Pages That Mention Chocó
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.
ABERCORN, a town of the province and colony of New Georgia, on the shore of the river Savannah, near where it enters the sea, and at a league's distance from the city of this name. [It is about 30 miles from the sea, 5 miles from Ebenezer, and 13 N W of Savannah.]
ABIDE, mountains, or serrania, of the province and government of Cartagena. They run from W to N E from near the large river of Magdalena to the province of Chocó, and the S. Sea. Their limits and extent are not known, but they are 20 leagues wide, and were discovered by Capt. Francisco Cesar in 1536; he being the first who penetrated into them, after a labour of 10 months, in which time he had to undergo the most extreme privations and excessive perils ; not that these exceeded the hardships which were endured by the licentiate Badillo, who entered upon its conquest with a fine army.
ABIGIRAS, a settlement of Indians, one of the missions, or a reduction, which belonged to the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in the year 1665, by the father Lorenzo Lucero, on the shore of the river Curarari, 30 leagues from its mouth, and 240 from Quito.
[ABINGDON, a town at the head of the tide waters of Bush river, Harford county, Maryland, 12 miles SW from Havre-de-Grace, and 20 NE from Baltimore. Cokesbury college, instituted by the methodists in 1785, is in this town. Lat. 39° 27' 30" N Long. 76° 20' 35" W.]
[another, the chief town of Washington county, Virginia, contained but about 20 houses in 1788, and in 1796 upwards of 150. It is about 145 miles from Campbell's station, near Holston; 260 from Richmond in Virginia, in a direct line, and 310 as the road runs, bearing a little to the S of W Lat. 36° 41' 30" N Long. 81° 59' W.]
Abipi, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of Muzo, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, producing some wheat, maize, yucas, plantains, and canes ; it has been celebrated for its rich mines of emeralds, which are, however, at present abandoned from want of water; it is nearly three leagues distant from the large mine of Itoco.
ABIPONES, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and government of Tucuman, inhabiting the S shores of the river Bermejo. Their number once exceeded 100000; but they are certainly at present much reduced. They go naked, except that the women cover themselves with little skins, prettily ornamented, which they call queyapi. They are very good swimmers, of a lofty and robust stature, and well featured: but they paint their faces and the rest of their body, and are very much given to war, which they carry on chiefly against such as come either to hunt or to fish upon their territory. Their victims they have a custom of sticking upon lofty poles, as a landmark, or by way of intimidation to their enemies. From their infancy they cut and scarify their bodies, to make themselves hardy. When their country is inundated, which happens in the five winter months, they retire to live in the islands, or upon the tops of trees: they have some slight notion of agriculture, but they live by fishing, and the produce of the chase, holding in the highest estimation the flesh of tigers, which they divide among their relations, as a sort of precious relic or dainty ; also asserting that it has the properties of infusing strength and valour. They have no knowledge either of God, of law, or of policy; but they believe in the immortality of the soul, and that there is a land of consummate bliss, where they shall dance and divert themselves after their death. When a man dies, his widow observes a state of celibacy, and fasts a year, which consists in an abstinence from fish: this period being fulfilled, an assembly run out to meet her, and inform her that her husband has given her leave to marry. The women occupy themselves in spinning and sewing hides; the men are idlers, and the boys run about the whole day in exercising their strength. The men are much addicted to drunkenness, and then the women are accustomed to conceal their husband's weapons, for fear of being killed. They do not rear more than two or three children, killing all above this number.
Abisca, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, to the E of the Cordillera of the Andes, between the rivers Yetau and Amarumago, and to the S of Cuzco. It is little known, consisting entirely of woods, rivers, and lakes; and hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success: the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.
(CANNARES, Indians of the province of Quito in Peru. They are very well made, and very active ; they wear their hair long, which they weave and bind about their heads in form of a crown. Their clothes are made of wool or cotton, and they wear fine fashioned boots. Their women are handsome and fond of the Spaniards ; they generally till and manure the ground, whilst their husbands at home card, spin, and weave wool and cotton. Their country had many rich gold mines, now drained by the Spaniards. The land bears good wheat and barley, and has fine vineyards. The magnificent palace of Theomabamba was in the country of the Cannares. See CANARIS.)
