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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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ABACU, a point of land on the S coast of the island of St. Domingo.

ABADES, a settlement of the province and government of Popayan, in the district and jurisdiction of San Juan de Pasto.

ABANCAY, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded on the E by the large city of Cuzco, (its jurisdiction beginning at the parish of Santa Ana of that city), and on the W by the province of Andahuailas; N by that of Calcaylares, forming, in this part, an extended chain of snowcovered mountains ; S by the provinces of Cotabamba and Aimaraez; S W by Chilques and Masques. It extends 26 leagues from E to W and is 14 broad. Its most considerable river is the Apurimac, which is separated from it at the N W and bends its course, united with other streams, towards the mountains of the Andes. This river is crossed by a wooden bridge of 80 yards long and 3 broad, which is in the high road from Lima to Cuzco, and other provinces of the sierra. The toll collected here is four rials of silver for every load of goods of the produce of the country, and twelve for those of the produce of Europe. The temperature of this province is mild, and for the most part salubrious, with the exception of a few vallies, where, on account of the excessive heat and humidity, tertian agues are not uncommon. It produces wheat, maize, and other grain in great abundance, and its breed of horned cattle is by no means inconsiderable; but its principal production is sugar, which they refine so well, that it may challenge the finest European sugars for whiteness : this is carried for sale to Cuzco and other provinces, and is held in great estimation. It also produces hemp, cloth manufactures of the country ; and in its territories mines of silver are not wanting, especially in the mountain which they call Jalcanta, although the natives avail themselves not of the advantages so liberally held out to them. Its jurisdiction comprehends 17 settlements. The repartimento, quota of tribute, amounted to 108,750 dollars, and it rendered yearly 870 for the alcabala. The following are the 17 settlements : The capital, Limatambo, Huanicapa, Mollepata, Curahuasi, Pantipata, Cachora, Pibil, Antilla, Chonta, Anta, Pocquiura, Ibin, Surite, Chachaypucquio, Huaracondo. Sumata,

Abancay, the capital of the above province, founded in a spacious valley, which gives it its title: it is also so called from a river, over which has been thrown one of the largest bridges in the kingdom, being the first that was built there, and looked upon as a monument of skill. In the above valley the jurisdiction of this province, and that of Andahuailas, becomes divided. It is also memorable for the victories gained in its vicinity by the king's troops against Gonzalo Pizarro, in the years 1542 and 1548. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Dominic ; this order being the first of those which established themselves in Peru. 20 leagues distant from the city of Cuzco. Lat. 13° 31' 30" S Long. 72° 26' W.7

Abancay, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cuenca, in the kingdom of Quito, situate on the shore of the river Paute.

ABANES, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the plains of San Juan, to the N of the Orinoco. They inhabit the woods on the shores of this river, as well as other small woods ; and are bounded, E by the Salivas, and W by the Caberres and Andaquies. They are docile, of good dispositions, and are easily converted to the Catholic faith.

ABANGOUI, a large settlement of the province and government of Paraguay. It is composed of Indians of the Guarani nation, and situate on the shore of the river Taquani. It was discovered by Alvar Nuñez Cabezade Vaca, in 1541.

ABARANQUEN, a small river of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalusia. It rises in the country of the Quiriquipas Indians, runs from S to N and enters the Aruy.

ABARY, a small river of Guayana, between the Berbice and the Demerary. See Mahaica.

ABBEVILLE County, in Ninetysix district, S. Carolina, bounded on the N E by the Saluda, and on the SW by the Savannah, is 35 miles in length and 21 in breadth ; contains 9197 inhabitants, including 1665 slaves.

ABBOTS, a small river of N. Carolina, which runs S W and enters the Pedi, at a little distance from the source of this river, in the territory of the Granville limits.

ABECOCHI, a settlement of Indians of S. Carolina, situate on the shore of the river Cousa. The English have a settlement here, with a fort for its defence.

ABEICAS, a nation of Indians of New France, bounded on the N by the Alibamis, and E by the Cheraquis. They live at a distance from the large rivers, and the only produce of their territory is some canes, which are not thicker than a finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.

