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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success : the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.

ABISMES, Quartel des, that part or division of the island of Guadaloupe which looks to the NE. It takes its name from its having some creeks, or inlets, which serve as places of shelter for vessels, in case of invasion either from enemies or from hurricanes. Here they ride quite safe, for the bottom is very good ; and being made fast to the strong palm-trees which abound here, they stand in no need of being anchored, which would be inconvenient, and attended with risk, on account of the thick roots thrown out by the above trees. Further on is a small island called Des Cochons, where an engineer, of the name of Renau, endeavoured, without success, in 1700, to build a fort, for the sake of securing the harbour, which is a good one.

ABITANIS, a mountain of the province and corregimiento of Lipes in Peru. In the Quechuan tongue it signifies the ore of gold, from a celebrated mine which is at present nearly abandoned, from the want of workmen. It is nearly contiguous to the settlement of Colcha.

ABITIBBI, a small lake in Upper Canada, on the S side of which is a settlement called Frederick, which last lies in N lat. 48° 35'. W long. 82°. Also the name of a river which runs N and joins Moose river near its mouth at James's bay.

ABITIBIS, a lake of the country of Hudson, in the territory of the Indians of this name. This lake is N of Nipissing lake, the NE boundary of Canada, in New South Wales: it has communication with James's bay, near Moose fort. Lat. 48° 39' N Long. 79° 2' W.

ABITIGAS, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It is very numerous and warlike ; and they live a wandering life in the woods. It is 60 leagues to the E of the mountains of the Andes; bounded on the S, by the Ipillos Indians.

ABORROEN, a port of the coast of Brasil, in the province and capitainship of Seara, between the river Escorgogive and the bay of Inobu.

ABRA, an island of the straits of Magellan, at the entrance of the third and last narrow pass, called the Passage.

[ABRAM'S CREEK, falls into Hudson's river, near the city of Hudson.]

ABREOLHOS, on the coast of Brasil, and of the province and capitainship of Espiritu Santo, between the rivers Percipe and Quororupa, in S lat. 18° 19' 30". W long. 39° 5 1° 30". Here are some hidden rocks, or sandbanks, extremely dangerous ; and although there are various navigable channels, it requires the utmost caution to avoid shipwreck, this having been the lot of an infinite number of vessels. These sandbanks are more than 20 leagues distant from the continent, and extend themselves upwards of five leagues to the E of the Island of Tuego. Their situation, taken in the the centre, is in 170° 51' 20" S lat. W long. 39° 18'.

[ABROJOS, a bank, with several small rocks and isles, E of Turk's island, in N lat. 21° 5'. W long. 70° 40'. Between this bank and Turk's Island is a deep channel, for ships of any burden, three leagues wide.]

Abrojos, a shoal of the N. sea. See the article Panuela Quadrado.

ABSECON, Beach, on the coast of New Jersey, 16 miles SW from Little Egg harbour.

ABUCARA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru, in a valley of the same name. It was anciently the capital of this province, and had the same denomination. At present it is much reduced, the corregidor having left it to establish himself in Lucanas. Lat. 15° 33' S Long. 73° 28' W

ABUCEES, S. Joseph de los, a settlement of the missions of the Sucumbios Indians, who were founded by, and maintained at the expence of, the abolished order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Quixos and Macas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of a small river, which enters the Putumayo. Lat. 0° 36' N Long. 75° 22' W.

ABURRA, S. Bartolomé de, a town of the province and government of Antioquia, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, founded in 1542, by the Marshal George Robledo, in a fertile and extensive valley of the same name, which was discovered in 1540 by Captain Geronimo Luis Texelo. It abounds in all kinds of fruits, seeds, and vegetables, and is of a hot temperature. In its district are found many huacas, or sepulchres of the Indians, in which great riches are deposited. It has now so much fallen to decay, that it is no more than a miserable hamlet. In its vicinity are some streams of salt water, from which the Indians procure salt for their use. Lat. 5° 51' 30" N Long. 75° 17' W ACA, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlaxclala, in Nueva España.