(CANNAVERAL Cape, the extreme point of rocks on the e. side of the peninsula of E. Florida. It has Mosquitos inlet n. by w. and a large shoal s. by e. This was the bounds of Carolina by charter from Charles II. Lat. 28° 17' n. Long. 80° 20' w.')
CANOGANDl, a river of the province and
government of Chocó in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the sierras of Abide, runs to the w. and enters the Paganagandi.
CANOMA or Guarihuma, or Guarihuma, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the part possessed by the Portuguese. It rises in the territory of the Andirases Indians, and enters a kind of lake formed by different branches of the river Madera.
CANONA, a lake of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese, and in one of those numerous islands which form the arms of the river Madera, on the side of the island of Topinambas.
(CANONNICUT Island, in Newport county, Rhode island, lies about three miles w. of Newport, the s. end of which, (called Beaver Tail, on which stands the light-house), extends about as far s. as the s. end of Rhode island. It extends n. about seven miles, its average breadth being about one mile ; the e. shore forming the w. part of Newport harbour, and the w. shore being about three miles from the Narraganset shore. On this point is Jamestown. It was purchased of the Indians in 1657, and in 1678 was incorporated by the name of Jamestown. The soil is luxuriant, producing grain and grass in abundance. Jamestown contains 507 inhabitants, including 16 sIaves.)
(CANONSBURGH, a town in Washington county, Pennsylvania, on the n. side of the w. branch of Chartier’s creek, which runs n. by e. into Ohio river, about five miles below Pittsburg. In its environs are several valuable mills. Here are about 50 houses and an academy, seven miles n. e. by e. of Washington, and 15 s. w. of Pittsburg.)
CANOTS, or Canoas, a river of the kingdom of Brazil, in the province and captainship of San Pablo. It rises near the coast opposite the island of Santa Catalina, runs to the w. in a serpentine course, and serves as the source of the large river Uruguay.
tive of Barcelana, a celebrated engineeer; also renowned in the constructing of the land-gate or entrance to Cadiz : he was promoted to this government for the purpose of inspecting and repairing the towers which had been destroyed by Admiral Vernon, which commission, after he had executed, he returned to Spain in 1755, and died directorgeneral of the body of engineers.
61. Don Fernando Morillo Velarde, knight of the order of Alcantara, colonel of infantry, at that time king’s lieutenant, when he received the government on account of the proprietor having gone to fortify the town of Portobelo.
62. Don Diego Tabares, knight of the order of Santiago, brigadier-general ; promoted to this government from that of Camana in 1755, and governed till 1761, when arrived his successor,
63. Don Joseph de Sobremonte, Marquis of this name, a brigadier, who was captain of the regiment of Spanish guards when he was nominated : he governed till 1770, when he died.
64. Don Gregorio de Sierra, also captain of grenadiers of the express regiment of Spanish guards ; he entered Cartagena in 1771, and died in 1774.
65. Don Juan Pimienta, colonel of the regiment of the infantry of Zamora, in rank a brigadier, and knight of the distinguished order of Charles III. ; he entered into the possession of the government in 1774, and died in 1781.
66. Don Roque de Quiroga, king’s lieutenant of the fortified town, or Plaza ; promoted as provincial governor through the death of his antecessor, until arrived, under the king’s appointment, the proprietor,
67. Don Joseph de Carrion y Andrade, a brigadier, who before had been governor of the Plaza of Manilla, and had rendered himself renowned when it was besieged by the Emperor of Marruecos, being nominated to this government in 1774 : he died in 1785.
