloes, established themselves here in 1534, in order to carry on a codfishery on the bank of Newfoundland; and in 1604, Peter Guest, a gentleman of the household of Henry IV of France, was sent by that king to establish a colony, which he founded at Port Royal. The English entered it under Gilbert Humphry, in consequence of a grant which had been made to this person by Queen Elizabeth, and gave it the title of Nova Scotia. In 1621 King James I made a donation of it to the Earl of Stirling; and in 1627 the French, commanded by Kirk de la Rochelle, made themselves masters of it, destroying all the establishments of the English, who were obliged to surrender it up, in 1629, by the treaty of St. Germains. The French shortly afterwards lost it; a Governor Philip having taken possession of it; but they, however, regained it in 1691, through the conduct of Mr. De Villebon. In order to settle the pretensions of the rival courts, commissioners were, by mutual consent, appointed in the peace of Riswick, in 1697, to consider which should be the limits of Nova Scotia and New England; and in the peace of Utrecht, it was entirely ceded to the English, who afterwards returned to it. This beautiful country contains many rivers and lakes; the principal of these is the Rosignol, well stocked with fish: there are also many woods, full of excellent timber, and thronged with very singular birds; as, for instance, the Colibri, or hummingbird, and various others. The same woods abound in many kinds of fruits and medicinal herbs. It is very fertile in wheat, maize, pulse of all sorts, and also produces cattle of various kinds, animals of the chase, and abundance of fine fish. Its principal commerce is in skins and salt fish. The winter is longer and colder than in Europe. The capital is Port Royal.— [The name of Acadia was first applied to a tract from the 40th to the 46th degree of N lat. granted to De Mons, Nov. 8, 1603, by Henry IV of France. For the present state of this country, see NOVA SCOTIA.]
ACAGUATO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldía mayor of Tancitaro. It is so reduced as to consist of no more than 15 families of Indians, who maintain themselves by sowing some maize, and other vegetable productions. — Eight leagues S of the capital.
ACAMBARO, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Zelaya, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán. It contains 490 families of Indians, 80 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and a convent of the order of St. Francis. In its district there are other small settlements or wards.— Seven leagues S of its capital.
ACAMISTLAHUAC, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tasco, annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it is distant two leagues to the E N E. It contains 30 Indian families.
ACAMUCHITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Texopilco, and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec. It contains 60 Indian families, whose commerce is in sugar and honey. It produces also maize, and cultivates many vegetable productions. — Five leagues N of its head settlement.
ACANTEPEC, the head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlapa. It is of a cold and moist temperature, contains 92 Indian families, among which are included those of another settlement in its vicinity, all of whom maintain themselves by manufacturing cotton stuffs.
ACANTI, a river of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains which lie towards the N and empties itself into the sea between Cape Tiburon and the bay of Calidonia.
ACAPALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldía mayor of Chiapa, in the kingdom of Guatemala. Lat. 16° 53' N Long. 93° 52' W [It is situate on the Tobasco river, near the city of Chiapa, and not far from a bay in the S. sea, called Teguantipac.]
CRUZ, Santa, de la Sierra, a province and government of Peru, bounded n. by that of Moxos, e. by tlie territory of the Chiquitos Indians, s. by the infidel Chirigiianos and Chanaes Indians, s, w. by the province of Tomina, and w. by that of Mizqiie. it is an extensive plain, which on the w. side is covered with Indian dwellings and grazing farms, as far as the river called Grande or Huapay. It extends 28 leagues s. as far as the same river, 18 ra. as far as the foot of the cordillera, and 24 n. being altogether covered with various estates, as indeed arc the parts on the other side of the cordillera. It lies very low, and is free both from the extreme cold and parching heat of the serramas, altliough the other provinces of this bishopric, which lie close by this province, are much infested with the same variations of climate. It is, however, of a hot aiul moist temperature, and the country is mountainous ; on its plains are found various kinds of wood, good for building, and amongst the rest, a sort of palm, the heart of which is used for making the frame works to windows of temples and houses, and it is generally cut to the length of 1 1 feet ; there is another kind of palm, which is called montaqui, the leaves of which serve for covering the houses of the poor, and the shoots or buds for making a very argreeable sallad ; the heart of the tree is reduced to a flour, of wliich sweet cakes are made, and eaten instead of bread, for in this province neither wheat nor vines are cultivated, the climate being unfavourable to both. It abounds in various species of canes, which serve to bind together the timbers of w hich the houses are constructed ; one of these species is called huembe, with which bells, though of great w'eight, are hung. In this province are all kinds of fruits, various birds, tigers, bears, wild boars, deer, and other wild animals ; amongst the fruits of the wild trees are some w'hich grow, not upon the branches, but upon the trunk itself; that which is called huaipuru resembles a large cherry in colour and flavour, and this, as well as others which are equally well tasted, serve as food for an infinite variety of birds ; an equal abundance of fish is likewise found in the neighbouring rivers. Here is cultivated rice, also maize, sugar-cane, j/ucas, camotes, See. and some wild wax is found in the trunks of trees ; being furnished by various kinds of bees. At the distazice of 20 leagues to the s. of the capital, are four settlements of Chiriguanos Indians, governed by their own captains, but subject, in some measure, to this government, from being in friendship Avith it, and trading with the Spaniards in wax, cotton, and maize. Hitherto its natives have been
