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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success : the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.

ABISMES, Quartel des, that part or division of the island of Guadaloupe which looks to the NE. It takes its name from its having some creeks, or inlets, which serve as places of shelter for vessels, in case of invasion either from enemies or from hurricanes. Here they ride quite safe, for the bottom is very good ; and being made fast to the strong palm-trees which abound here, they stand in no need of being anchored, which would be inconvenient, and attended with risk, on account of the thick roots thrown out by the above trees. Further on is a small island called Des Cochons, where an engineer, of the name of Renau, endeavoured, without success, in 1700, to build a fort, for the sake of securing the harbour, which is a good one.

ABITANIS, a mountain of the province and corregimiento of Lipes in Peru. In the Quechuan tongue it signifies the ore of gold, from a celebrated mine which is at present nearly abandoned, from the want of workmen. It is nearly contiguous to the settlement of Colcha.

ABITIBBI, a small lake in Upper Canada, on the S side of which is a settlement called Frederick, which last lies in N lat. 48° 35'. W long. 82°. Also the name of a river which runs N and joins Moose river near its mouth at James's bay.

ABITIBIS, a lake of the country of Hudson, in the territory of the Indians of this name. This lake is N of Nipissing lake, the NE boundary of Canada, in New South Wales: it has communication with James's bay, near Moose fort. Lat. 48° 39' N Long. 79° 2' W.

ABITIGAS, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It is very numerous and warlike ; and they live a wandering life in the woods. It is 60 leagues to the E of the mountains of the Andes; bounded on the S, by the Ipillos Indians.

ABORROEN, a port of the coast of Brasil, in the province and capitainship of Seara, between the river Escorgogive and the bay of Inobu.

ABRA, an island of the straits of Magellan, at the entrance of the third and last narrow pass, called the Passage.

[ABRAM'S CREEK, falls into Hudson's river, near the city of Hudson.]

ABREOLHOS, on the coast of Brasil, and of the province and capitainship of Espiritu Santo, between the rivers Percipe and Quororupa, in S lat. 18° 19' 30". W long. 39° 5 1° 30". Here are some hidden rocks, or sandbanks, extremely dangerous ; and although there are various navigable channels, it requires the utmost caution to avoid shipwreck, this having been the lot of an infinite number of vessels. These sandbanks are more than 20 leagues distant from the continent, and extend themselves upwards of five leagues to the E of the Island of Tuego. Their situation, taken in the the centre, is in 170° 51' 20" S lat. W long. 39° 18'.

[ABROJOS, a bank, with several small rocks and isles, E of Turk's island, in N lat. 21° 5'. W long. 70° 40'. Between this bank and Turk's Island is a deep channel, for ships of any burden, three leagues wide.]

Abrojos, a shoal of the N. sea. See the article Panuela Quadrado.

ABSECON, Beach, on the coast of New Jersey, 16 miles SW from Little Egg harbour.

ABUCARA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru, in a valley of the same name. It was anciently the capital of this province, and had the same denomination. At present it is much reduced, the corregidor having left it to establish himself in Lucanas. Lat. 15° 33' S Long. 73° 28' W

ABUCEES, S. Joseph de los, a settlement of the missions of the Sucumbios Indians, who were founded by, and maintained at the expence of, the abolished order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Quixos and Macas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of a small river, which enters the Putumayo. Lat. 0° 36' N Long. 75° 22' W.

ABURRA, S. Bartolomé de, a town of the province and government of Antioquia, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, founded in 1542, by the Marshal George Robledo, in a fertile and extensive valley of the same name, which was discovered in 1540 by Captain Geronimo Luis Texelo. It abounds in all kinds of fruits, seeds, and vegetables, and is of a hot temperature. In its district are found many huacas, or sepulchres of the Indians, in which great riches are deposited. It has now so much fallen to decay, that it is no more than a miserable hamlet. In its vicinity are some streams of salt water, from which the Indians procure salt for their use. Lat. 5° 51' 30" N Long. 75° 17' W ACA, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlaxclala, in Nueva España.

