The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success : the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.
ABISMES, Quartel des, that part or division of the island of Guadaloupe which looks to the NE. It takes its name from its having some creeks, or inlets, which serve as places of shelter for vessels, in case of invasion either from enemies or from hurricanes. Here they ride quite safe, for the bottom is very good ; and being made fast to the strong palm-trees which abound here, they stand in no need of being anchored, which would be inconvenient, and attended with risk, on account of the thick roots thrown out by the above trees. Further on is a small island called Des Cochons, where an engineer, of the name of Renau, endeavoured, without success, in 1700, to build a fort, for the sake of securing the harbour, which is a good one.
ABITANIS, a mountain of the province and corregimiento of Lipes in Peru. In the Quechuan tongue it signifies the ore of gold, from a celebrated mine which is at present nearly abandoned, from the want of workmen. It is nearly contiguous to the settlement of Colcha.
ABITIBBI, a small lake in Upper Canada, on the S side of which is a settlement called Frederick, which last lies in N lat. 48° 35'. W long. 82°. Also the name of a river which runs N and joins Moose river near its mouth at James's bay.
ABITIBIS, a lake of the country of Hudson, in the territory of the Indians of this name. This lake is N of Nipissing lake, the NE boundary of Canada, in New South Wales: it has communication with James's bay, near Moose fort. Lat. 48° 39' N Long. 79° 2' W.
ABITIGAS, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru. It is very numerous and warlike ; and they live a wandering life in the woods. It is 60 leagues to the E of the mountains of the Andes; bounded on the S, by the Ipillos Indians.
ABREOLHOS, on the coast of Brasil, and of the province and capitainship of Espiritu Santo, between the rivers Percipe and Quororupa, in S lat. 18° 19' 30". W long. 39° 5 1° 30". Here are some hidden rocks, or sandbanks, extremely dangerous ; and although there are various navigable channels, it requires the utmost caution to avoid shipwreck, this having been the lot of an infinite number of vessels. These sandbanks are more than 20 leagues distant from the continent, and extend themselves upwards of five leagues to the E of the Island of Tuego. Their situation, taken in the the centre, is in 170° 51' 20" S lat. W long. 39° 18'.
[ABROJOS, a bank, with several small rocks and isles, E of Turk's island, in N lat. 21° 5'. W long. 70° 40'. Between this bank and Turk's Island is a deep channel, for ships of any burden, three leagues wide.]
ABUCARA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru, in a valley of the same name. It was anciently the capital of this province, and had the same denomination. At present it is much reduced, the corregidor having left it to establish himself in Lucanas. Lat. 15° 33' S Long. 73° 28' W
ABUCEES, S. Joseph de los, a settlement of the missions of the Sucumbios Indians, who were founded by, and maintained at the expence of, the abolished order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Quixos and Macas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of a small river, which enters the Putumayo. Lat. 0° 36' N Long. 75° 22' W.
ABURRA, S. Bartolomé de, a town of the province and government of Antioquia, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, founded in 1542, by the Marshal George Robledo, in a fertile and extensive valley of the same name, which was discovered in 1540 by Captain Geronimo Luis Texelo. It abounds in all kinds of fruits, seeds, and vegetables, and is of a hot temperature. In its district are found many huacas, or sepulchres of the Indians, in which great riches are deposited. It has now so much fallen to decay, that it is no more than a miserable hamlet. In its vicinity are some streams of salt water, from which the Indians procure salt for their use. Lat. 5° 51' 30" N Long. 75° 17' W ACA, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlaxclala, in Nueva España.
mules, poultry, cheese, and salt meats. It haslikewise some mines in its district, which are notaltogetlier neglected, though the advantages de-rived from them would be immensely increased, ifthe number of labourers were greater. It is go-verned by a lieutenant nominated by the governorof Santiago de Veragua. [Lat. 8° 12' n. Long.80“ 40' a;.l
ALAQUINES, a branch of the head settle-ment of the district of Tamazunchale, and alcaldiamayor of Valles, in Nueva España, situate on theshore of a large river which divides this jurisdic-tion from that of Guadalcazar.
[ALASKE, a long peninsula on the n. w. coastof America, formed by Bristol bay and the oceanon the n. w. and n. and by the ocean and thewaters of Cook’s river on the s. and s. e. At itsextremity are a number of islands, the chief ofwhich, in their order westward, are, Oonemak,Oonala.sha, and Ocumnak, which form part ofthe chain or cluster of islands called the NorthernArchipelago. Captain Cook, on his return in1779, passed through the channel e. of Oonemakisland. See North-avest Coast of America.]