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Of Guadalupe, between the Three Rive*‘s and the Agujero del Ferro.

Carbet Point, on the s. coast of lake Superior, in New France, opposite the island of Philipeaux.

Carbet, a river of the island of Guadalupe, which tuns nearly e. and enters the sea between the Grande and the Orange.

CARBON, Island of, situate in the middle of a lake on the coast of the province and government of Buenos Ayres.

Carbon, Monte de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Puchacay in the kingdom of Chile; situate upon the coast and on the shore of the bay of Culumo, near the mouth of the river Biobio.

CARBONIERE, a settlement of the island of Newfoundland, situate on the e. coast, on the shore of the bay of Concepcion.

CARCAI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Soras. It has a hot spring of water of very medicinal properties, and its heat is so great that an egg may be boiled in it in an instant.

CARCARANAL, a river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It rises in the province of Tucuman, in the mountains of the city of Cordoba, runs nearly from e. torw. with the name of Tercero, and changing it into Carcaraiial, after it becomes united Avith the Saladillo, joins the Plata, and enters the Salado and the Tres Hecmanas.

CARCAZI, a settlement of the government and Jurisdiction of Pamplona in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, situate betAveen two mountains, which cause its temperature to be very moderate. It produces much Avheatand maize ; in its cold parts such fruits as are peculiar to that climate, and in the milder parts sugar-cane. Its neighbourhood abounds Avith flocks of goats ; and the number of inhabitants may amount to about 200 Spaniards and 30 Indians. It is situate on the confines Avhich divide the jurisdictions of Tunja and Pamplona.

CARCHIPOR, a river of the province and government of Cayenne in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains of the same province, and runs into the sea on the side of cape Ora nge.

(CARDIGAN, about 20 miles e. of Dartmouth college, New Hampshire. The township of Orange once bore this name, which see.)

CARDIN, a settlement of the province of Venezuela and government of Maracaibo, situate on the shore of the coast, in the interior of the gulf formed by the peninsula of cape San Roman.

CARDINALES, Sombreros de. See article Pitangoas.

CARDOSO, Real de, a settlement and real of gold mines in the province and captainship of Todos Santos in Brazil; situate on the shore of the large river of San Francisco, to the n. of the village of Tapuyas.

CAREHANEU, a small river of Pennsylvania, which runs w. and enters the Ohio.

CAREN, a valley or meadow-land of the kingdom of Chile, renowned for its pleasantness, beauty, and extent, being five leagues in length; also for a fountain of very delicate and salutary water, which, penetrating to the soil in these parts, renders them so exceedingly porous, that a person treading somewhat heavily seems to shake the ground under him. There is an herb found here that keeps green all the year round: it is small, resembling trefoil, and the natives call it caren: it is of a very agreeable taste, and gives its name to the valley.

CARENERO, a bay of the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme in the province and government of Venezuela. It is extremely convenient for careening and repairing ships, and from this circumstance it takes its name. It lies behind cape Codera towards the e.

CARET, Anse be, a bay of the island of St. Christopher, one of the Antilles, on the n. e. coast, and in the part possessed by the French before they ceded the island to the Englissh. It is between the bays of Fontaine and Morne, or Fuente and Morro.

=CARETI, a river of the province and government of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the n. mountains, and enters the sea ia the bay of Mandinga.

CAREU, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the district of the parish of Christchurch.

CARGONACHO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Philpichaca.

CARGUAIRASO, a lofty mountain and volcano of the province and corregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom of Quito. It is in the district of the asiento of Ambato, covered with snow the whole year round. Its skirts are covered with fine crops of excellent barley. In 1698 this province was visited by a terrible earthquake, which opened the mountain and let in a river of mud, formed by the snows which were melted by the fire of the volcano, and by the ashes it threw up. So dreadful were the effects of this revolution that the whole of the crops were completely spoiled ; and it was in vain that the cattle endeavoured to-

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escape the destruction which followed them whereever they fled. Still are the vestiges of this calamity to be seen, and there are large quantities of this mud or lava, now become hard, scattered on the s. side of the settlement.

