The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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AHUACAZALCA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of San Luis de la Costa, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espaiia. It contains 56 families of Indians, -whose commerce consists in rice and cotton. Three leagues n. e. of its liead settlement.

AHUACAZINGO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Atengo, and alcaldia mayor of Chilapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 46 families of Indians, and is ten leagues e. of its head settlement.

AHUALICAN, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tixtlan in Nueva Espana ; of a benign and salutary temperature, as it is fanned by then, breezes. It lies three leagues n. of its head settlement, which is Oapan ; and contains 36 families of Indians.

AHUATELCO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Izucai in Nueva Espana, situate on the skirt of the volcano of the same name. In its district are eight settlements, inhabited by 289 families of Indians, and 11 of Musiees and Mulattoes, who live in some temporary habitations for labourers. It is situate on a cold, rough, and barren soil, but is nevertheless fertile in wheat, and abounds in water and cattle. Eight leagues n. w. of its capital.

AHUATEMPA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Santa Isabel, and alcaldia mayor of Cholula, in Nueva Espana. It contains 39 families of Indians, and is two leagues s.of its capital.

AHUATEPEC, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains 32 families of Indians, and is two leagues n. of its capitaL

AHUATLAN, San Pedko de, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of San Juan del Rio, and alcaldia mayor of Queretaro, in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the curacy of the former place, and lying ten leagues n. w, of the latter.

AHUEHUEZINGO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Chietlan, and alcaldia mayor of Izucar, in Nueva Espana.

AHUEZITLA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains 36 families of Indians, and abounds in chia, (a white medicinal earth), grain, and earthen-ware. It is nine leagues w, n. w. of its capital.

AHWAHHAWAY, a race of Indians, who differ but very little in any particular from the Mandans, their neighbours, except in the unjust war which they, as well as the Minetares, prosecute against the defenceless Snake Indians. They claim to have once been a part of the Crow Indians, whom

they still acknowledge as relations. They have resided on the Missouri as long as their tradition will enable them to inform.

AIABACA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Piura in Peru.

AIACASI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Belille.

AIACOA, a small river of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It rises to the w. of the Sierra Maiguatida, runs e. and enters the Orinoco near the rapid stream of the Marumarota.

AIACOCHA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru, situate in the island Tayacaja.

AIAHUALTEMPA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Zitlala, and alcaldia mayor of Chilapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 36 families of Indians, and is three leagues to the s. of its head settlement.

AIAHUALULCO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Ixlahuacan, and alcaldia mayor of Xalapa, in Nueva Espana, which, in the Mexican language, signifies a small river. It abounds in the best fruits of its jurisdiction, such as pears and other sorts of fruit highly esteemed at Vera Cruz. It contains only three families of Spaniards, 22 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 70 of Indians. In its district are several temporary habi. tations for labourers, and pastures for breeding cattle, which reach as far as the district of Tepcaca, in the lofty eminence of Xamiltepec, 16 leagues distant from Xalapa. It includes also within its administration the cultivated estates extending as far as the place called Puertezuelo, where this jurisdiction approximates to that of San Juan de los Llanos on the w. s.w. side ; and in the culture of the above estates many Spaniards, 3Iustees, and Mulattoes, are employed. One league s. w. of its head settlement.

Aiahualulco, another settlement of the head settlement of the district of Zitlala, and alcaldia mayor of Chilapa, in the kingdom of Xalapa, and annexed to the curacy of this place, from which it is three leagues distant, being nine to the s. of its head settlement. It contains 42 families of Indians, including another small settlement incorporated with it.

AlAHUASA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Pachaconas.

AIAMARCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Castro Virreyna in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Cordova.

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AIANABE, a settlement of Indians of S. Carolina, situate on the shore of the river Buffle-noir.

AIAPANGO, the head settlement of the district of the akaldia mayor of Chaleo in Nueva Espana. It contains 100 families of Indians, and is annexed to the curacy of Amecaraeca, at two leagues to the s. of its capital.

