The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.
ABERCORN, a town of the province and colony of New Georgia, on the shore of the river Savannah, near where it enters the sea, and at a league's distance from the city of this name. [It is about 30 miles from the sea, 5 miles from Ebenezer, and 13 N W of Savannah.]
ABIDE, mountains, or serrania, of the province and government of Cartagena. They run from W to N E from near the large river of Magdalena to the province of Chocó, and the S. Sea. Their limits and extent are not known, but they are 20 leagues wide, and were discovered by Capt. Francisco Cesar in 1536; he being the first who penetrated into them, after a labour of 10 months, in which time he had to undergo the most extreme privations and excessive perils ; not that these exceeded the hardships which were endured by the licentiate Badillo, who entered upon its conquest with a fine army.
ABIGIRAS, a settlement of Indians, one of the missions, or a reduction, which belonged to the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in the year 1665, by the father Lorenzo Lucero, on the shore of the river Curarari, 30 leagues from its mouth, and 240 from Quito.
[ABINGDON, a town at the head of the tide waters of Bush river, Harford county, Maryland, 12 miles SW from Havre-de-Grace, and 20 NE from Baltimore. Cokesbury college, instituted by the methodists in 1785, is in this town. Lat. 39° 27' 30" N Long. 76° 20' 35" W.]
[another, the chief town of Washington county, Virginia, contained but about 20 houses in 1788, and in 1796 upwards of 150. It is about 145 miles from Campbell's station, near Holston; 260 from Richmond in Virginia, in a direct line, and 310 as the road runs, bearing a little to the S of W Lat. 36° 41' 30" N Long. 81° 59' W.]
Abipi, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of Muzo, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, producing some wheat, maize, yucas, plantains, and canes ; it has been celebrated for its rich mines of emeralds, which are, however, at present abandoned from want of water; it is nearly three leagues distant from the large mine of Itoco.
ABIPONES, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and government of Tucuman, inhabiting the S shores of the river Bermejo. Their number once exceeded 100000; but they are certainly at present much reduced. They go naked, except that the women cover themselves with little skins, prettily ornamented, which they call queyapi. They are very good swimmers, of a lofty and robust stature, and well featured: but they paint their faces and the rest of their body, and are very much given to war, which they carry on chiefly against such as come either to hunt or to fish upon their territory. Their victims they have a custom of sticking upon lofty poles, as a landmark, or by way of intimidation to their enemies. From their infancy they cut and scarify their bodies, to make themselves hardy. When their country is inundated, which happens in the five winter months, they retire to live in the islands, or upon the tops of trees: they have some slight notion of agriculture, but they live by fishing, and the produce of the chase, holding in the highest estimation the flesh of tigers, which they divide among their relations, as a sort of precious relic or dainty ; also asserting that it has the properties of infusing strength and valour. They have no knowledge either of God, of law, or of policy; but they believe in the immortality of the soul, and that there is a land of consummate bliss, where they shall dance and divert themselves after their death. When a man dies, his widow observes a state of celibacy, and fasts a year, which consists in an abstinence from fish: this period being fulfilled, an assembly run out to meet her, and inform her that her husband has given her leave to marry. The women occupy themselves in spinning and sewing hides; the men are idlers, and the boys run about the whole day in exercising their strength. The men are much addicted to drunkenness, and then the women are accustomed to conceal their husband's weapons, for fear of being killed. They do not rear more than two or three children, killing all above this number.
Abisca, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, to the E of the Cordillera of the Andes, between the rivers Yetau and Amarumago, and to the S of Cuzco. It is little known, consisting entirely of woods, rivers, and lakes; and hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success: the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.
CONGO, a settlement of the province and government of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra N ueva ; situate on the shore of a river, which gives it its name, and of the coast of the S. sea, within the gulf of S. Miguel.
CONGURIPO, Santiago de, a- settlement of the head settlement of Puruandiro, and alcaldta mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan ; situate on a plain or shore of the Rio Grande. It is of a hot temperature, and contains 12 families of Spaniards and Mustees^ and 57 of Indians. Twenty-six leagues from the captital Pasquaro.
CONICARI, a settlement of the province and government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore and at the source of the river Mayo. It is a reduccion of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits.
CONIMA, a settlement of the province and cor-
regimiento of Paucarcolla in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Moxo.
