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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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[ACAAY, a parish in Paraguay, situate on a small river which runs into the Río Paraguay. It is about 14 leagues SE of Asuncion. Lat. 25° 54' 7" S Long. 57° 25' W.]

ACACUNA, a mountain of Peru, in the province and corregimiento of Arica in Peru. It is very lofty, and is four leagues distant from the S. sea; is very barren, and situate between the promontory of Ilo and the river Sama. Lat. 70° 29' S [Long. 18° 35' W.]

ACADIA, a province and peninsula of N. America, on the E coast of Canada, between the island or bank of Newfoundland and New England, by which it is bounded on the w. It is more than 100 leagues in length from N W S E and nearly 80 in width, from NE to SW from the gulph of St. Lawrence to the river Santa Cruz. It was discovered in 1497 by Sebastian Cabot, sent thither from England by Henry VII. The French, under the command of Jacob Cartier, of St. Maloes, established themselves here in 1534, in order to carry on a codfishery on the bank of Newfoundland; and in 1604, Peter Guest, a gentleman of the household of Henry IV of France, was sent by that king to establish a colony, which he founded at Port Royal. The English entered it under Gilbert Humphry, in consequence of a grant which had been made to this person by Queen Elizabeth, and gave it the title of Nova Scotia. In 1621 King James I made a donation of it to the Earl of Stirling; and in 1627 the French, commanded by Kirk de la Rochelle, made themselves masters of it, destroying all the establishments of the English, who were obliged to surrender it up, in 1629, by the treaty of St. Germains. The French shortly afterwards lost it; a Governor Philip having taken possession of it; but they, however, regained it in 1691, through the conduct of Mr. De Villebon. In order to settle the pretensions of the rival courts, commissioners were, by mutual consent, appointed in the peace of Riswick, in 1697, to consider which should be the limits of Nova Scotia and New England; and in the peace of Utrecht, it was entirely ceded to the English, who afterwards returned to it. This beautiful country contains many rivers and lakes; the principal of these is the Rosignol, well stocked with fish: there are also many woods, full of excellent timber, and thronged with very singular birds; as, for instance, the Colibri, or hummingbird, and various others. The same woods abound in many kinds of fruits and medicinal herbs. It is very fertile in wheat, maize, pulse of all sorts, and also produces cattle of various kinds, animals of the chase, and abundance of fine fish. Its principal commerce is in skins and salt fish. The winter is longer and colder than in Europe. The capital is Port Royal.— [The name of Acadia was first applied to a tract from the 40th to the 46th degree of N lat. granted to De Mons, Nov. 8, 1603, by Henry IV of France. For the present state of this country, see NOVA SCOTIA.]

ACAGUATO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldía mayor of Tancitaro. It is so reduced as to consist of no more than 15 families of Indians, who maintain themselves by sowing some maize, and other vegetable productions. — Eight leagues S of the capital.

ACAHILA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Yamparaes in Peru, dependent on the archibishopric of Charcas, and annexed to the curacy of S. Christobal de Pilcomayo.

ACAIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Churin.

ACAMBARO, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Zelaya, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán. It contains 490 families of Indians, 80 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and a convent of the order of St. Francis. In its district there are other small settlements or wards.— Seven leagues S of its capital.

ACAMISTLAHUAC, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tasco, annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it is distant two leagues to the E N E. It contains 30 Indian families.

ACAMUCHITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Texopilco, and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec. It contains 60 Indian families, whose commerce is in sugar and honey. It produces also maize, and cultivates many vegetable productions. — Five leagues N of its head settlement.

ACAMON, a river of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It arises in the serranias of Usupama; runs W N W and enters the Caroni.

ACANTEPEC, the head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlapa. It is of a cold and moist temperature, contains 92 Indian families, among which are included those of another settlement in its vicinity, all of whom maintain themselves by manufacturing cotton stuffs.

ACANTI, a river of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains which lie towards the N and empties itself into the sea between Cape Tiburon and the bay of Calidonia.

ACAPALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldía mayor of Chiapa, in the kingdom of Guatemala. Lat. 16° 53' N Long. 93° 52' W [It is situate on the Tobasco river, near the city of Chiapa, and not far from a bay in the S. sea, called Teguantipac.]