ALATAMALIA, a large river of the provinceand government of Florida. It runs nearly duee. and enters the sea opposite the Georgean isles.[This river, Avliich is navigable, is more properlyof Georgia. It rises in the Cherokee mountains,near the head of a western branch of Savannahriver, called Tugulo. In its descent through themountains it receives several auxiliary streams ;thence it Avinds, with considerable rapidity,through the hilly country 250 miles, from Avhcnceit throAvs itself into the open flat country, by thename of Oakmulgee. Thence, after meanderingfor 150 miles, it is joined by the Oconee, whichlikewise has its source in the mountains. Afterthis junction it assumes the name of Alatamalia,Avhen it becomes a large majestic river ; and flow'-ing Avith a gentle current through forests andplains 100 miles, discharges itself into the Atlan-tic by several mouths. The n. channel glides bythe heights of Darien, about 10 miles above thebar, and after several turnings, enters the oceanbetween Sapelo and Wolf islands. The s. chan-nel, which is esteemed the largest and deepest.
after its separation from the >?. descends gently,,taking its course between MDntosh and Brough-ton islands, and at last by the w. coast of St.Simon’s sound, betAveen the s. end of the islandof that name, and the n. end of Jeky! island.At its confluence with the Atlantic it is 500 yardsAvide.]
ALAUSI, a province and small corregimientoor district of the kingdom of Quito ; bounded «. bythe province of Riobamba, n. w. by Chimbo, s.by Cuenca, w. by the district of Yaguache, ande. by that of Macas. It is Avatered by the riversUzogoche, Gussuntos, Pinancay, Alausi, andothers of less note. It abounds in mountains, themost lofty of Avhich are tOAvard the©.; the countryis pleasant, and yields liberally every kijid offruit and grain that are common either to Americaor Europe. It contains many sugar mills, andthe sugar is the best intlie kingdom. The air hereis mild and healthy, and the climate cannot be saidto be inconveniently hot. It is governed by thecorregidor, who resides in the capital.
Alausi, the capital of the above province. Ithas in its district some mineral fountains of hotwater, established with suitable conveniences bysome families of consideration residing there. Itstrade consists in cloths, baizes, and cotton gar-ments, Avhich are wrought in its manufactories.It has a very good parish church, and a conventof the order of St. Francis. [Lat. 2“ 12' «.Long. 78° 39' ©.]
ALBANIA, or Albany, a county of the pro-vince and colony of New York. It contains acertain number of plains fertile in grain, in AA'hich,and in planks of pine, its principal commerce con-sists. The Avinter is extremely cold, and the riverHudson is generally frozen for 100 miles, so a*to bear immense burthens. The gveat cpiautityof snow that falls at this season is useful, not onlybecause it covers the grain, and keeps it from perishing by the frost, but because, when it melts, itso increases the waters of the river, as to facilitatethereby the transportation of the productions ofthe country.
[Albany County Lies Between Ulster AndSaratoga ; Its Extent 46 Miles By 28|ALBANY County lies between Ulster andSaratoga ; its extent 46 miles by 28. By thestate census, .fan. 20, 1796, the number of elec-tors in this county were 6087, and the number oftowns 11.]
and government of Neyba in the kingdom of Gra-nada. It rises in the paramo or mountain desertofQuindiu, traverses and waters the valleys ofLas Lanzas, and unites itself witli that of SanJuan, taking the name of Coello, from a Spaniardof this name having been drowned in it. It thenenters the Magdalena.
COMBINCUMA, a spacious, and but littleknown country of the kingdom of Quito. It isfull of woods, in which there are many wild beastsand snakes of various kinds, and it is watered bymany rivers, all of which enter the s. side of theMaranon. Amongst the various nations whichinhabit it is that of the Tontones.
COMBITA, a settlement of the province andcorregirniento oi Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a cold temperature, and pro-duces the fruits corresponding with its climate.It contains 100 house-keepers, and as many otherIndians, and is two leagues to the n. zo. of itscapital.
(COMFORT Point is the s. easternmost partof Elizabeth City county in Virginia, formed byJames river at its mouth in Chesapeak bay. PointComfort lies 19 miles w. by n. of cape Henry.]Comfort Point, another point, which is also
of the same coast and province as the former, andwithin that bay, being one of the points which formthe entrance of the river York.