AIAPATA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, and very opulent, on account of its silver mines. The sands on the banks of the rivers here have been known so richly impregnated with this metal, that lumps of it have been at different times picked up. It is the most considerable population in the province, and the temperature is so salutary, that it is very common to meet with persons of 90 years of age, and many also of 100.

AIAPEL, a town of the province and government of Antioquia, in the new kingdom of Granada, situate on the bank of a large lake or swamp of the same name, and which is formed from the waters of the rivers Cauca, San Jorge, and others. In its district are the lavaderos, or washing places for gold, of La Cruz, San Mateo, Thuansi, Can, Ure, Man, San Pedro, and La Soledad.

AIARANGA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chancay in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Paccho.

AIARI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Mayoc.

AIATA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

AIATASTO, a large river of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district and jurisdiction of the city of Salta, on the banks of which are some pasture grounds of the same name, upon which are fed 40,000 head of neat cattle, and 6000 of horses for breeding.

AIATEPEC, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Atitlan, and alcaldia mayor of Villalta, in Nueva España. It contains 45 families of Indians, and is 17 leagues from its capital.

AIAUl, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Castro Virreyna in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Huaitara.

AIAUIRI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lamoa in Peru. In its vicinity are some forts, which were built by the Indians in the time of their gentilism, and now in a state of great dilapidation. There is a lake of warm water here, the bottom of which has never yet been found. The water always keeps at one height, so that it is presumed that it finds its way out through some subterraneous channel. There is also another warm

AIM

water spring at two leagues distance, which is very noxious, and, as it runs, has the property of petrifying, in like manner as the spring of water in Guancavelica.

Aiauiri, another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Yauyos in Peru.

AIAUTLA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Teutila in Nueva España, of a warm temperature, and inhabited by 100 Indian families, who support themselves by cultivating and selling the vaynilla plant. Nine leagues s. of its capital.

AICAROPA, a small river Of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It rises in the country of the Armocotos Indians, runs from e. to w. with a slight inclination to the s. and enters the Caura.

AICHES, a settlement of Indians of the province and government of Las Texas, in Nueva España, sitzate in the way which leads to Mexico.

AICIACHIA, a settlement of the missions which belonged to the Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, 40 leagues w. s. w. of the town and real of the mines of Chiguagua.

AIECTIPAC, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Yxteapan, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva España. It contains 21 Indian families, and is three leagues e. of its head settlement.

AIENCAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cuenca, in the kingdom of Quito, annexed to the curacy of Paccha.

AIGA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huailas in Peru.

AIGAME, a settlement and real of mines of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana.

==AILES, a river of the province and government of Louisiana. It runs s, e. between the rivers Canot and Noyre, and empties itself into the Mississippi.

AIMARAEZ, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded n. w. and w. by the province of Andahuailas, of the bishopric of Guamanga, s. by Parinacocha of the same, s. e. by Ghumbivilcas, and e. by Cotabamba. It is 40 leagues in length from «. to s. and 26 in width from e. to ti). including in its figure on the w. side the last mentioned province. It js one of the most uneven soils in the kingdom, being full of lofty sierras and snowy mountains. It is on this account that its climate is very cold, excepting, however, in some vallies, where it is more temperate, and where, on some small sloping grounds, the inhabitants sow seed and grain, and cultivate fruit trees and cane plantations,