CARHUA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of its capital.

CARHUACAIAN, a settlement of the same province and corregimiento as the former ; annexed to the curacy of Pomacocha.

CARHUACALLANGA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Jauja in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chongos.

CARHUACUCHO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Laramate.

CARHUAMAIO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru.

CARHUAPAMPA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Lorenzo de Quinti.

Carhuapampa, another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cajatambo in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Hacas.

CARHUAZ, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huailas in Peru.

CARI, a river of the province and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the Mesa (Table-land) de Guanipa, and runs s. being navigable to the centre of the province, and enters the Orinoco near the narrow part.

Cari, a settlement of the same province; one of those under the care of the religious order of S. Francisco, missionaries of Piritu. It is situate on the shore of the former river.

CARIAI, a small river of the country of the Amazonas, in the part possessed by the Portuguese. It is by no means a considerable stream, runs n. and enters the Xingu.

CARIACO, a large gulf of the coast of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Curnana. It is also called, Of Curnana, from this -capital being built upon its shores. The bajr runs 10 or 12 leagues from w. to c. and is one league toroad at its widest part. It is from 80 to 100 fathoms deep, and the waters are so quiet as to resemble rather the waters of a lake than those of the ocean. It is surrounded by the serramasy or lofty chains of mountains, which shelter it from all winds excepting that of the n. e. which, blowing on it as it were through a straitened and narrow passage, it accustomed to cause a swell, especially from 10

m the morning until five in the evening, after which all becomes calm. Under the above circumstances, the larger vessels ply to windward ; and if the wind be very strong, they come to an anchor ou the one or other coast, and wait till the evening, when the land breezes spring up from the s. e. In this gulf there are some good ports and bays, viz. the lake of Obispo, of Juanantar, of Gurintar, and others.

Cariaco, a river of the same province and government, taking its rise from many streams and rivulets which rise in the serrania, and unite be. fore they flow into the valley of the same Uame. After it has run some distance over the plain, it is cut off' to water some cacao plantations, and then empties itself into the sea through the former gulf. In the winter great part of the capital, which is situate upon its banks, is inundated, and the river is tlien navigated by small barks or barges ; but in the summer it becomes so dry that there is scarcely water sufficient to nqvigate a canoe.

Cariaco, a small city of the same province, situate on the shore of the gulf. [This city (according to Depons) bears, in the official papers and in the courts of justice, the name of San Felipe de Austria. The population is only 6500, but every one makes such a good use of his time as to banish misery from the place. The production most natural to the soil is cotton, the beauty of which is superior to that of all Tierra Firme. This place alone furnishes annually more than 3000 quintals ; and besides cacao they grow a little sugar. Lat. 10° SO' n. Long. 63° 39' w.

(CARIACOU is the ehief of the small isles dependent on Granada island in the West Indies; situate four leagues from isle Rhonde, which is a like distance from the «. end of Granada. It contains 6913 acres of fertile and well cultivated land, producing about 1,000,000 lbs. of cotton, besides corn, yams, potatoes, and plaintains for the Negroes. It has two singular plantations, and a town called Hillsborough.)

CARIAMANGA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito.

CARIATAPA, a settlement which belonged to the missions of the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province of Topia and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate in the middle of the sierra of this name, and on the shore of the river Piastla.

CARIBABARE, a small settlement which belonged to the missions of the regular order of ths Jesuits, in the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos of the new kingdom of Granada.

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CHACOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Huariaca.

CHACOTA,a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Aricá in Peru ; situate close to the Quebada de Victor.

CHACRALLA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Abucara.