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AHUACAZALCA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of San Luis de la Costa,and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espaiia.It contains 56 families of Indians, -whose com-merce consists in rice and cotton. Three leaguesn. e. of its liead settlement.

AHUACAZINGO, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Atengo, and alcaldiamayor of Chilapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains46 families of Indians, and is ten leagues e. of itshead settlement.

AHUALICAN, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Tixtlan in Nueva Espana ; of a benignand salutary temperature, as it is fanned by then,breezes. It lies three leagues n. of its head settle-ment, which is Oapan ; and contains 36 familiesof Indians.

AHUATELCO, a settlement of the head set-tlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofIzucai in Nueva Espana, situate on the skirt of thevolcano of the same name. In its district areeight settlements, inhabited by 289 families of In-dians, and 11 of Musiees and Mulattoes, wholive in some temporary habitations for labourers.It is situate on a cold, rough, and barren soil, butis nevertheless fertile in wheat, and abounds inwater and cattle. Eight leagues n. w. of its capital.

AHUATEMPA, a settlement of the head set-tlement of the district of Santa Isabel, and alcaldiamayor of Cholula, in Nueva Espana. It contains 39families of Indians, and is two leagues s.of its capital.

AHUATEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapain Nueva Espana. It contains 32 families of In-dians, and is two leagues n. of its capitaL

AHUATLAN, San Pedko de, a settlementof the head settlement of the district of San Juandel Rio, and alcaldia mayor of Queretaro, in NuevaEspana ; annexed to the curacy of the formerplace, and lying ten leagues n. w, of the latter.

AHUEHUEZINGO, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Chietlan, and alcaldiamayor of Izucar, in Nueva Espana.

AHUEZITLA, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapain Nueva Espana. It contains 36 families of In-dians, and abounds in chia, (a white medicinalearth), grain, and earthen-ware. It is nine leaguesw, n. w. of its capital.

AHWAHHAWAY, a race of Indians, whodiffer but very little in any particular from theMandans, their neighbours, except in the unjustwar which they, as well as the Minetares, prosecuteagainst the defenceless Snake Indians. They claimto have once been a part of the Crow Indians, whom

they still acknowledge as relations. They haveresided on the Missouri as long as their traditionwill enable them to inform.

AIABACA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Piura in Peru.

AIACASI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru, annexed tothe curacy of Belille.

AIACOA, a small river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. Itrises to the w. of the Sierra Maiguatida, runs e. andenters the Orinoco near the rapid stream of theMarumarota.

AIACOCHA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huanta in Peru, situate in theisland Tayacaja.

AIAHUALTEMPA, a settlement of the head set-tlement of the district of Zitlala, and alcaldia mayorof Chilapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 36 fa-milies of Indians, and is three leagues to the s. ofits head settlement.

AIAHUALULCO, a settlement of the head set-tlement of the district of Ixlahuacan, and alcaldiamayor of Xalapa, in Nueva Espana, which, in theMexican language, signifies a small river. Itabounds in the best fruits of its jurisdiction, suchas pears and other sorts of fruit highly esteemed atVera Cruz. It contains only three families of Spa-niards, 22 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 70 of In-dians. In its district are several temporary habi.tations for labourers, and pastures for breeding cat-tle, which reach as far as the district of Tepcaca,in the lofty eminence of Xamiltepec, 16 leaguesdistant from Xalapa. It includes also within itsadministration the cultivated estates extending asfar as the place called Puertezuelo, where this juris-diction approximates to that of San Juan de losLlanos on the w. s.w. side ; and in the culture ofthe above estates many Spaniards, 3Iustees, andMulattoes, are employed. One league s. w. of itshead settlement.

Aiahualulco, another settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Zitlala, and alcaldiamayor of Chilapa, in the kingdom of Xalapa, andannexed to the curacy of this place, from which itis three leagues distant, being nine to the s. of itshead settlement. It contains 42 families of Indians,including another small settlement incorporatedwith it.

AlAHUASA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru, annexed tothe curacy of Pachaconas.

AIAMARCA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Castro Virreyna in Peru, an-nexed to the curacy of Cordova.

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AIANABE, a settlement of Indians of S. Caro-lina, situate on the shore of the river Buffle-noir.