CARTAGO, a city of the province and government of Popayan, founded by the Brigadier George Robledo in 1540, who gave it this name, with the dedicatory title of San Juan, his patron; the greater part of the military in it having come from the city of Cartagena in Europe. It did lie between the rivers Otun and Quindio; but the
continual invasions it has experienced from the Pijaos and Pimaes Indians, who are a bold and warlike people, determined its inhabitants to remove it at the end of the I7th century to the spot where it now stands ; having bought for that purpose some land of Tomasa Izquierdo, on the bank of an arm of the river of La Vieja, which is a large stream, and navigable for canoes and rafts, and which is at the distance of rather better than a quarter of a mile from the large river Cauca, into which the above river enters, forming before the city an island, which abounds in animals of the chase, and in cattle, and having on its banks excellent fishing. This city is of a dry and healthy climate ; and although hot, the atmosphere is always clear and serene. It is situate upon a level and somewhat elevated plain , of beautiful appearance ; the streets are spacious, wide and straight. It has a very large grand square. Its buildings are solid and of good structure, and universally roofed over with straw, having, however, the walls of solid stone from the top to the bottom ; others are built of brick, and others with rafters of wood, the walls being of clay, (which they call imbulidoSy or inlaid), so solid as to resist the force of the most violent earthquakes, as was experienced in one that happened in 1785. At a small distance from the city are various lakes or pools of water, which they call denegas, formed by nature, assisted by art. It is the residence of the lieutenant-governor of the government of Popayan, of two ordinary alcaldes, two of La Hermandad, two member* of an inferior court, a recorder, a procurator-general, a major domo de propiosy and six regidors^ the cabildo enjoying the privilege of electing and confirming these officers yearly. It has also a battalion of city militia, and two disciplined companies ; also some royal cofiers, which were brought from the city of Anserma. Besides the church of Matriz, in which is venerated, as the patroness, the Holy Virgin, under the image of Nuestra Senora de la Paz, (this being the pious gift of Philip III.) it has five parishes, viz. Santa Ana, Santa Barbara, Llano de Buga, Naranjo, Micos, and Pueblo de los Cerritos. The territory is extremely fertile and pleasant, abounding as well in fruits and pulse as in birds of various sorts ; and in no part whatever are plantains so various, or of so fine a quality. Tlie coffee is good, and the cacao, which is of two sorts, is excellent, and is called yellow and purple hayna. Of no less estimation is the tobacco, with which a great traffic was formerly carried on at Choco. The district of this city abounds in trees, medicinal herbs and fruits, and in an exquisite variety of cacao plants; also
C H A
C H A
(country of the Iroquees Indians. It is handsome and well built, on the margin of the river of the same name, about 12 or 15 miles s. w. from Montreal, and n. of St. John’s fort. It was taken by the Americans, Oct. 20, 1775, and retaken by the British, Jan. 18, 1776. Lat. 45° 26' w.)
Chambo, a very large river, which rises near the former settlement, and runs with such rapidity that it cannot be forded ; is consequently passed over by means of various bridges made of osiers.
CHAME, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Natá in the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate near a river, and two leagues from the coast of the S. sea. It produces maize, plantains, and other fruits ; swine, fowl, turkeys, and other birds, with which it supplies, by means of canoes, the markets of the city of Panama, from whence it is nine leagues distant.
CHAMETLAN, a province and alcaldia mayor of Nueva España, also called Del Rosario ; bounded n. by the province of Culiacan, s. by that of Xalisco or Sentipac, e. and n. e. by that of Zacatecas and Nueva Galicia, and w. by the S. sea ; is 30 leagues long from e. to w. and 25 wide n. s. ; is of, a very hot temperature, and the greater part of it is a mountainous and rugged country, abounding in. noxious animals and insects, and on this account uninhabitable in the summer and in the rainy season. It was conquered by Don Juan de Ibarra in 1554, has many mines of silver and gold, which were formerly worked, but which at present are all abandoned, as well from their having filled with water, as from the scantiness of the means of the inhabitants to work them. The royal mines, however, are productive of some emolument, and are in fafct the support of the place. It produces some maize, and much tobacco , and cotton, to which article the soil is exactly suited, though not so to wheat, which yields here but sparingly. On the banks of the lakes formed by the sea, is left a thick incrustation of salt in the month of April ; and although the inhabitants spare no pains to collect this valuable commodity, yet abundance of it is lost from the Avant of hands to collect it ere the heats come on, when it very quickly disappears.
Some large cattle are bred here. It is very badly peopled, or, to speak more truly, it is as it were desert, having only three settlements and some estates. It is irrigated by a river which flows down from the sierra Madre, and passes through the capital, the waters of which are made useful for the working of the mines. The same river enters the sea two leagues from the settlement of Chametlan, and has abundance of fish, which are caught with ease, as well upon its shores as in marshes which it forms. Tlie capital, which is the residence of the alcalde mayor, is the real del Rosario.