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from which they are enabled to make sugar. It is intersected by three rivers, which are of no use whatever to it, being too low in their beds ; but they unite and form the Pachachaca, which enters the province of Abancay, and has more than 40 bridges of wood and cord thrown over it in different parts. There are innumerable veins of gold and silver ore in this province, which are not worked, from the want of energy, and from the poverty existing among the inhabitants ; and thus only some trifling emoluraeul is now and then derived from one or the other. It was otherwise in former times, but these mines are now almost all filled with water. Some mines of quicksilver have been discovered, but the working of them has been forbid. Here is little of the cattle kind, and no cloth manufactures peculiar to the country arc made here, with the exception of a sort of thick quilt, which they call Chuces ; and a kind of grain is gathered here, known by the name of Maino. This province was united to the empire of Peru by Capac Yupanqui V. Emperor of the Incas. The language of the natives is the same as that which is most universal throughout the kingdom. The capital formerly consisted of a large and w ell ordered settlement, which was called Tintay, but which is at present but thinly inhabited, on account of the scarcity of water, and from a plague, in which almost all its inhabitants perished. The number of souls in the whole of the province may amount to 15,000. It eontains 50 settlements within its jurisdiction. The yearly tribute received by the corregidor used to amount to 800,100 dollars, and the duties paid upon the alcavahif (a centage on goods sold), to 688 dollars.

The settlements of its jurisdiction are ;

Chaluanca. Ayahuasa.

Colca. Huancaray.

Mollebamba. Sabaino.

Carabaniba. Catarosi.

Matara. Antilla.

Antabamba. Huaquirca.

Oropesa. Pocoanca.

Totora. Tapairihua,

Traparo. ChalvauL

Chacoche. Caypi.

Caleauzo. Caracara.

Viru Sanaica.

Pampamarca. Huaillaripa.

Silco. Pichihua.

Atuncama. Amoca.

Chacna. Yanaca,

Capaya. Saraico.

Muitu. Subyunca.

Pachaconas. Lucre.

Sirca. Pichurhua. Colcabamba. Soraya. Huairahuacho. Toraya.

ChuquiBga.

Ancobainba.,

Pampayacta.

Chaj>imarca.^

Lambrama*

Pairaca.

AIMAHAPA, a small river of the province and colony of Surinam, in the part of Guayana possessed by the Dutch. It is one of those which enter the Cuyum near where it joins the Esquivo.

AINACA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Cochamarca.

AINACOLCA, a gold mine of the province and corregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. It is famous for the excellent quality of this metal, but it is very difficult to be worked, on account of the hardness of its stone.

AIO, a settlement of the province and corregU miento of Condensuyos de Arequipa in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Chichas.

AIOAIO, a settlement of the province and corregirniento of Sicasica in Peru, eight leagues from its capital.

AIOCUESCO, Santa Maria de, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Antequera, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan in Nueva España. It is of a hot temperature, contains a convent of the religious order of Santo Domingo, and 400 Indian families, who carry on some commerce in the cochineal, (the plant producing which they cultivate), and a very considerable one in the manufacture of Pulgues^ on account of the abundance of Magueyes which are found here. Seven leagues s. of its capital.

AIOTITLAN, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Amola in Nueva Espana, immediately upon the coast of the S. sea, and situate between two deep ravines. Its temperature is very hot and troublesome to live in, on account of the various venomous animals and insects that abound in its territory. It contains 76 Indian families, whose trade consists in making troughs and trays very finely painted. This settlement, in which there is a convent of the order of St. Francis, is beautifully surrounded with plantations. Fifteen leagues distant from its capital.

AIONANTOU, a settlement of Indians of New France, situate in the county of Canahoque, on the shore of one of the salt marshes that are found there.

AIOZINAPA, a settlement of the head settlement of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva España, of a hot and moist temperature, ?,ijd abounding in cochineal, fruit, and pulse, with 2

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which the inhabitants trade. These are composed of 34 Indian families. It is a little more than three leagues from its head settlement,

AIOZINGO, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Chaleo in Nueva España, situate on the shore of the lake of Mexico, with a good port, at which are embarked the fruits of many provinces for the supply of that capital, (Chaleo), which is within eight or ten hours sail from hence. It has a good convent of S. Augustin, where a most beautiful image of the virgin is reverenced, and supposed to be wonder-working. Its inhabitants consist of 120 Indian families and some Spanish. It is distant one league s, s. e. from its capital.

AIQUILE, a settlement of the province of Mizque in Peru.