AIAPANGO, the head settlement of the districtof the akaldia mayor of Chaleo in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 100 families of Indians, and isannexed to the curacy of Amecaraeca, at twoleagues to the s. of its capital.

AIAPATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, and veryopulent, on account of its silver mines. The sandson the banks of the rivers here have been known sorichly impregnated with this metal, that lumps ofit have been at different times picked up. It is themost considerable population in the province, andthe temperature is so salutary, that it is very com-mon to meet with persons of 90 years of age, andmany also of 100.

AIAPEL, a town of the province and govern-ment of Antioquia, in the new kingdom of Gra-nada, situate on the bank of a large lake or swampof the same name, and which is formed from thewaters of the rivers Cauca, San Jorge, and others.In its district are the lavaderos, or washing placesfor gold, of La Cruz, San Mateo, Thuansi, Can,Ure, Man, San Pedro, and La Soledad.

AIARANGA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chancay in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Paccho.

AIARI, a settlement of the province and corre-gimiento of Huanta in Peru, annexed to the cu-racy of Mayoc.

AIATA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

AIATASTO, a large river of the province andgovernment of Tucuman, in the district and juris-diction of the city of Salta, on the banks of whichare some pasture grounds of the same name, uponwhich are fed 40,000 head of neat cattle, and 6000of horses for breeding.

AIATEPEC, a settlement of the head settlementof the district of Atitlan, and alcaldia mayor ofVillalta, in Nueva España. It contains 45 fami-lies of Indians, and is 17 leagues from its capital.

AIAUl, a settlement of the province and corre-gimiento of Castro Virreyna in Peru, annexed tothe curacy of Huaitara.

AIAUIRI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lamoa in Peru. In its vicinity aresome forts, which were built by the Indians in thetime of their gentilism, and now in a state of greatdilapidation. There is a lake of warm water here,the bottom of which has never yet been found.The water always keeps at one height, so that it ispresumed that it finds its way out through somesubterraneous channel. There is also another warm

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water spring at two leagues distance, which is verynoxious, and, as it runs, has the property of petri-fying, in like manner as the spring of water inGuancavelica.

Aiauiri, another settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Yauyos in Peru.

AIAUTLA, a settlement of the head settlementof the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teutila inNueva España, of a warm temperature, and inha-bited by 100 Indian families, who support them-selves by cultivating and selling the vaynilla plant.Nine leagues s. of its capital.

AICAROPA, a small river Of the province andgovernment of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. Itrises in the country of the Armocotos Indians, runsfrom e. to w. with a slight inclination to the s. andenters the Caura.

AICHES, a settlement of Indians of the provinceand government of Las Texas, in Nueva España,sitzate in the way which leads to Mexico.

AICIACHIA, a settlement of the missions whichbelonged to the Jesuits, in the province of Tarau-mara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, 40 leaguesw. s. w. of the town and real of the mines of Chi-guagua.

AIECTIPAC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Yxteapan, and alcaldiamayor of Tlapa, in Nueva España. It contains21 Indian families, and is three leagues e. of itshead settlement.

AIENCAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cuenca, in the kingdom of Quito,annexed to the curacy of Paccha.

AIGA, a settlement of the province and corre-gimiento of Huailas in Peru.

AIGAME, a settlement and real of mines ofthe province and government of Sonora in NuevaEspana.

==AILES, a river of the province and governmentof Louisiana. It runs s, e. between the rivers Canotand Noyre, and empties itself into the Mississippi.

AIMARAEZ, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded n. w. and w. by the province ofAndahuailas, of the bishopric of Guamanga, s. byParinacocha of the same, s. e. by Ghumbivilcas,and e. by Cotabamba. It is 40 leagues in lengthfrom «. to s. and 26 in width from e. to ti). includ-ing in its figure on the w. side the last mentionedprovince. It js one of the most uneven soils in thekingdom, being full of lofty sierras and snowymountains. It is on this account that its climate isvery cold, excepting, however, in some vallies,where it is more temperate, and where, on somesmall sloping grounds, the inhabitants sow seed andgrain, and cultivate fruit trees and cane plantations,

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Massachusetts, incorporated in 1797, it beingformerly the n. part of Stoughton.)