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It is distant 30 leagues to the n. of Tunja, andeight from the town of Suata.

CAPITUTU, Banado de, a river of the pro-vince and government of Paraguay . It runs tothe w. and enters the same place.

CAPIUARI, a small river of the province andcaptainship of San Vincente in Brazil. It risesin the mountains near the coast, runs almost di-rectly from e. to w. and enters the Harihambu orTiete, between the Piraciacaba and Jundiaya.

Capiuari, another river of the province and go-vernment of the Chiquitos Indians, and in the king-dom of Peru ; it rises to the s. e. of the settlementof San Rafael, runs to the n. and enters the Yteneswith a slight inclination to the n. w.

Capiuari, another, in the province and govern-ment of Paraguay, which enters the Paraná, nearthe settlement of La Mision de Jesus.

Capiuari, another, in the province and captain-ship of Rey in Brazil. It rises from a lake nearthe coast, runs to the w. and enters the large riverof Los Patos.

CAPLIRA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Aricá in Peru ; annexed to the curacyof Tacna.

CAPLITOILGUA, an island of the N. sea, inthe straits De Magellan, one of those which form thes. coast, at the mouth of the canal of St. Isidro.

Caplitoilgua, a bay in the former island.

CAPOCUI, a large lake of the province of Quito,to the n. of the river Napo, emptying itself througha canal into the river Napo. Lat. 57° s.

CAPOLITA, a river of the province and alcaldíamayor of Tecoantepec in Nueva España ; it runsto the e. and enters the S. sea between the Aguatulcoand the Simatlan.

CAPON, a river of the province and govern-ment of Guayana ; one of those which enter theCuium on the n. side.

CAPOT, a small river of the island of Mar-tinique ; it runs to the n. e. and enters the sea be-tween the Falaise and the Grand Ance.

Capot, a bay on the coast of the same island,on its n. w. side, between the town of Carbet andthe bay of Giraumont.

CAPOTERA, River of, in the kingdom of Bra-zil ; it rises in the sierra grande, runs to the n. n. e.and enters the Tocantines, between the Santa Lucíaand the Araguaya.

CAPOTILLO, River of, in the island of St.Domingo ; it rises near the n. coast, runs w. andturning to the n. n. w. enters the sea at port Delfin.

CAPOTIQUI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru.

CAPUCINS, Morne des, or Morro de los

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Capuchinos, a mountain of the island of Mar-tinique, at the back of the city of fort Royal.

CAPUCUI, a settlement of the missionaries ofthe regular order of the Jesuits, now abolished.

CAPUE, Alto, a town belonging to the French,in the part which they possess in the island of St.Domingo ; it ivas taken and burnt by the Spaniardsin the year 1691 , after a victory gained by them.

CAPUE, with the addition of Baxo (low), to dis-tinguish it ; another settlement of the same islandand dominion as the former.

CAPUI, a settlement of the province of Guayanaand government of Cumaná ; one of those whichis formed by the missions there established by theCatalanians.

Capui, a small river of the province and govern-ment of Paraguay ; it runs to the w. and enters theParaná between the Caruguampú and the Quendi.

CAPUIO, a small settlement of the head settle-ment of Etuquaro, and alcaldía mayor of Vallado-lid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán ;in which district there are some cultivated lands,and in these, as well as in the settlement, residesome Spanish families, and some of the Musteesand Indians, who gain their livelihood in tilling theground, in making lime, and cutting wood. Fourleagues w. of its capital.

CAPULA, a village of a small settlement of thehead settlement and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec inNueva España ; situate in the cleft or hollow partof a mountain covered with trees ; its inhabitants,who consist of 63 Indian families, make charcoaland timber, these being the articles of their com-merce.