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escape the destruction which followed them whereever they fled. Still are the vestiges of this calamity to be seen, and there are large quantities of this mud or lava, now become hard, scattered on the s. side of the settlement.

CARHUA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of its capital.

CARHUACAIAN, a settlement of the same province and corregimiento as the former ; annexed to the curacy of Pomacocha.

CARHUACALLANGA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Jauja in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chongos.

CARHUACUCHO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Laramate.

CARHUAMAIO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru.

CARHUAPAMPA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Lorenzo de Quinti.

Carhuapampa, another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cajatambo in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Hacas.

CARHUAZ, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huailas in Peru.

CARI, a river of the province and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the Mesa (Table-land) de Guanipa, and runs s. being navigable to the centre of the province, and enters the Orinoco near the narrow part.

Cari, a settlement of the same province; one of those under the care of the religious order of S. Francisco, missionaries of Piritu. It is situate on the shore of the former river.

CARIAI, a small river of the country of the Amazonas, in the part possessed by the Portuguese. It is by no means a considerable stream, runs n. and enters the Xingu.

CARIACO, a large gulf of the coast of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Curnana. It is also called, Of Curnana, from this -capital being built upon its shores. The bajr runs 10 or 12 leagues from w. to c. and is one league toroad at its widest part. It is from 80 to 100 fathoms deep, and the waters are so quiet as to resemble rather the waters of a lake than those of the ocean. It is surrounded by the serramasy or lofty chains of mountains, which shelter it from all winds excepting that of the n. e. which, blowing on it as it were through a straitened and narrow passage, it accustomed to cause a swell, especially from 10

m the morning until five in the evening, after which all becomes calm. Under the above circumstances, the larger vessels ply to windward ; and if the wind be very strong, they come to an anchor ou the one or other coast, and wait till the evening, when the land breezes spring up from the s. e. In this gulf there are some good ports and bays, viz. the lake of Obispo, of Juanantar, of Gurintar, and others.

Cariaco, a river of the same province and government, taking its rise from many streams and rivulets which rise in the serrania, and unite be. fore they flow into the valley of the same Uame. After it has run some distance over the plain, it is cut off' to water some cacao plantations, and then empties itself into the sea through the former gulf. In the winter great part of the capital, which is situate upon its banks, is inundated, and the river is tlien navigated by small barks or barges ; but in the summer it becomes so dry that there is scarcely water sufficient to nqvigate a canoe.

Cariaco, a small city of the same province, situate on the shore of the gulf. [This city (according to Depons) bears, in the official papers and in the courts of justice, the name of San Felipe de Austria. The population is only 6500, but every one makes such a good use of his time as to banish misery from the place. The production most natural to the soil is cotton, the beauty of which is superior to that of all Tierra Firme. This place alone furnishes annually more than 3000 quintals ; and besides cacao they grow a little sugar. Lat. 10° SO' n. Long. 63° 39' w.

(CARIACOU is the ehief of the small isles dependent on Granada island in the West Indies; situate four leagues from isle Rhonde, which is a like distance from the «. end of Granada. It contains 6913 acres of fertile and well cultivated land, producing about 1,000,000 lbs. of cotton, besides corn, yams, potatoes, and plaintains for the Negroes. It has two singular plantations, and a town called Hillsborough.)

CARIAMANGA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito.

CARIATAPA, a settlement which belonged to the missions of the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province of Topia and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate in the middle of the sierra of this name, and on the shore of the river Piastla.

CARIBABARE, a small settlement which belonged to the missions of the regular order of ths Jesuits, in the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos of the new kingdom of Granada.

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shore of the river Maranon, near the port of Curupa.

CAUIANA, an island of the N. sea; situate in the middle of the mouth of the large river Marañon.