AIRICOS, a nation of Indians who inhabit the plains of Cazanare and Meta, of the new kingdom of Granada, to the c. of the mountains of Bogota, on the borders of the river Ele. It is numerous, and feared by all its neighbours, on account of its valour and dexterity in the use of arms.

Airicos, with the dedicatory title of San Francisco Xavier, a settlement which belonged to the Jesuits, and founded in 1662 by father Antonio de Monteverde, and composed of some of those Indians who were thus reduced to the Catholic faith.

AIRIHUANCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cotabamba in Peru.

AIRS, a small city of the province and colony of New Jersey, in the county of Burlington.

AIUDA, Nuestra Senora be la, a village and settlement of the Portuguese, in the province and captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situate upon the sea-coast, and on the shore of the river S. Miguel.

Aiuda, another settlement in the province and captainship of Puerto Seguro, situate upon the coast on the shore of the port.

AIUILA, a river of the province and alcaldia mayor of Soconusco, in the kingdom of Guatemala: It runs into the S. sea between the settlement of Suchitepec and the river Coatlan.

AIUINOS, a nation of Indians of the province and government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana, converted to the faith by father Francisco Olinano, of the abolished society of the Jesuits, in 1624. They live towards the n. of the above province, and in the times of their heathenism they dwelt in the lofty mountains, in order that they might defend themselves from the other nations with whom they were at war. They are docile, well-inclined, and of good habits.

AIUN, or luMERi, a river of the province and

AKA

viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres. It runs s. and enters the Rio Negro.

AIUNCHA, Pago BE, a settlement of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district and jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero, from whence it is 22 leagues distant. It is situate on the shore of the river Dulce.

AIUTLA, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold temperature, containing 187 Indian families, and a convent of the religious order of S. Domingo ; distant 13 leagues to the e. of its capital.

Aiutla, another settlement in the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Autlan of the same kingdom, with 23 Indian families, who have large stores of pulse and fruit, so rich and fertile is their country. It is annexed to the curacy of Tenamaztlani, from whence it lies one league s,

AlUA, a small town of the island of St. Domingo, situate in the line which divides the Spanish territory from the French. It was the inhabitants of this town who chiefly contributed to ensure the victory which was gained against the Spaniards in the plain of Puerto Real, by the president Don Francisco de Segura y Sandoval, in 1691.

AIX, Palmar be, a large beach on the coast of Florida, within the channel of Bahama, near the point of Canaveral ; memorable for the shipwreck of 22 vessels, composing the fleet of Nueva Espana, which took place in 1715, being under the command of Don Antonio de Ubila ; memorable also for the loss of two galleons from Tierra Firme, commanded by Don Antonio de Echevers ; the loss of the one and the other amounting to nearly 20 million dollars.

Aix, a river of the same province, which runs into the sea very near the Palmar.

AJOIANI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Coaza.

[AJOS, a parish situate on the foot of the mountains which separate the rivers Paraguay and Parana, about 24 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23° 26' 34" s. Long. 56° 30' w.~\

AJOUES, a settlement of Indians of the province and government of Louisiana, in which the French held a garrison and fort for its defence, on the shore of a lake near the Missouri.

A joues, another settlement of the same province and government, situate on the shore of the river Missouri.

AKANCEAS, a nation of savage Indians of N. America, who live at the conflux of the rivers Mississippi, and another abundant stream of its

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name. Tlie religion of these idolaters is very singular, for they acknoAvledge a supreme being, who, they imagine, manifests himself to them in the figure of some animal which feeds in their fields ; and when this dies, tlvey substitute another, after having signified very great demonstrations of regret for the fate of the one whicli is lost.

AKANKIA, a river of the province and government of Louisiana. It is an arm of the Mississippi, which runs s. s. e. and enters the lake of Maurepas.

AKANSA, a settlement of Indians of the province and government of Louisiana. It has a fort built by the French, and it is near the mouth of the river of its name, where it enters the Mississippi.

