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CUTI, a river of the province and captainship of Maranan in Brazil. CUTIGUBAGUBA, a settlement of the Portuguese, in the province and captainship of Para in Brazil; situate on the shore of the river of Las Amazonas ; to the n. of the city of Para. Cutiguba, an island of the river of Las Amazonas, opposite the city of Para.
CUTUBUS, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the river Besani. CUTUCUCHE, a river of the province and government of Tacunga in the kingdom of Quito. It flows down on the s. side of the skirt of the mountain and volcano of Cotopacsi, and united with the Alaques, forms the San Miguel, which laves part of the llanura of Callo, runs near the settlement of Mulahalo, and by a country seat and estate of the Marquisses of Maenza, who have here some very good cloth manufactories. This river runs very rapid, and in 1766, owing to an eruption of the volcano, it inundated the country, doing infinite mischief; again it was, a second time, thrown out of its bed, though the damage it then did was nothing like what it was on the former occasion.
CUTUN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile. COTUNLAQUE, a pass of the road which leads from the city of Quito to Machache, almost impracticable in the winter time, and only noted for being a place of infinite difficulty and vexation to such as are obliged to travel it. CUTUPITE, Cano de, an arm of the river Orinoco, in the province and government of Guayana, one of those which form ifs different mouths or entrances; it is that which lies most close to the coast of Tierra Firme, aud which, with the coast, forms part of the canal of Manao.
CUYO, Cotio, or Cujo, a large province of the kingdom of Chile, and part of that which is called Chile Oriental or Tramontano, from its being on the other side of the cordiUera of the Andes; bounded e. by the country called Pampas ; n. by the district of Rioxa, in the province and government of Tucuman ; *. by the lands of Magellan, or of the Patagonians; and®, by the cordillera of the Andes, which is here called the Western, Cismontana, part of those mountains. It is of a benign and healthy climate ; and although in the summer, the heat on the llanuras is rather oppressive, extremely fertile, and abounding, independently of the fruits peculiar to the country, in wheat, all kinds of pulse, wine, and brandies, which were formerly carried to the provinces of Tucuman aud Buenos Ayres, although this traffic has of late fallen into decay, from the frequent arrivals of vessels from Spain. It abounds in all kinds of cattle, and in the cordiUera, and even ia the pampas, are large breeds of vicunas, huanacos, vizcachas, turtles, two kinds of squirrels, ostriches, tigers, leopards, and an infinite quantity of partridges, pigeons, and turtledoves. The flesh of the swine and mules is esteemed the best in all America; and, generally speaking, victuals areso cheap that it may be procured at little or no expence. The skirts of the mountains are covered with beautiful woods, and their tops are overspread with snow. Throughout nearly the whole province is found a great quantity of glasswort, and in the cordiUera are some mines of silver, especially in the valley of Iluspallata, which were formerly worked by fusion, to the great detriment of the metal, but which are to this day worked in the same manner as those of Peru, and consequently afford greater emolument. Here are also some gold mines, and others of very good copper. The rivers which water this province all rise in the cordiUera, and the most considerable of them are the Tunuyan, which is the first to the s. those of Mendoza, San Juan, Jachal, and the Colorado to the n. e. In the cordiUera, near the high road leading from Santiago to Mendoza, is the great lake of the Inca, wherein are said to be great treasures deposited by the Incas at the beginning of the conquest, to keep them from the Spaniards. This lake is bottomless, and it is thought to be formed of the snows melted and flowing down from the mountainous parts of the district. On the side towards Chile the lake has a vent by six or seven small branches, forming the river of Aconcagua ; and from the opposite side issue some other streams in a contrary direction, and form the Mendoza. In the very heat of summer this
lake is as cold as snow itself, This province, like all the others of the kingdom which lie to the s. e. of the cordilfcra, is ever subject to terrible tempests of thunder and lightning, accompanied with boisterous winds and rains from October to March; the same not happening in the provinces which lie to the to. The Indians of this province are of a darker complexion than those of any other ; but they are also of loftier stature, better made, agile, and extremely addicted to the chase, in which they greatly excel, and more particularly in the taking of ostriches, which abound in the llanuras to \X\cs. ; and by all of these exercises they become so light and active as to be able to keep pace with a horse. These Indians are generally known here by the name of Guapes, and are descendants of the Pampas, their neighbours to the e. with whom they trade in the fruits of the country in exchange for clothes and other articles, money not being known amongst any of these barbarians. The Guapes are of a docile and generous disposition, but of great spirit, and very warlike, robust, and well formed. This country, considering its extent, is but thinly peopled, since its inhabitants amount to only 25,000 of all sexes and ages, according to the latest calculation. The capital is the city of Mendoza. [See Chile.] _ _