CONNECTICUT, a county of the province and colony of New England in N. America. It is bounded w. by New York and the river Hudson ; is separated from the large island by an arm of the sea to the s. ; has to the e. Rhode island, with part of the colony of Massachusetts, and the other part of the same colony to the n. It is traversed by a river of the same name, which is the largest of the whole province, and navigable by large vessels for 40 miles. This province abounds in wood, turpentine, and resins ; in the collecting of which numbers of the inhabitants are occupied, although the greater part of them are employed in fishing, and in hewing timber for the building of vessels and other useful purposes. The merchants of the province once sent to King Charles II. some timber or trees, of so fine a growth as to serve for masts of ships of the largest burthen. The great trade of woods and timbers carried on by means of the river has much increased its navigation. This territory is not without its mines of metal, such as lead, iron, and copper: the first of these have yielded some emolument, but the others have never yet produced any thing considerable, notwithstanding the repeated attempts which have been made to work them. This county is well peopled and flourishing, since it numbers upwards of 40,000 souls, notwithstanding the devastations that it has suftered through the French, the Indians, and the pirates, in the reign of Queen Anne, when all the fishing vessels were destroyed. When this colony was first founded, many great privileges were given it, which have always been maintained by the English governor, through the fidelity which it manifested in not joining the insurrection of the province of Massachusetts, until, in the last war, it was separated from the metropolis, as is seen in the article U n ited States OF America.
(Connecticut, one of the United States of North America, called by the ancient natives Qunnihticut, is situated between lat. 41° and 42° 2' n. and between long. 71° 20' and 7.3° 15' w. Its greatest breadth is 72 miles, its length 100 miles; bounded «. by Massachusetts ; e. by Rhode island ; s. by the sound which divides it from Long island ; and w. by the state of New York. This state contains about 4674 square miles; equal to about 2,640,000 acres. It is divided into eight counties, viz. Fairfield, New Haven, Middlesex, and New London, which extend along the sound from w. to c. : Litchfield, Hartford, Tolland, and Windham, extend in the same direction on the border of the] 3 T 2
(There is no necessity of serving an apprenticeship to the business, nor of a large stock of money to commence it to advantage. Farmers who deal much in barter, have less need of money than any other class of people. The ease with which a comfortable subsistence is obtained, induces the husbandman to marry young. The cultivation of his farm makes him strong and healthful. He toils cheerfully through the day, eats the fruit of his own labour with a gladsome heart, at night devoutly thanks his bounteous God for his daily blessings, retires to rest, and his sleep is sweet. Such circumstances as these have greatly contributed to the amazing increase of inhabitants in this state. Besides, the people live under a free government, and have no fear of a tyrant. There are no overgrown estates, with rich and ambitious landlords, to have an undue and pernicious influence in the election of civil officers. Property is equally enough divided; and must continue to be so, as long as estates descend as they now do. No person is prohibited from voting. He who has the most merit, not he Avho has the most money, is generally chosen into public office. As instances of this, it is to be observed, that many of the citizens of Connecticut, from the humble walks of life, have arisen to the first offices in the state, and filled them with dignity and repulation. That base business of electioneering, which is so directly calculated to introduce wicked and designing men into office, is yet but little known in Connecticut. A man who wishes to be chosen into office, acts wisely, for that end, when he keeps his desires to himself.
A thirst for learning prevails among all ranks of people in the state. More of the young men in Connecticut, in proportion to their numbers, receive a public education, than in any of the states. The revolution, which so essentially affected the government of most of the colonies, produced no very perceptible alteration in the government of Connecticut. While under the jurisdiction of Great Britain, they elected their own governors, and all subordinate civil officers, and made their own laws, in the same manner and with as little controul as they now do. Connecticut has ever been a rejmblic, and perhaps as perfect and as happy a republic as has ever existed. While other states, more monarchical in their governmen and manners, have been under a necessity of undertaking the difficult task of altering their old, or forming new constitutions, and of changing their monarchical for republican manners, Connecticut has uninterruptedly proceeded in her old track, both as to government and manners ; and, by these
means, has avoided those convulsions which have rent other states into violent parties.
