The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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but very little known, of Indians, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, bordering upon the river Fusagasuga. They are few, and live dispersed in the woods, having a communication with the Faeces and Fusungaes.
[CHYENNES, Indians of N. America, the remnant of a nation once respectable in point of number. They formerly resided on a branch of the Red river of Lake Winnipie, which still bears their name. Being oppressed by the Sioux, they removed to the w, side of the Missouri, about 15 miles below the mouth of Warricunne creek, where they built and fortified a village ; but being pursued by their ancient enemies the Sioux, they fled to the Black hills, about the head of the Chyenne river, where they wander in quest of the buffalo, having no fixed residence. They do not cultivate. They are well disposed towards the whites, and might easily be induced to settle on the Missouri, if they could be assured of being protected from the Sioux. Their number annually diminishes. Their trade may be made valuable.]
[CIACICA. See Cicasica.]
[CIBOLA, or Civola, the name of a town in, ana also the ancient name of, New Granada in Tierra Firroe, S. America. The country here, though not mountainous, is very cool ; and the Indians are said to be the whitest, wittiest, most sincere and orderly of all the aboriginal Americans. When the country was discovered, they had each but one wife, and were excessively jealous. They worshipped water, and an old woman that was a magician ; and believed she lay hid under one of tlicir
CIBOO, Minas de, some rough and craggy mountains, nearly in the centre of the island of St. Domingo, where some gold mines are worked, and from whence great wealth was procured at the be* ginning of the conquest.
CICASICA, a province and corregimiento of Perú ; bounded n. and n. e. by the mountains of the Andes, and the province of Larecaxa ; e. by the province of Cochabamba ; s. e. by that of Paria and coTTCgirnicnto of Oruro ; on the s . it is touched by the river of Desaguadero ; s. w, by the province of Pacages ; and n. w.. and w. by the city of La Paz. It is one of the greatest in the whole kingdom, since the corregidor is obliged to place here 12 lieutenants for the administration of justice, on account of its extent. It is five leagues from n. to j. and 80 from e. to w. Its temperature is various ; in some parts there are some very cold serrantasy in which breed every species of cattle, in proportion to the number of estates found there. That part which borders upon the Andes is very hot and moist, but at the same time fertile, and abounding in all kinds of fruits and plantations of sugar-cane, and in cacao estates, the crops of which are very great, and produce a lucrative commerce ; the use of this leaf, which was before only common to the Indians, being now general amongst the Spaniards of both sexes and all classes ; so that one basketful, which formerly cost no more than five dollars, will now fetch from 10 to 11 ; vines are also cultivated, and from these is made excellent wine. This province is watered by the river La Paz, which is the source of the Beni ; also by a river descending from the branches of the cordillera, and which, in the wet season, is tolerably large. At the river Corico begins the navigation by means of rafts to the settlement of Los Reyes. Amongst the productions of this province may be counted Jesuits bark, equal to that of Loxa, according to the experiments made at Lima. This province begins at the river Majaviri, which divides the suburbs of Santa Barbara from the city of La Paz, and here is a little valley watered by the above river, and in it are a few houses or country-seats belonging to the inhabitants of the above city. This valley, which is of a delightful temperature, extends as far as the gold mine called Clmquiahuilla, on the skirt of the cordillera, where was found that rich lump of gold which weighed 90 marks, the largest ever seen in that kingdom, with the peculiarity, that upon assaying it, it was found to have six different alloys ; its degrees of perfection differing from 18 to 23 j ; and that being valued in Spanish money, it proved to be worth 11,269 dollars reals. This prize was carried to the royal treasury, and upon this occasion the Marquis of Castelfuerte, then viceroy, received the thanks of his majesty. In the territory of Cinco Curatos (or Five Curacies) of the Andes are found in the forests excellent woods, such as cedars, corcoholos, &c. and many fine fruits, also tobacco. It had formerly very rich mines of gold and silver, which are still known to exist in other mountains besides that of Santiago, but the natives have no inclination to work them. The aforementioned mountain has the peculiarity of abounding in either sort of the said metals. In the asiento of the mines of Arica, there is a gold mine which produces but little. From the wo^ of the flocks are made sora«
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tifni appearance. A mountain similar to this is found in the marshes of Maule.]
Copiapo, a river Avhich rises in the cordillera. It runs two leagues to the w. passes near the settlement of its name, and empties itself into the S. sea, serving as a port for vessels.
Morro de Copiapo, a mountain, called Morro de Copiapo, in the coast, at the side of the port of its name.
COPORAQUE, another. See Vilcomayo.
(COPPER Mine, a large river of New Britain, reckoned to be the most n. in N. America. Taking a n. course, it falls into the sea in lat, 19P n. and about long. 119° a;, from Greenwich. The accounts brought by the Indians of this river to the Rritish ports in Hudson bay, and the specimens of copper produced by them, induced Mr. Hearne to set out from fort Prince of Wales, in December 1770, on a journey of discovery. He reached the river on the 14th July, at 40 miles distance from the sea, and found it all the way encumbered with shoals and falls, and emptying itself into it over a dry flat of the shore, the tide being then out, which seemed by the edges of the ice to rise about 12 or 14 feet. This rise, on account of the falls, will carry it but a very small way within the river’s mouth ; so that the water in it has not the least brackish taste, Mr. Hearne had the most extensive view of the sea, which bore n. w. by w. and n. e. when he was about eight miles up the river. The sea at the river’s mouth was full of islands and shoals ; but the ice was only thawed away about three-fourths of a mile from the shore, on the 17th of July. The Esquimaux had a quantity of whale-bone and seal-skins at their tents on the shore.)
COQUIMBO, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Chile ; bounded e. by the province of Tucuman, of the kingdom of Peru, tho cordillera running between ; s. by the province of Quillota; and w. by the Pacific ocean. It is 80 leagues in length s. and 40 in width e, w. Its temperature is very benign ; and on account of its not raining much in the sierra,, through the low situation of this part of the province, the snow and frost is not so common here, nor does it stay upon the ground so long as it does upon the parts which lie s. of Santiago. For the same reason the rivers are few, and th# largest of them are those of Los Santos or Limari, and that which passes through its capital. Many huanmos and vicunas breed here. The territory is for the most part broken and uneven, and produces, although not in abundance, the same fruits as in the whole kingdom, such as grain, wine, and oil of excel* lent quality. It has many gold mines, likewise some of silver, copper, lead, sulphur, white lime, and salt ; but the most abundant of all are those of copper; large quantities of this metal having been sent to Spain for founding artillery, and indeed from the same source has been made all the artillery in this kingdom. This metal is found of two sorts, one which is called campanal, and is only fit for founding, and the other, which has a mixture of gold, and is called de labrar,, or working metal, and which is known only in this province. Here also they make large quantities of rigging for ships. Its inhabitants may amount to 15,000. [In this province is found tlie quisco tree, with thorns of eight inches long ; the same being used by the natives for knitting needles. It is noted for producing the best oysters, and for a resin which is yielded from the herb chilca. See Chieb.] The capital bears the same name, or that of La Serena. This was the second settlement of the kingdom, and founded by the order of Pedro de Valdivia, by Captain Juan Bohon, in 1543, in the valley of Cuquimpi, which gave it its name, and which, being corrupted, is now called Coquimbo, and El Segundo de la Serena, in memory of the country of Valdivia in Estremadura. It lies at a quarter of a league’s distance from the sea, and is situate