CAPULALPA, San Simon de, a small settle-ment of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor ofTezcoco in Nueva España, situate on the top of ahill; it has a very good convent of Franciscans,and contains 75 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes,and Mustees, and 196 of Indians : its territory isvery fertile, and the most luxuriant of any in thesame jurisdiction ; notwithstanding there is a lackof moisture, there being no running streams. Theyare used to gather most abundant crops of wheat,maize, barley, vetches, beans, and French beans ;they have large breeds of hogs, both in the villageand in the farms and neighbouring fattening stalls,which they carry for sale to Mexico, to La Puebla,and other parts. One league n. of its capital.

CAPULUAC, San Bartolome de, a headsettlement of the alcaldia mayor of Metepec inNueva España; it contains 524 Indian families,including those who inhabit the wards of its dis-trict, and it is two leagues to the s. e. of its capital.

CAPURE, an arm of the river Orinoco, one of

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CHACOS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Huariaca.

CHACOTA,a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Aricá in Peru ; situate close to theQuebada de Victor.

CHACRALLA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Abucara.

CHACRAPAMPA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru ; annex-ed to the curacy of Huayama.

CHACTAHATCHE, a river of S. Carolina,which runs s. and enters the Chicachas.

CHACTAW, a settlement and capital of theIndian district of this name in Louisiana, in whichthe French had a fort and establishment. (TheChactaws, or Flat-heads, are a powerful, hardy,subtle, and intrepid race of Indians, "vpho inhabita very fine and extensive tract of hilly country,with large and fertile plains intervening, betweenthe Alabama and Mississippi rivers, and in the w.part of the state of Georgia. This natioti had,not many years ago, 43 towns and villages, inthree divisions, containing 12,123 souls, of which4041 were fighting men. They are called by thetraders Flat-heads, all the males having the foreand hind part of their skulls artificially flattenedwhen young. These men, unlike the Muscogul-ges, are slovenly and negligent in every part oftheir dress, but otherwise are said to be ingenious,sensible, and virtuous men, bold and intrepid, yetquiet and peaceable. Some late travellers, how-ever, have observed that they pay little attentionto the most necessary rules of moral conduct, atleast that unnatural crimes were too frequent amongthem. Dift'erent from most of the Indian nationsbordering on the United States, they have largeplantations or country farms, where they employmuch of their time in agricultural improvements,after the manner of the Avhite people. Althoughtheir territories are not one-fburth so large as thoseof the Muscogulge confedraey, the number of in-habitants is greater. The Chactaws and Creeksare inveterate enemies* to each other. There area considerable number of these Indians on the w.side of the Mississippi, who have not been homefor several years. A bout 12 miles above the postat Oachcta on that river, there is a small villageof them of about 30 men, who have lived there forseveral years, and made corn ; and likewise onBayau Chico, in the n. part of the district ofAppalousa, there is another village of them ofabout fifty men, who have been there for aboutnine years, and say they have the governor of

Louisiana’s permission to settle there. Besidesthese, there are rambling hunting parties of themto be met with all over Lower Louisiana. Theyare at war with the Caddoques, and liked by. neither red nor white people.)

(Chactaw Hills, in the n. w. corner of Georgiariver.)

(CHACTOOS, Indians of N. America, wholive on Bayau Boeuf, about 10 miles to the s. ofBayau Rapide, on Red river, towards Appalousa ;a small, honest people ; are aborigines of thecountry where they live; of men about 30 ; di-minishing; have their own peculiar tongue;speak Mobilian. The lands they claim on BayauBceuf are inferior to no part of Louisiana in depthand richness of soil, growth of timber, pleasant-ness of surface, and goodness of water.. TheBayau Bceuf falls into the Chaffeli, and dischargesthrough Appalousa and Attakapa into Vermilionbay.)

CHACURIES, a settlement of the jurisdictionof the city of Pedraga, in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, is of the missions which were held thereof the order of St. Domingo. It is but small, andits climate is hot.

(CHADBOURNE’S River, district of Maine,called by some Great Works river, about 30 milesfrom the mouth of the Bonnebeag pond, fromwhich it flows. It is said to have taken its lattername from a mill with 18 saws, moved by onewheel, erected by one Lodors. But the projectwas soon laid aside. The former name is derivedfrom Mr. Chadbourne, one of the first settlers,,who purchased the land on the mouth of it, of thenatives, and whose posterity possess it at this day.)