CANUARI, a small river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It runs to the n.and enters the Rio Grande of the Portuguese, be-tween the Mbouqui and the Pobatini.

CANUEIRAS, a point of the n. extremity ofthe island of Santa Catalina, on the coast ofBrazil.

CANUERALES, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cuyo in the kingdom ofChile, situate near the river Diamante.

CANUTO, a river of the province and govern-ment of Venezuela. It rises in the mountain Ta-cazuruma, runs nearly s. and enters the river ofLa Portuguesa.

CANXA, a small settlement of the head settle-ment of Orizavá, and alcaldía mayor of Yxmi-quilpan, in Nueva España.

(CANY Fork, in the state of Tennessee, is ashort navigable river, and runs n. w. into Cum-berland river, w. of the Salt lick, and oppositeSalt Lick creek, 50 miles in a straight line fromNashville.)

CANZE, a river of the colony and govern-ment of Surinam, in the part of Guayana possessedby the Dutch. It rises between the Berbice andthe Corentin, and after a very round-about course,enters the former, close to its mouth, or where itruns into the sea.

CAO, Santa Maria Magdalena de, asettlement of the province and corregimiento ofTruxillo in Peru, situate in the valley of Chicama.It was the capital in the time of the Indians, andthe number of these 200 years ago was 3000 ; butnow it is reduced to a wretched state, and occu-pies a small spot on the other side of the river,being nine leagues distant from its capital.

Cao, with the dedicatory title of Santiago, todistinguish it from another settlement of the sameprovince and corregimiento, although they areboth equally poor and reduced. Its inhabitantsmaintain themselves by the cultivation of maize,wheat, rice, and vegetables, which they carryfor sale to the other provinces, so that they arefor the most part a race of carriers, and indeedpossess no inconsiderable droves of mules. It issix leagues from its capital, just by the sea.

CAOBAS, River of the, in the island of St.Domingo, in that part possessed by the French.It rises in the valley of San Juan, runs to the w.and afterwards changing its course to the n. w. en-ters the Artibonito.

CAORA, a river which runs down from themountains of Guayana to the s. of the lake

Cassipa, into which it enters ; and afterwardsrunning out at the n. side of this lake, it findsits way through a subterraneous passage, until itempties itself into the Orinoco, on its s. shore.The borders of this river are inhabited by anation of barbarous Indians, who wander con-tinually through the forests without any fixedabode. They are cannibals as well as the otherIndian tribes around them, and with whom theykeep up a continual warfare.

CAPACA, a settlement of the province of Culi-acan in Nueva España ; situate near the head set-tlement.

CAPACHICA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Paucarcolla in Peru ; situate onthe w. shore of the lake Titicaca.

Capachica, a narrow strip of land formed bythe great lake Titicaca. Of these strips there arethree, and this appears, for the distance of a league,to be completely divided from any main land.

CAPACHO, a village under the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Christoval, in the new kingdom ofGranada ; of a warm temperature ; abounding insugar-cane, from which much sugar is manufac-tured, and in cacao ; but it is much infested bythe barbarian Indians, called the Motilones (short-haired), who destroy the plantations. It contains200 house- keepers, and is 24; leagues n. e. ofPamplona, in the road which leads to Mérida andLa Grita, and eight leagues from the city of SanChristoval.

CAPACMARCO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru.

CAPAIA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Aimaraez in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Soraica.

Capaia, another settlement in the province ofBarcelona, and government of Cumana; situate onthe coast, on the banks of a river of the samename.

Capaia, a river of the same province and go-vernment, which rises in the serranía, and aftermaking many turnings runs into the sea, near thecape Codera towards the e.

CAPAIAN, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction ofthe city of Rioja.

CAPAIRE, a settlement of the province of Ve-nezuela, and government of Maracaibo ; situatevery near the coast, at the point Colorada, on theshore of the river Guepe.

(CAPALITA, a large town of North America,and in the province of Oaxaca. The countryround abounds with sheep, cattle, and excellentfruit.)