averse to embracing the Catholic religion, but in the incursions that have been made against us by the barbarians, they have beeiTdver ready to lend us their assistance, and in fact form for us an outwork of defence. In the aforesaid four settlements are 500 Indians, ivho are skilled in the use of the arrow and the lance, and are divided from the other barbarians of the same nation by the river Grande or Huapay. This river runs from Charcas to thee, by the side of the province of Tomina, and which, after making a bend in the figure of an half-moon, on tlie e. side of the province of Santa Cruz, enters the Marmore, first receiving another river describing a similar course, and known by the name of the Pirapiti. On the e. and on the opposite side, are some settlements of Chanaes Indians, the territory of whom is called Isofo. To the s. andv. zso. towards the frontiers of Tarija, and still further on, are very many settlements of the infidel Chiriguanos Indians; and in the valley of Ingre alone, which is eight leagues long, we find 26 ; and in some of these the religious Franciscan order of the college of Tarija have succeeded in making converts, though as yet in no considerable numbers. These Indians are the most valorous, perfidious, and inconstant of all the nations lying to the e, of the river Paraguay ; 4000 of them once fled for fear of meeting chastisement for their having traitorously put to death the Captain Alexo Garcia, a Portuguese, in the time of Don Juan III. king of Portugal; they were cannibals, and used to fatten their prisoners before they killed them for their banquets. Their treaties Avith the Spaniards, and the occasional visits these have been obliged to pay them in their territories, havm induced them nearly to forget this abominable practice ; but their innate cruelty still exists, and particularly against the neighbouring nations, upon Avhom they look down Avith the greatest scorn ; they have increased much, and are now one of the most numerous nations in America; they are extremely cleanly, so much so that they Avill go down to the rivers to Avash themselves even at midnight, and in the coldest season. The Avomen also, immediately after parturition, plunge themselves into the Avater, and coming home, lay themselves down upon a liltle mound of sand, Avhich, for this purpose, they have in their houses. The inhabitants of this province amount to 16,000, and besides the capital, Avhich is San Lorenzo de la Frontera, there are only the following settlements :
Valle Grazidc, Santa Ro>a,
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Bishops who have presided in Santa Cruz de la Sierra.
1. Don Antonio Calderon, native of Vilches, dean of the holy church of Santa Fe, bisliop of Puertorico and Panama; first bishop in 1605; died at the advanced age of upwards of 100 years.
2. Don Fray Fernando de Ocampo, of the religious order of St. Francis, a native of Madrid.
3. Don Juan Zapata y Figueroa, native of Velez-Malaga ; he was canon and inquisitor of Seville ; presented to the brishopric of Santa Cruz in 1634.
Fray Juan de Arguinao, a religious Dominican, native of Lima, was prior and provincial in his religion, first professor of theology and writing in that university, qualificator of the inquisition ; presented to the bishopric of Santa Cruz in 1646, and promoted to the archbishopric of Santa Fe in 1661.
5. Don Fray Bernardino de Cardenas, native of Lima, of the order of St. Francis ; promoted from Paraguay to this bishopric in 1666.
6. Don Fray Juan de Rivera, of the order of St. Augustin, native of Pisco in Peru ; first professor of theology.
7. Don Fray Juan de Esturrizaga, of the order of preachers, native of Lima.
8. Don Pedro de Cardenas y Arbieto, native of Lima, collegian of the royal college of San Martin, canon of its holy church.
9. Hon Fray Juan de los Rios, of the order of St. Dominic, a native of Lima, provincial of his religion in the province of San Juan Bautista del Peru.
10. Don Fray Miguel Alvarez de Toledo, of the order of Nuestra Sexiora de la Merced, elected in 1701.
11. Don Miguel Bernardo de la Fuente, dean of the holy church of Truxillo, elected in 1727.
12. Don Andres de Vergara and Uribe, elected in 1744 ; he died in 1745.
13. Don Juan Pablo de Olmedo, native of Tucuman, elected in 1745, died in 1757.
14. Don Fernando Perez de Obiitas, native of Arequipa, elected in the aforesaid year, died in 1760.
15. Don Francisco Ramon de Herboso, native of Lima, elected in 1760, promoted to the archbishopric of Charcas in 1766.
16. Don Juan Domingo Gonzalez de la Rigucra, elected the aforesaid year, and promoted to the archbishopric of the holy metropolitan church of Lima in 1780.
17. Don Alexandro de Ochoa, elected in 1782.
Cruz, Santa, a city of the above province, which was once the capital ; founded by Nuno de Chaves in 1557, after that he had passed along the shores of the river Paraguay to discover a communication with the other provinces. Its inhabitants, however, not being able to stay in it through the incessant sallies of the Indians who surrounded them, were under the necessity of changing their settlement ; but disagreeing in the choice of place, some of them united together, and founded the city of Santiago del Puerto, and others that of San Lorenzo de la Frontcra, which is to-day the capital, the former city being entirely abandoned.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement and alca’d'ia mayor of Jochimilco in Nueva Espana ; situate in a mountainous and cold country, containing 46 families of Indians, who live by cutting timber and making fuel. It is two leagues to the cU. of its capital.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement of St. Francisco del Valle, and akaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva Espana. It contains 28 families of Indians, dedicated to the cultivation of the land, and cutting bark from trees. Ten leagues from its head settlement.