CHAGONAMIGON, a point on the s. coastof lake Superior, in New France.

CHAGRE, a large and navigable river of theprovince and government of Panamá in the king-dom of Tierra Firme, has its origin and sourcein the mountains near the valley of Pacora, andtakes its course in various directions, makingmany windings, which are called randa/es, until itenters the N. sea. It is navigated by large vesselscalled chatas, (having no keels), up as far as thesettlement of Cruces, where is the wharf for un-lading, and the royal custom-houses ; the greaterpart of the commerce being conducted by thismeans, to avoid the obstacles occurring from a badand rocky road from Portobeloto Panama. It hasdifferent forts for the defence of its entrance ; thefirst is the castle of its name, at the entrance ormouth ; the second is that of Gatun, situate upona long strip of land formed by a river of this name ;and the third is that of Trinidad, situate in a simb

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America called New South Wales. Its territoryconsists of a white dry sand, and it is covered withsmall trees and shrubs. This island has a beauti-ful appearance in the spring to those Avho discoverit after a voyage of three or four months, and afterhaving seen nothing but a multitude of mountainscovered with frost, which lie in the bay, and in thestrait of Hudson, and which are rocks petrifiedwith eternal ice. This island appears at that sea-son as though it were one heap of verdure. Theair at the bottom of the bay, although in 51“ of hit.and nearer to the sun than London, is excessivelycold for nine months, and extremely hot the remain-ing three, save when the n. w. wind prevails. Thesoil on the e. <^s well as on the w. side produces allkinds of grain and fruits of fine qualities, whichare cultivated on the shore of the river Rupert.Lat. 52“ 12' n. Long. 80“ w.

CHARNACOCHA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Pilaya and Paspaya inPeru,

CHARO, Matlazingo, the alcaldía mayorof the province and bishopric of Mechoacán inNueva España, of a mild and dry temperature,being the extremity of the sierra of Otzumatlan ;the heights of which are intersected with manyveins of metals, which manifest themselves veryplainly, although they have never yet been dugout ; and in the wet seasons the clay or mud pitsrender the roads impassable. It is watered by theriver which rises in the pool or lake of Valladolid,and by which the crops of wheat, maize, lentils, andthe fruits peculiar to the place, are rendered fertileand productive. This reduced jurisdiction belongsto the Marquises of Valle, and is subject to theDukes of Terranova. Its population is reduced tosome ranchos, or meetings for the purpose of labour,and to the capital, which has the same name, andwhich contains a convent of the religious order ofSt. Augustin, this being one of the first templesbuilt by the Spaniards in this kingdom, the presentdilapidated state of it bearing ample testimony toits great antiquity. It contains 430 families ofPirindas Indians, employed in labour and in thecultivation of the land, and in making bread, whichis carried for the supply' of Valladolid, the neigh-bouring ranchos and estates. It should also have45 or 50 families of Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mulat-toes. Is .50 leagues to the w. of Mexico, and twoto the e. of Valladolid. Long. 100° 44'. Lat.19“34'.

CHARON, a small river of Canada, which runse. and enters the lake Superior in the bay of Beau-harnois.

CHARPENTIER, Fond du, a bay of the n. e.

coast of the island of Martinique, between the townand parish of Marigot and the Pan de Azucar.

CHARPENTIER, a small river of the same islandwhich runs n. e. and enters the sea in the formerbay.

CHARQUEDA, a lake of the province andcaptainship of Rey in Brazil, near the coast whichlies between this lake and that of Los Patos.

CHARRUAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofParaguay, who inhabit the parts lying between therivers Parana and Uruguay. These Indians arethe most idle of any in America, and it has beenattempted in vain to reduce them to any thing likea civilized state.

Charruas, a settlement of this province andgovernment.

Charruas, a river of the same province, whichruns s. s. w. and enters the Paraná.

CHARTIER, Bahia de, a bay on the s. coastof the straits of Magellan, between the bay of SanSimon and the point of Tunquichisgua.

Chartier, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and colony of Virginia ; situate on the shoreof a river of the same name. It runs s. and entersthe sea in the county of Hampshire.

(Chartier, a township in Washington county,Pennsylvania.)