CAUIJA, a lake of the province and government of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia. It is n. of that of Ipava, from whence, according to some, the river Orinoco takes its rise.

CAUINAS, an ancient and barbarous nation of the province of Charcas in Peru, which was bounded by the nation of the Canches ; here was a superb palace belonging to the Incas, built upon the top of an high mountain, the remains of which are yet to be seen near the settlement of Urcos, and those of Querquesana and Quiquijana, these being about nine miles distant from the aforesaid palace.

CAUIUSARI, a river of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises in the mountains of the country of the Guames Indians, runs e. for many leagues, and enters the Apure,

CAUJUL, a settlement of the province and corregimienio of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Andajes.

CAUMARES, a barbarous nation inhabitingthe woods which lie upon the banks of the river Maranon towards the n. Some of them were reduced to the faith by the missionaries of the extinguished company of Jesuits of the province of Mainas, and formed part of the population of the settlement of San Ignacio de Pevas.

CAUN, a settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of the Jesuits, in the province of Cinaloa.

CAUO, or Couvo, a river of the province and government of Guayana. It runs towards the e. and enters the sea, at the distance of leagues from the mouth of the river Aprovaca : its banks on the e. side are inhabited by some barbarous Indians of the Yaus nation.

CAUOS, a barbarous nation of Indians who in-habit the woods to the w. of the river Putumayo. They are thought to be a branch or tribe of the Abives, and are but little known.

CAUQUE, a settlement of the kingdom and presidency of Guatemala.

CAUQUENES, a river of the kingdom and government of Chile. It rises in the mountains of its cordillera, and enters the Maule.

CAUQUICURA, an ancient and large province of the kingdom of Peru, to the s. of Cuzco. It was conquered and united to the monarchy by Mayta Capac, fourth Emperor.

CAUQUIS, a nation of Indians of the kingdom of Chile, and one of the most warlike and valorous, who resisted and put a check to the conquests of Yupanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, obliging liim to retreat with his army to Coqnimbo.

CAURA, a large and copious river of the province of Guayana, and government of Cumana. It rises in some very lofty sierras, and its shores are inhabited by many Indiatis, wlio retreat hither when pursued by the Caribes, who are accustonicd to kill the adults, and to ko('p as prisoners tlie women and children, iit order to sell them to the Dutch. This river is the largest of the kingdom of Tierra Firme ever discovered since that of the Orinoco. It runs 60 leagues before it enters into this latter river, through chains of rocks, which so impede its navigation as to render it unsafe for any but very small craft. On its shores are two forts, one at tlie mouth, where it enters the Orinoco ; and the other at its mid-course. The Maranon and the Orinoco also communicate with it by an arm which is very considerable, and is called the Rio Negro.

Caura, a settlement of the jurisdiction of the town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra.nada.

CAURANTA, a settlement of the province and government of Cumaná ; situate on the coast and at the point of Paria.

CAURE, a small river of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises opposite that city, towards the s. and then enters the Ariari.

CAURI, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Cayna.

CAURIMPO, a settlement of the province and government of Cinaloa ; situate between the forts Rio and Mayo. It is n reduccion of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits.

CAUSAN, a river of the ])rovince and colony of Georgia, is the same as that of the name of Combahi. It runs till it enters the sea.

CAUTE, a small river of the island of Cuba, Which runs rw. and enters the sea.