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inin, and containing 72 families of Indians, dedicated to the commerce of saltpetre and cochineal. Three leagues to the s. of its head settlement.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the alcaldia mayor of the same kingdom. It contains 36 families of Indians, and is in the boundaries of the jurisdiction of Xalapa.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement of Chapala, and alcaldia mayor of Zayula, in the same kingdom ; situate on the shore of the great lake or sea of Chapala. It contains 28 families of Indians, who cultivate many seeds and fruits from the fertility and pleasantness of the country; occupying tliemselves also in traffic and in fishing upon the lakes. It is tsvo leagues to the e. of its head settlement.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of the river Napo.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement of Cacula, cmA alcaldia mayoral Zayula, in the same kingdom. It contains 50 families of Indians, who employ themselves in agriculture, and in cutting wood upon the mountains of its district. Four leagues between the w. and s. of its head settlement.
Cruz, Santa, another, of tlic missions which W,ere held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits in the province of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate on the shore of the river of Las Nasas.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the nrissions of the
religious order of St. Francis, in the province of Taraumara, of the same kingdom as the former. Eighteen leagues to the s, e. of the real of the mines and town of San Felipe de Chiguagua.
Cruz, Santa, another, called Real de la Cruz, in the province and government of Cartagena, on the shore of the large river Magdalena, and upon an island formed by this river and the w aters of the Dique.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and government of Antioquía in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; founded on the shore of the river Sinu, with a good port, which serves as an entrepot for goods to be carried to Choco, from whence it lies a three-days journey.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana ; situate at the mouth of the river Mayo, where this enters the California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes. Distinct from another, which is upon a shore of the same river.
(Cruz, a parish of tlie province and government of Buenos Ayres ; situate on a small river running into the Plata, about five leagues n. of the town of imxan, in lat. 31° 16' 22". Long. 59* 23' SO" a'.)
(Cruz, La, a settlement of Indians of the pro3 z
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vince and government of Buenos Ayres, founded in ]629, in lat. 29° 29' 1" 5.] t])Cruz, Santa, an island oftheN. sea,^one of the Antilles, 22 leagues long and five wide. Its territory is fertile, but the air unhealthy at certain seasons, from the low situation. It has many rivers, streams, and fountains, with three very good and convenient ports. It was for a long while desert, until some English settled themselves in it, and began to cultivate it; afterwards the French possessed themselves of it, in 1650, and sold it the following year to the knights of Malta, from whom it was bought, in 1664, by the West India company. In 1674, it was incorporated with the possessions of the crown by the king of France. Its inhabitants afterwards removed to the island of St. Domingo, demolished the forts, and sold it to a company of Danes, of Copenhagen, who now possess it. It was the first of the Antilles which was occupied by the Spaniards ; is SO leagues
from the island of St. Christopher’s, eight from Puertorico, six from that of Boriquen, and five from that of St. Thomas. It abounds in sugars cane and tobacco, as also in fruits, which render it very delightful. [It is said to produce SO, 000 or 40,000 hhds. of sugar annually, and other W. India commodities, in tolerable plenty. It is in a high state of cultivation, and has about 3000 white inhabitants and 30,000 slaves. A great proportion of the Negroes of this island have embraced Christianity, under the Moravian missionaries, whose influence has been greatly promotive of its prosperity.
The official value of the Imports and Exports of Santa Cruz were, in
1809, imports ^^435,378, exports ^ig84,964.
1810, 422,033, 89,949.
And the quantities of the principal articles im--
ported into Great Britain were, in
Santa Cruz is in lat. 70° 44' n. Long. 64° 43' w. See West Indies.]
Cruz, Santa, a small island in the straits ©f Magellan, opposite cape Monday. The Admiral Pedro Sarmiento took possession of it for the crown of Spain, that making the tenth time of its being captured.
Cruz, Santa, a sand -bank or islet near the n. coast of the island of Cuba, and close to the sandbank of Cumplido.
Cruz, Santa, a point of the coast of the province and government of Honduras, called Triunfo de la Cruz, (Triumph of the Cross), between the port of La Sal and the river Tian, SO leagues from the gulf, in lat. 15° 40'.
Cruz, Santa, a port of the coast which lies between the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan. On one side it has the Ensenada Grande, or Large Bay, and on the other the mountain of Santa Ines. Lat. 50° 10' s.
==Cruz, Santa, a river of the coastwhich lies between the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan. It runs into the sea.
Cruz, Santa, a small river of the province and captainship of Los Ilheos in Brazil. It rises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea between the Grande and the Dulce, opposite the shoals ofS. Antonio.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and captainship of Seara in the same kingdom. It rises near the coast, runs n. and enters the sea between the point of Palmeras and that of Tortuga,
Cruz, Santa, a cape or point of the coast of thx