(Chartier’s Creek. See Canonsburg andMorganza.)

(CHARTRES, a fort which was built bythe French, on the e. side of the Mississippi,three miles n. of La Prairie du Rocher, or theRock meadows, and 12 miles n. of St. Genevieve,on the w. side of that river. It was abandoned in1772, being untenable by the constant washings ofthe Mississippi in high floods. The village s. ofthe fort was very inconsiderable in 1778. A mileabove this is a village settled by 170 warriors of thePiorias and Mitchigamias tribes of Illinois Indians,who are idle and debauched.)

CHASPAIA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Aricá in Peru; annexed to thecuracy of Tarata.

CHASSES, a small river of N. Carolina, whichruns n. n. e. and enters that of Cutawba.

CHAT, Trou de, a settlement of the parish andisland of Martinique ; situate near the bay of theCul de Sac Royal, and to the n. e. of the capital.

Chat, a river of the island of Guadalupe, whichrises in the mountains of the e. coast, and runninge. enters the sea between the rivers Grand Bananierand Trou au Chien, or Hole of the Dog.

Chat, a cape or point of land on the coast ofthe river St. Lawrence, on the shore opposite tothe port of San Pacracio.

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down from the mountains to the jy. of the RachcsIndians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. untilit enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix,opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto,which lies to the s.

CHOPO, a settlement of the government andjurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a very mild climate, andabounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and manysorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branchof its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them forsale to the capital, which lies at a small distancefrom hence, in the road leading to M6rida andGibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost asmany indigent settlers.

[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are threemiles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]

CHOPTANK, a large navigable river of theprovince and colony of Maryland, [emptying it-self into Chesapeak bay.]

CHOPTANK, Little, another (river) of the same pro-vince Maryland. It runs w. and enters the sea in the bay ofChesapeak.

CHOQUE, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxatarabo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Acros.

CHOQUECAMATA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregtmiento of Cochabamba in Peru.

CHOQUELIMPE, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Arica in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Copia.

CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians,of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwellingimmediately upon the mountains and forests ofFosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitchtheir huts near the river Bermejo. But little isknown of their customs and of their country.

CHORAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huamalies in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Jesus.

CHOROMA, a settlement of the province andcorrregimiento of Chichas and Tarija, in the dis-trict of the former, and annexed to the curacy ofTupisa.

CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plainsor llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touchingtoAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogo-les, and extending n. as far as the mountains ofthe Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They areat present reduced to the Catholic religion, and aremixed with those of other nations ; but some fewof them still persist in their idolatry, and livedispersed upon the mountains.

CHORONI, a port of the coast of the kingdomof Tierra Firme, in the province and governmentof Venezuela, between the mountain of Ocumaraand the port of Chuapo.

CHOROS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It has the hard lot of being scantily sup-plied Avith Avater, even as much as is necessary lordrinking.

Same name, a point of the coast of this provinceand kingdom (Chile).

Same name, an island near the coast and point ofits name (Choros),

CHORRERA, a settlement of the jurisdictionand akaldia mayor of Nata in the kingdom ofTierra Firme; situate near the coast of the S.sea.

Same name, a creek of the island of Cuba, onthe 71. coast, having a fort for its protection, witha detacliment of troops from the Havana.

CHORILLO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru.

Same name, another (settlement), in the province and corregimento of Cercado in the same kingdom ; an-nexed to the curacy of Surco.

CHORRILLOS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cañete in Peru; situate onthe coast, close to the point of China.

CHORROS, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito.

CHORROU, Chike du, a rivulet and establishmentof the French, in their possessions inGuayana.

CHORUNGA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Condesuyos de Arequipa in Peru ;annexed to the curacy of Andaray ; situate in thevalley of its name.

CHOSAPACK, a large andbeautiful bay on the coast of the province and colony of Virginia]]. [See Chesapeak.]

CHOSCHAMA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Huacaiia.

[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres, near a small lakeabout 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35°33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]

CHOTA, Todos Santos de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Caxamarca inPeru.

[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, thoughonly two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth.It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions,in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they foundits temperature to be intensely sultry.]

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