The present territory of Connecticut, at the time of the first arrival of the English, was possessed by the Pequot, the Mohegan, Podunk, and many other smaller tribes of Indians. In 1774, there were of the descendants of the ancient natives only 1363 persons ; the greater part of whom lived at Mohegan, between Norwich and New London. From the natural decrease of the Indians, it is imagined that their number in this state do not now exceed 400. The first grant of Connecticut was made by the Plymouth council to the Earl of Warwick, in 1630. The year following the earl assigned this grant to Lord Say and Seal, Lord Brook, and nine others. Some Indian traders settled at Windsor in 1633. The same year, a little before the arrival of the English, a few Dutch traders settled at Hartford, and the remains of the settlement are still visible on the bank of Connecticut river. In 1634, Lord Say and Seal, &c. sent over a small number of men, who built a fort at Saybrook, and made a treaty with the Pequot Indians for the lands on Connecticut river. Mr. Haynes and Mr. Hooker left Massachusetts bay in 1634, and settled at Hartford. The following year, Mr. Eaton and Mr. Davenport seated themselves at New Haven. In 1644, the Connecticut adventurers purchased of Mr. Fenwick, agent for Lord Say and Seal, and Lord Brook, their right to the colony, for 1600/, Connecticut and New Haven continued two distinct governments for many years. At length, John Winthrop, Esq. who had been chosen governor of Connecticut, was employed to solicit a royal charter. In 1662, Charles II, granted a charter, constituting the two colonies for ever one body corporate and politic, by the name of “ The Governor and Company of Connecticut.” New Haven took the affair ill; but in 1665, all difficulties were amicably adjusted ; and, as has been already observed, this charter still continues to be the basis of their government. The capital is Boston.)
(Connecticut is the most considerable river in the c. part of the Linited States, and rises in the high lands which separate the states of Vermont and New Hampshire from Lower Canada. It has been surveyed about 25 miles beyond the 45° of latitude, to the head spring of its n. branch ; from which, to its mouth, is upwards of 300 miles, through a thick settled country, having upon its banks a great number of the most flourishing and pleasant towns in the United States. It is from 80 to 100 rods wide, 130 miles from its mouth. Its course between Vermont and New Hampshire]
(is generally 5. s.zc. as likewise through Massachussetts, and part of Connecticut, until it reaches the city of Middleton ; after wliich it runs a s, s. e. course to its mouth. The navigation of this beautiful river, which, like the Nile, fertilizes tiie lands through which it runs, is much obstructed by falls ; two of these are between New Hampshire and Vermont, the first are called the Fifteen-mile falls ; here the river is rapid for 20 miles : the second remarkable fall is at Walpole, formerly called the Great falls, but now called Bellows’ falls. Above these the breadth of the river is in some places 22, in other places not above 16 rods; the depth of the channel is about 25 feet, and commonly runs full of water. In September 1792, however, owing to the severe drought, the water of the river, it is said, “ passed within (he space of 12 feet wide, and 2| feet deep.” A large rock divides the stream into two channels, each about 90 feet wide ; when the river is low, the e. channel is dry, being crossed by a solid rock ; and the whole stream falls into the w. channel, where it is contracted to the breadth of 16 feet, and flows with astonishing rapidity. There are several pitches, one above another, in the length of half a mile, the largest of which is that where the rock divides the stream. A bridge of timber was projected over this fall by Colonel Hale, in the year 1784, 365 feet long, and supported in the middle by the island rock, and under it the highest floods pass without doing any injury; this is the only bridge on the river, but it is contemplated to erect another, SO miles above, at the middle bar of Agar falls, where the passage for the water, between the rocks, is 100 feet wide ; this will connect the towns of Lebanon in New Hampshire, and Hartford in Vermont ; as the former bridge connects Walpole in New Hampshire with Rockingham in Vermont. Notwithstanding the velocity of the current at Bellows’ falls, above described, the salmon pass up the river, and are taken many miles above, but the shad proceed no farther. On the steep sides of the island rock, at the fall, hang several arm chairs, secured by a counterpoise ; in these the fishermen sit to catch salmon with fishing nets. In the course of the river, through Massachusetts, are the falls at South Hadley, around which locks and canals were completed in 1795, by an enterprising company, incorporated for that purpose in 1792, by the legislature of Massachusetts. In Connecticut the river is obstructed by falls at Enfield, to render which navigable in boats, a company has been incorporated, and a sum of money raised by lottery, but nothing effectual is yet done. The