COMICHIGELES, Sierra de, in the pro-vince and government of Tucumán, and boundedby the sierra of Cuyo, in the kingdom of Chile. Itruns from 5. s. e. on the shore of the Concara, andin fact follows the course of that river.
COMO-LEWU, or Rio de los Sauces, call-ed also Gran Desaguadero. See Sauces.
COMONDU, San Joseph de, a settlementof the missions which were held by the regularsof the company of Jesuits in the province of Ca-lifornia ; situate near the sea-coast, between thesettlements of La Concepcion and San FranciscoXavier.
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moiily called Acklin’s island), and Long Kej, (orFortune island), are tlie principal, Castle island(a very small one) is the most s. and is situated atthe s. end of Acklin’s island, which is the largestof the group, and extends about 50 miles in length ;atthew. extremity it is seven miles in breadth,but grows narrow towards the s. N. Crookedisland is upwards of 20 miles long, and from two tosix broad; Long Key, about two miles in length,l)ut very narrow : on this latter island is a valuablesalt pond. Near Bird rock, which is the mostw, extremity of the group, and at the w. point ofN. Crooked island, is a reef harbour, and a goodanchorage ; a settlement has been lately establishedthere, called Pitt’s Town, and this is the placewhere the Jamaica packet, on her return to Eu-rope through the Crooked island passage, leavesonce every month the Bahama mail from England,and takes on board the mail for Europe ; a port ofentry is now established there. There is likewisevery good anchorage, and plenty of fresh water atthe French w'ells, which lie at the bottom of thebay, about half-way between Bird rock and thes.end of Long Key. There is also a good harbour,(called Atwood’s harbour) at the w. end of Acklin’sisland, but fit only for small vessels, and anotherat Major’s Keys, on the n. side of N, Crookedisland, for vessels drawing eight or nine feet water.The population in ISOtf amounted to about 40whites, and 950 Negroes, men, women, andchildren; and previous to May 1803, lands weregranted by the crown, (o the amount oi 24,2 18 acres,for the purpose of cultivation. The middle of theisland lies in lat. 22^ 30' «. ; long. 74° tii). SeeBahamas.)
(Crooked Lake, one of tlie chain of small lakeswhich connects the lake of tiie Woods with lakeSuperior, on the boundary line between the UnitedStates and Upper Canada, remarkable for its rug-ged cliff, in the cxacks of which are a number ofarrow's sticking.)
(Cross-Creeks. See Fayettevilee.)
Sampson court-house, and 23 from S. Washing-ton.)
(Cross-Roads, a village in Chester county,Pennsylvania, where six ditferent roads meet. Itis 27 miles s. e. of Lancaster, 11 n. by w. of Elk-ton in Maryland, and about 18 w.n.w. of Wil-mington iu Delaware.)
(CROSSWICKS, a village in Burlingtoncounty, New Jersey; through which the line ofstages passes from New York to Philadelphia.It has a respectable Quaker meeting-house, fourmiles 5. ti;. of Allen town, eight s. e. of Trenton,and 14 s. w. of Burlington.)
(CROTON River, a n. e. water of Hudsonriver, rises in the town of New Fairfield in Con-necticut, and running through Dutchess county,empties into Tappan bay. Croton bridge is thrownover this river three miles from its mouth, on thegreat road to Albany ; this is a solid, substantialbridge, 1400 feet long, the road narrow, piercingthrough a slate hill; it is supported by 16 stonepillars. Here is an admirable view of Croton falls,where the water precipitates itself between 60 and70 feet perpendicular, and over high slate banks,in some places 100 feet, the river spreading intothree streams as it enters the Hudson.)
(Crow Indians, a people of N. America, di-vided into four bands, called by themselves Ahah'-ar-ro-pir-no-pah, No6-ta, Pa-rees-car, and E-liart'-sar. They annually visit the Mandans, Me-netares, and Ahwahhaways, to whom they barterliorses, mules, leather lodges, and many articlesof Indian apparel, for which they receive in re-turn guns, ammunition, axes, kettles, awls, andother European manufactures. When they re-turn to their country, they are in turn visited bythe Paunch and Snake Indians, to whom they bar-ter most of the articles they have obtained from thenations on the Missouri, for horses and mules, ofwhich those rrations have a greater abundance thanthemselves. They also obtain of the Snake In-dians bridle-bits and blankets, and some otherarticles, which those Indians purchase from theSpaniards. Their country is fertile, and wellwatered, and in many parts well timbered.