CHACRAPAMPA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Huayama.

CHACTAHATCHE, a river of S. Carolina, which runs s. and enters the Chicachas.

CHACTAW, a settlement and capital of the Indian district of this name in Louisiana, in which the French had a fort and establishment. (The Chactaws, or Flat-heads, are a powerful, hardy, subtle, and intrepid race of Indians, "vpho inhabit a very fine and extensive tract of hilly country, with large and fertile plains intervening, between the Alabama and Mississippi rivers, and in the w. part of the state of Georgia. This natioti had, not many years ago, 43 towns and villages, in three divisions, containing 12,123 souls, of which 4041 were fighting men. They are called by the traders Flat-heads, all the males having the fore and hind part of their skulls artificially flattened when young. These men, unlike the Muscogulges, are slovenly and negligent in every part of their dress, but otherwise are said to be ingenious, sensible, and virtuous men, bold and intrepid, yet quiet and peaceable. Some late travellers, however, have observed that they pay little attention to the most necessary rules of moral conduct, at least that unnatural crimes were too frequent among them. Dift'erent from most of the Indian nations bordering on the United States, they have large plantations or country farms, where they employ much of their time in agricultural improvements, after the manner of the Avhite people. Although their territories are not one-fburth so large as those of the Muscogulge confedraey, the number of inhabitants is greater. The Chactaws and Creeks are inveterate enemies* to each other. There are a considerable number of these Indians on the w. side of the Mississippi, who have not been home for several years. A bout 12 miles above the post at Oachcta on that river, there is a small village of them of about 30 men, who have lived there for several years, and made corn ; and likewise on Bayau Chico, in the n. part of the district of Appalousa, there is another village of them of about fifty men, who have been there for about nine years, and say they have the governor of

Louisiana’s permission to settle there. Besides these, there are rambling hunting parties of them to be met with all over Lower Louisiana. They are at war with the Caddoques, and liked by . neither red nor white people.)

(Chactaw Hills, in the n. w. corner of Georgia river.)

(CHACTOOS, Indians of N. America, who live on Bayau Boeuf, about 10 miles to the s. of Bayau Rapide, on Red river, towards Appalousa ; a small, honest people ; are aborigines of the country where they live; of men about 30 ; diminishing; have their own peculiar tongue; speak Mobilian. The lands they claim on Bayau Bceuf are inferior to no part of Louisiana in depth and richness of soil, growth of timber, pleasantness of surface, and goodness of water.. The Bayau Bceuf falls into the Chaffeli, and discharges through Appalousa and Attakapa into Vermilion bay.)

CHACURIES, a settlement of the jurisdiction of the city of Pedraga, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of the missions which were held there of the order of St. Domingo. It is but small, and its climate is hot.

(CHADBOURNE’S River, district of Maine, called by some Great Works river, about 30 miles from the mouth of the Bonnebeag pond, from which it flows. It is said to have taken its latter name from a mill with 18 saws, moved by one wheel, erected by one Lodors. But the project was soon laid aside. The former name is derived from Mr. Chadbourne, one of the first settlers,, who purchased the land on the mouth of it, of the natives, and whose posterity possess it at this day.)

CHAGONAMIGON, a point on the s. coast of lake Superior, in New France.

CHAGRE, a large and navigable river of the province and government of Panamá in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, has its origin and source in the mountains near the valley of Pacora, and takes its course in various directions, making many windings, which are called randa/es, until it enters the N. sea. It is navigated by large vessels called chatas, (having no keels), up as far as the settlement of Cruces, where is the wharf for unlading, and the royal custom-houses ; the greater part of the commerce being conducted by this means, to avoid the obstacles occurring from a bad and rocky road from Portobeloto Panama. It has different forts for the defence of its entrance ; the first is the castle of its name, at the entrance or mouth ; the second is that of Gatun, situate upon a long strip of land formed by a river of this name ; and the third is that of Trinidad, situate in a simb

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