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[1803 amounted to 5,500,000, and the exports con-sisted of produce to the value of 4,000,000 dollars.He also states the population in 1808 at 900,000souls. The receipts of Caracas, Guatemala, andChile, are consumed within the country. Thepopulation of some of the chief cities is thus stated ;Caracas 40,000, La Guaira 6000, Puerto Cabello7600, Coro 10,000. The harbour, or La Vela deCoro, as it is commonly called, and its environs, aresupposed to contain not less than 2000. In 1797three state prisoners were sent from Spain to Ca-racas, on account of their revolutionary propensi-ties. Being treated with great indulgence by theofficers and soldiers to whose care they were com-mitted, they formed the project of a conspiracyagainst the government. They engaged a numberof persons, some of them of consequence, in theirparty. After gaining their first converts, the spiritdid not spread. The coldness and apathy of thepeople did not admit of the effervescene they de-sired. After the plot had been kept a secret formany months it was disclosed to the government.Some of the ringleaders escaped, and others weretaken. It was found that seventy-two had enteredinto the conspiracy; six were executed. Therest either escaped, or were sent to the galleys orbanished from the country. For an account of therecent revolution in Caracas, see Venezuela.]

Caracas, some islands of the N. sea near thecoast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the pro-vince and government of Cumana. They are sixin number, all small and desert, serving as placesof shelter to the Dutch traders, who carry on anillicit commerce on that coast.

Caracas, a small port of the coast of TierraFirme, in the province and government of Vene-;zuela, between the capital and cape Codera.

CARACHE, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Maracaibo, situate n. of the city ofTruxillo, on the shore of a small river which entersthe Matazan.

CARACHIS, San Carlos de a settlement ofthe province and country of the Amazonas ; a re-duccion of the missions which belonged to the abo-lished order of the Jesuits. It is at the mouth ofthe river Huerari, where this enters the Maranon.

CARACOA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Parinacoche in Peru, where thereis a spring of warm medicinal water.

CARACOL, Port, on the coast of the S. sea,and of the province and government of Panamá ;it is near the point of Garachine, behind mount Zapo.

CARACOLI, a port of the coast of the kingdomof Tierra Firme, and of the province and govern-ment of Venezuela, to the w., of cape Codera.

Caracoli, a bay formed by the s. coast, in theprovince and government of Darien, of the kingdomof Tierra Firme ; it lies at the back of point Gara-chine.

Caracoli, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cartagena, situate on the shore ofthe Rio Grande de la Magdalena, and on the n, ofthe town of Maria.

CARACOLLO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Oruro in Peru, eight leagues dis-tant from its capital.

=CARACOTO== a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Lampa in Peru.

Caracoto, another, in the province and corregi-mienlo of Sicasica in the same kingdom.

==CARAGAIAS, a town of the island of Cuba,situate on the n. coast between Cadiz and Nizao,

CARAGUATAI, a river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres ; it runs s. s. w. andenters the Ayum or Yumeri.

CARAGUET, a small river of Nova Scotia orAcadia ; it runs e. and enters the sea in the gulfof St. Lawrence, opposite the island of its name.

CARAHUACRA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru; annexedto the curacy ofYauli.

CARAIBAMBA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Chalvanca.

CARAIMA Alta, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Quillota in the kingdom ofChile ; situate on the coast between point Caraimiliaand point Pena Blanca.

CARAIMILLA, a settlement on the coast ofthe province and corregimiento aforementioned,between point Caraima Alta, and the isle of Obispo.

CARAMA, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Antioquia in the new kingdom ofGranada.

CARAMANTA, a city of the province and go-vernment of Antioquia in the new kingdom ofGratiada ; founded by Sebastian de Benalcazar in1543, near the river Cauca. Its temperature ishot and unhealthy, but it is fertile in maize, vege-tables, grain, and abounds with herds of swine : nearit are many small rivers which enter the Cauca,and some salt pits of the whitest salt. On themountains within its jurisdiction, are some settle-ments of barbarian Indians very little known. Thiscity is indifferently peopled, and is 65 leagues dis-tant to the n. e. of Popayan, and 50 from Antio-quia. Long. 75° 33' w. Lat. 5° 58' «.

CARAMATIBA, a settlement of the provinceand captainship of Rio Grande in Brazil ; situateon the shore of the river Carabatang.

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