CAUTEN, a large river of the kingdom of Chile, in the district and province of Repocura. It rises in the district of Maquegua, runs continually from e. to vs. collecting the waiters of many other rivers, in such a gentle and mild course, that it has also acquired the name of Las Damns. It passes before the Ciudad Imperial, and enters the S. sea. It is 500 toises broad at its mouth, and of sufficient depth to admit of a ship of the line ; at

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Las Mercedes, and an hospital for women. It contains more than 2000 inhabitants, and amongst these many illustrious families, descended from the first conquerors. The Indians here are accounted the most industrious of any in the kingdom. The leinperaturc is mild, and it abounds in fruits and pastures : here arc also mines of various metals. Here it was that Atahualpa was put to death by the Spanish, being the last Inca and Emperor of Peru ; and there is still to be seen a stone, of a yard and an half long and two-thirds wide, which serves as the foundation to the altar of the chapel where he met his fate. Of this palace, which was for the most part built of mud, but which was very large, and was afterwards converted into the prison, the chapel, and house of the corregidor, called De Cahildo, nothing has been left save a piece of wall of about 12 yards long and eight wide. It has not long been forgotten to what point the Emperor waved Ins hand,' to signify where his pursuers might find the treasure which might secure to him hisliberty. At a league’s distance, to the e. of the city, arc seen the termas, or baths, as they are called, of the Inca ; the waters of which are not so plentiful as they were formerly, although so hot as to boil an egg ; but the egg, although it appears completely done, will, if put on a common fire to boil, take just as much time as an egg which is perfectly cold ; if kept a day or more it breaks, and the smell and flavour of h, when eaten, is like mud ; but if it be not eaten until it be cold, then its flavour is similar to that of any other egg* On the banks of the stream from whence these waters flow, and in the pools formed by them, there is found a multitude of animalcule, which looked at through a microscope appear like shrimps. Lat. 6° 54' 5.

CAXAMARQUILLA y Collaos, a province and corregimiento of Peru, called also Patáz ; bounded e. by the mountains of the infidel Indians, n.e. and n. by the province of Chachapoyas, ti.zo. by that of Caxarnarca, the river Marailon flowing between the two, w. by part of the province of Conchucos, and s. by that of Iluaimalies. It is 26 leagues long from ?^. to s. and six wide, where it extends itself farthest along the e. shore of the river Maranon, Avhich divides this province from those of Conchucos and Huamachuco. Its temperature is various ; in the hollows and uneven I'laces it is mild ; in the parts lying upon the above river it is hot, and in the very lofty parts it is cold. The territory is rugged and uneven, and a level spot of ground, or Uarmra, is scarcely to be seen throughout the w'hole. On the e. side it is as it were walled in by vejy

lofty and craggy mountains, increasing in height until they gradually reach the loftiest summit: but these are the provident sources of streams which flow down from them into the Maranon, and which, together with the rains, fertilize several spots of kind, producing maize, wheat, potatoes, ocas, bark, French beans, herbs, and sugar-cane, for the working of which there are mills on the spot. Every kind of cattle is found here in moderation, and the Maranon abounds in fish. Almost all the mountains of this province have in them veins of silver and gold ore : but these are very deceitful, and as well upon this account as from the want of hands, they are for the most part abandoned. The gold mines, however, have always been worked, though the silver mines not more than 20 years back up to now, in which time some riches have been discovered ; and even at the present day the gold mines would produce 600 marks, and those of silver 3000. The trade of the mines is certainly the principal commerce of the place, and it is facilitated by four ports in the Maranon, which afford a convenient opening and communication with the other provinces. The inhabitants of this place scarcely amount to 8000, who live in 17 settlements. Its repartimiento used to amount to 50,000 dollars, and its alca'oala to 400 dollars per annum.

The settlements are,

Caxaraarquilla, the capital,

Bambamarca,

Cundarmarca,

Caleman,

Asiento de Sarumilla,

Chiiia,

Santa Isabel de Pias,

Quero,

Buldibuyo,

Santa Magda lea de Huayo, Pataz,

La Soledad, Porcos,

Challas,

Tayabamba,

Uchos,

Uchumarca.

The settlement, the capital of this province, is of the same name. Lat. 7° 36' s.

Caxamarquilla, another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru.

Caxamarquilla, another, with the surname of Gongor, in the same province and corregimiento as the former ; and thus called to distinguish it, being annexed to the cuacy of Gongor.