Akansa, another settlement in the same province, situate also on the shore of the aforesaid river, and distinguished by the name of Petit Akansa.

Akansa (river), a river of the above province and government. It rises in the country of the Ozaques Indians, runs many leagues s. e. as far as the town of Satovis, Avhen, turning to the s. it enters by two mouths into the Mississippi, being throughout subject to large cataracts.

AKOUKA, a settlement of the province of La Guayana, in the Dutch possessions, or colony of Surinam ; situate on the shore of the river Little, just before it enters tlie Marawin.

[ALABAHA, a considerable river in E. Florida. Also said to be the name of a branch of St. Mary’s river.]

[ALABAHA, a considerable river of Georgia, which pursues a s. course to thegulph of Mexico, 100 miles w. of the head of St. Mary’s river. Its banks are low, and a trifling rain sAvells it to more than a mile in Avidth. In a freshet the current is rapid, and those Avho pass are in danger of being ^entangled in vines and briars, and droAvned ; they are also in r<'ul danger from great numbers of hungry alligators. The country for nearly iOO miles on each side of this river, that is to say, from the l)ead of St. Mary’s to Flint river, Avhicli is 90 miles w. of the Alabaha, is a continued soft, miry Avaste, affording neither water nor food for men or beasts ; and is so poor indeed, as that the common game of the Avoods are not found here. The i ountry on the of Alabaha is rather preferable to that on the e.l

[ALABAMOUS, an old French fort, in the w. part of Georgia ; situate between Coosa and Tallapoose rivers, and not far from their confluence.]

ALABAMA, an Indian village, delightfully situated on the banks of the Mississippi, on several swelling green hills, gradually ascending from the verge of the river. These Indians are the remains of the ancient Alabama nation, who inhabited the e. arm of the Great Mobile river,. Avhich still bears their name, now possessed by the Creeks, or Mnscogulges, who conquered the former.]

[Alabama River is formed by the junction of the Coosa or Coosee, or High Town river, and Tallapoosee river, at Little Tallasee, and runs in a s. w. direction, until it meets Tombigbee river from the n. w. at the great island which it there forms, 90 miles from the mouth of Mobile bay, in thegulph of Mexico. This beautiful river has a gentle current, pure waters, and excellent fish. It runs about two miles an hour, is 70 or 80 rods wide at its head, and from 15 to 18 feet deep in the driest season. The banks are about 50 feet high, and seldom, if ever, overfloAved. Travellers have gone down in large boats, in the month of May, in nine days, from Little Tallasee fo Mobile bay, Avhich is about 350 miles by water. Its banks abound Avith valuable productions in the vegetable and mineral kingdoms.

[ALABASTER, or Eleutheua, one of the Bahama or Lucayo islands, on which is a small fort and garrison. It is on the Great Bahama bank. The soil of this island and Harbour island, which lies at the n. end of it, is better tlian Providence island, and produces the greatest part of the pineapples that are exported ; the climate is very healthy. Lat. 24° 40' to 26° 30' n. Long. 76° 22' to 76° 56' W.1

[ALACHUA Savannah is a level green plain, in the country of the Indians of that name in E. Florida, situate about 75 miles w. from St. Augustine. It is about 15 miles over, and 50 in circumference ; and scarcely a tree or bush of any kind to be seen on it. It is encircled Avith high sloping hills, covered with Avaving forests, and fragrant orange groves, rising from an exuberanfly fertile soil. The ancient Alachua town stood on the borders of this savannah ; but the Indians mnoved to Cuscowilla, two miles distant, on account of the unhealthiness of the former site, occasioned by the stench of the putrid fisli and reptile.s, in the summer and autumn, driven on shore by the alligafors, and <he noxious exhulutions from the marshes of ti)e savannah. Though the horned cattle and horses bred in these meadows are large, sleek, sprightly, and faf, yet they are subject to mortal diseases; such as the water rot, or scald, occasioned by the warm Avater of the savannah ; Avhile those which, range in the high forests are clear of this (lisonler.1 °

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