Chametlan, a settlement of the former alcaldía mayor ; from thence taking its name. It contains only five or six Indians, and some Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes, who, the greater part of the year, live in the estates which they have for the breeding of large cattle, and on the farms for the cultivation of maize and cotton.
CHAMESA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; annexed to the curacy of Nopsa. It is of a cold temperature, and produces the fruits corresponding to such a climate, particularly wheat, which is of the best quality. It contains 100 Avhite inhabitants, and as many Indians, and is a little more than eight leagues from its capital.
CHAMI, San Juan de, a settlement of the province and government of Chocó ; situate in the district of Thatama, near the ruins of the city of San Juan de Rodas, to the w. of the city of Santiago de Arma.
CHAMICUROS, S. Francisco Xavier de, a settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in 1670 by the Father Lorenzo Lucero. '
dried flesh, hung up to preserve them from corruption. Their garments are a shirt without sleeves, reaching down to the middle of their legs. The married people wear drawers of baize with coloured puckers for festival days, and those who enjoy offices of state wear a baize jacket : they neither use hatnorshoes, and no one of them ever goes out without slinging round his neck some medals and a rosary. The hair is worn short until they marry, and when they become old they suffer it to grow long. The women wear close gowns which reach down to the ground, and which they call tapoyes: they never swathe or bind themselves round the waist, but carry on their necks, on gala-days, some threads strung with glass intermixed with beads made of cacao nuts, and coloured beans ; these threads usually amount to 20 or SO rows ; on entering the church they always loosen their hair. The regulars of the company of the Jesuits taught them offices, in which they assisted most dexterously ; and it really excites admiration that Indians, acquainted only with their own barbarian dialect, should be able to manage the compass of the notes, understand their proportions and numbers, and apply the rules of music to its execution. At certain times of the year they go a mdear, or to hunt for honey among the woods : from thence they bring back wax of two sorts, one which is white and odoriferous, Jhe other of less substance, as the wax of Europe, manufactured by a species of bees without stings, called opernus; also another kind of wax, made by a still different sort of bees, but which are all properly denominated wild wax. This wax is delivered to the curate, who preserves it in his house to send to the provinces of Peru ; and from the product of this article, and from that of the cotton, which is made into woofs, to the amount of two pounds weight yearly by each Indian, he procures in 3xchange whatever is necessary for the settlement, such as baizes, coloured wools, bags, iron and steel articles, chopping knives, wedges, hatchets, scissars, pocket-knives, needles, medals, bugles, and other articles of hardware and little necessaries, which, being stored up by him, is distributed amongst the natives according to their necessities, and in a manner that they may want for nothing, but live happy and contented. The settlements are as follows :
San Xavier, San Joseph,
La Concepcion, Santiago,
San Miguel, San Juan,
San Ignacio, El Santo,
Santa Ana, Corazon.
CHIQUIZA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Sachica in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a cold temperature, and produces wheat, maize, barley, papaSy and the other fruits peculiar to its climate. Its ijihabitants are so few as scarcely to amount to 30 housekeepers, and about the same number of Indians. Four leagues to the n. w. of Tunja, and somewhat less from Velez.
[CHIRAGOW. See Plein River.]
CHIRAMBIRA, an island situate in the large bay of St. Juan, on the coast of the province and government of Choco in the S. sea, which gives its name to a small creek formed by this island and the continent.
CHIRE, Santa Rosa de a city of the government and province of Los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; founded by the Governor Francisco Anciso. It is of a very hot and unhealthy temperature, but affords the same vegetable productions as the rest of the province. It is so mean and reduced as to contain hardly 100 housekeepers, and scarcely deserves the name of a city. This settlement lies the furthest to the n. w. extremity of any in this kingdom, and is bounded in that quarter by the province and bishopric of Caracas.
CHIRGUA, a river of the province and government of Venezuela. It rises in the mountain of Tacazuruma on the s. runs s. and enters the Gamalotal, after having collected the waters of many other rivers.
CHIRICOAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, to the e. of the mountains of Bogota, and at the entrance of the llanos or plains of Cazanare and Meta. They lead a wandering life through the woods in company with the Guaibas ; they are crafty and very dexterous thieves, but of a docile and pacific disposition. In 16.64; some of them were reduced into