CAXAMARQUILLA, another, of the province and corregimiento of Huailas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Pampas.

Caxamarquilla, another, of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in the same king-

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Luis de Cabrera, to make an cfl’ecliial discovery of this nation, but he did not succeed. In 1662 the innermost part of this country was penetrated by Fatlier Geronimo Montemayor, of the extinguished company of Jesuits. He discovered a nation of Indians, whose manners corresponded with this ; but he did not succeed in establishing missions, for want of labourers, and from other obstacles which arose.

CEUADAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom of Quito. On its n. side is a large estate called Zeogun.

Ceuadas, a very abundant river of the same province and kingdom, from which the above settlement borrowed its title. It rises from the lake of Coraycocha, Avhich is in the desert mountain or "pararno of Tioloma. It runs n. and passing by the former settlement, becomes united witli another river, formed by two streams flowing down fronrthe paramo of Lalangiiso, and from the waste waters of the lake Colta ; it then passes through the settlement of Pungala, its course inclining slightly to the e. and at a league’s distance from the settlement of Puni, is entered by the Riobamba near the Cubigies, another river which flows down from the mountain of Chimborazo, and following its course to the«. for some distance, turns to the c.as soon as it reaches the w. of the mountain of Tungaragua, and at last empties itself into the Maranon ; rvhen it passes through the settlement of Penipe, it flows in so large a body that it can be passed only by means of a bridge, which is built there of reeds ; and before it reaches the ba/ios or baths, it collects the Avaters of the Tacunga, Ambato, and other rivers, Avhich flowing doAvn from the one and the other cordillera, have their rise in the s. summit of Eiinisa, and in the s. part of Ruminambi and Cotopasci.

CEUALLOS, Morro de los, an island of the river Taquari, formed by this dividing itself into two arms to enter the river Paraguay, in the province and government of this name.

CEUICO, a small river of the island of St. Domingo. It rises in the mountains of the e. head, runs n. n. e. and enters the grand river Juna, a little before it runs into the sea.

CHABACONDE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Callahuas in Peru.

(CHABAQUIDDICK Isle belongs to Duke’s county, Massachusetts. It lies near to, and extends across the e. end of Martha’s Vineyard island.)

CHABIN, a river of the province and corregimiento of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile. It

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runs from w. to e. being navigable by small vessels till it enters the S. sea.

CHABUCO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile.

CHACAIAM, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru.

CHACAICO, a settlement of Indians of the island of Laxa in the kingdom of Chile ; situate at the source and on the shore of the river Renayco.

CHACALTANGUIS, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, is of a moist temperature, and situate on the shore of the large river Alvarado. It contains seven families of Spaniards, 18 of Mulattoes and Negroes, and 75 of Popolucos Indians. Within its district are 19 engines or mills for making refined sugar ; and its territory produces maize and cotton in abundance ; is three leagues to the e. of its capital.

CHACALTONGO , Natividad de, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula, is of a cold temperature, and surrounded by eight wards within its district ; in all of which there are 160 families of Indians, who cultivate much maize and wheat ; is seven leagues between the e. and s. of its capital.

CHACANORA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in the same kingdom.

CHACAO, a city of the island of Chiloe in the kingdom of Chile. It is the residence of the governor, is garrisoned with a small guard, and has the best port in the island. Lat. 41° 50' s.

CHACAPA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Challana.

Chacapa, another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chicas and Tarija, in the district of the former ; annexed to the curacy of Tupisa.

CHACAPALAPA, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Ygualapa in Nueva Espana, is three leagues to the n. of that place.

CHACAPALPA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Guarochiri in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Santa Olaya.

(CHACAPOYAS. See Chachapoyas.)

CHACARACUIAN, a settlement of the proprovince and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate in the middle of the serrania of that province. It is under the care of the Catalanian Capuchin fathers ; and, according to Cruz, on the coast of the sea of Paria.

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