average descent of this river from Weathersfield in Vermont, 150 miles from its mouth, is two feet to a mile, according to the barometrical observations of J. Winthrop, Esq. made in 1786. The rivers or streams which fall into Connecticut river are numerous; such of them as are worthy of notice will be seen under their respective names. At its mouth is a bar of sand, which considerably obstructs the navigation ; it has 10 feet water on it at full tides, and the depth is the same to Middleton, from which the bar is 36 miles distant. Above Middleton there are some shoals which have only six feet water at high tide, and here the tide ebbs and flows about eight inches ; three miles above that city the river is contracted to about 40 rods in breadth, by two high mountains ; on almost every other part of the river the banks are low, and spread into fine extensive meadows. In the spring floods, which generally happen in May, these meadows are covered with water. At Hartford, the water sometimes rises 20 feet above the common surface of the river, and the water having no other outlet but the above mentioned strait, it is sometimes tw o or three weeks before it returns to its usual bed ; these floods add nothing to-the depth of water on the bar at the mouth of the river, as the bar lies too far off in the sound to be affected by them. This river is navigable to Hartford city upwards of 50 miles from its mouth, and the produce of the country for 200 miles above it, is brought thither in boats. The boats which are used in this business are flat-bottomed, long, and narrow, and of so light a make as to be portable in carts : before the construction of locks and canals on (his river, they were taken out at three different carrying places, all of which made 15 miles : it is expected that in a few years the obstructions will be all removed. Sturgeon, salmon, and shad, are caught in plenty in their season, from the mouth of the river upwards, excepting sturgeon, which do not ascend the upper falls; besides a variety of small fish, such as pike, carp, perch, &c. There is yet a strong expectation of opening a communication between this river and the Merrimack, through Sugar river, which runs into the Connecticut at Claremont in New Mampshire, and the Contoocook, which falls into tlie Merrimack at Boscawen. From this river were employed, in 1789, three brigs of 180 tons each, in the European trade ; and about 60 sail, from 60 to 150 tons, in the VV. India trade, besides a few fishermen, and 40 or 50 coasting vessels. The number has considerably increased since.)
(CONWAY, a township in the province of New Brunswick, Sudbury county, on the w. bank of St. John’s river. It has the bayofFundyon the and at the westernmost point of the township there is a pretty good harbour, called Musquash cove.)
(COOK’S River, in the n. w. coast of N. America, lies n. w. of Prince William’s sound, and 1000 miles n. w. of Nootka sound. It promises to vie with the most considerable ones already known. It was traced by Captain Cook for 210 miles from the mouth, as high as lat. 61° 30' n. and so far as is discovered, opens a very considerable inland navigation by its various branches ; the inhabitants seemed to be of the same race with those of Prince William’s sound, and like them had glass beads ami knives, and were also clothed in fine furs.)
(Cooper, a large and navigable river which mingles its waters with Ashley river, below Charleston ^ity in S. Carolina. These form a spacious and convenient harbour, which communicates with the ocean, just below Sullivan’s island, which it leaves on the n. seven miles s. e. of the city. In these rivers the tide rises 6| feet. Cooper river is a mile wide at the ferry, nine miles above Charles, town.)
(Cooper’s Town, a post-town and township in Otsego county. New York, and is the compact part of the township of Otsego, and the chief town of the country round lake Otsego. It is pleasantly situated at the s. w. end of the lake, on its banks, and those of its outlet ; 12 miles n. w. of Cherry valley, and 73 w. of Albany. Here are a courthouse, gaol, and academy. In 1791 it contained 292 inhabitants. In 1789 it had but three houses only ; and in the spring 1795, 50 houses had been erected, ofwhich above a fourth part were respectable two-story dwelling-houses, with every proportionable improvement, on a plan regularly laid out in squares. Lat. 42° 36' n. Long. 74° 58' M.] [Cooper’s Town, Pennsylvania, is situated on the Susquehannah river. This place in 1785 was a wilderness ; nine years after it contained 1800 inhabitants, a large and handsome church, with a steeple, a market-house and a bettering house, a library of 1200 volumes, and an academy of 64 scholars. Four hundred and seventy pipes were laid under ground, for the purpose of bringing water from West mountain, and conducting it to every house in town.)
(COOS, or Cohos. The country called Upper and Lower Coos lies on Connecticut river, between 20 and 40 miles above Dartmouth college. Upper Coos is the country of Upper Amonoosuck river, on John and Israel rivers. Lower Coos lies below the town of Haverhill, s. of th« Lower Amonoosuck. The distance from Upper Coos, to the tide in Kennebeck river, was measured in 1793, and was found to be but 90 miles.)
(COOSA Hatchee, or Coosaw, a river of S. Carolina, which rises in Orangeburg district, and running a 5. m. course, em.pties into Broad river and Whale branch, which separate Beaufort island from the mainland.)
(Coosa|COOSA, or Coosa Hatcha]]==, a river which 3 u