[ CUYOACAN, a settlement of the intendancy of Mexico, containing a convent of nuns founded by Hernan Cortes, in which, according to his testament, this great captain wished to be interred, " in whatever part of the world he should end his days." This clause of the testament was never fulfilled.] CUYOCUYO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of its capital. CUYOTAMBO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Quishuares. CUYOTEPEC, San Bartolome de, a head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Antequera, in the province and bishopric of Oaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a middle temperature, contains 358 families of Indians, and a convent of the religious order of St. Dominic. In its district are sown in abundance various kinds of seeds and American aloes, of which is made pulque: Four leagues s. of its capital. CUYUANA, an island of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese, formed by two arms of the river Cudiivara or Purus, which separate before they c u z enter the Maranon. It is large, and of an irregular square figure. CUYUM, or Cuyuni, a large river of the province of Guayana, and government of Cumana. Its origin is not known for certain ; but, from the accounts of the Caribes Indians, it is somewhere near the lake Parime, in the interior of the province, and to the n. e. of the said lake. It runs nearly due from n. to s. making several turnings, until it enters the Esquivo. By this river the Dutch merchants of this colony, assisted by the Caribes, go to entrap the Indians, to make them labour in the estates ; and they have built two forts on either side of the mouth of this river.
CUZABAMBA, a large settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lamas in Peru ; close to which passes a small river of the same name, and which afterwards unites itself with the river Moyobamba. Cuzabamba, another settlement in the province and corregimiento of Tacunga, of the kingdom of Quito.
CUZALAPA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Ayotitlan, and alcaldia mayor of Amola, in Nueva Espana. Its population is very small, and its inhabitants employ themselves in the cultivation of seeds and breeding of cattle. Nine leagues to the w. of its head settle ment. CUZAMALA, a head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Azuchitlan in Nueva Espana, lying 10 leagues to the n. of its capital, and being divided from the same by two large rivers. It is of a hot and dry temperature ; its population is composed of 36 families of Spaniards, 30 of Mustees, 48 of Mulattoes, and 53 of Indians, who speak the Taracan language. The trade here consists in large cattle, in the cultivation of maize, and making cascalote. Some emolument also is derived from renting the lands belonging to the capital and the neighbouring settlements. CUZCATLAN, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of San Salvador in the kingdom of Guatemala. CUZCO, as it is called by the Indians, a city, the capital of a corregimiento in Peru, the head of a bishopric, erected in 1536, founded by the first Emperor of the Incas, Manco Capac, in 1043, who divided it into Hanam Cozco and Hurin Cozco, which signify Cuzco Lofty and Low, or Superior and Inferior ; the former towards the n. and the second towards the s. It is situate upon a rough and unequal plain formed by the skirts of various mountains, which are washed by
tlie small river Guatanay ; the same being nearly dry, save in the months of January, February, and March ; though the little water found in it just serves to irrigate the neighbouring plains. The grandeur and magnificence of the edifices, of the fortress, and of the temple of the sun, struck the Spaniards with astonishment, when, at the conquest, they first beiield them, and upon their entering the city.j in 1534, when the same was taken possession of by Don Francisco Pizarrro, for Charles V^. It was then the capital of the whole empire of Peru, and the residence of the emperors. Its streets were large, wide, and straight ; though at the present day Lima stands in competition with it in regard to grandeur. The houses are almost all builtofstone, and of fine proportions. The cathedral, which has the title of La Asuncion, is large, beautiful, rich, and of very good architecture, and some even prefer it to the cathedral of Lima. Here are three curacies in the chapel of the Sagrario, two for the Spaniards, and another for the Indians and Negroes ; and the parishes are Nuestra Senora de Belen, San Christoyal, Santa Ana, San Bias, S:intiago, and the hospital ; besides two others, which are without the city, called San Geronirno and San Sebastian. Here are nine convents of the following religious orders ; one of St. Dominic, founded on the spot where the Indians had their celebrat^sd temple of the sun ; two of St. Francis, one of the Observers, and another of the Recoletans, one of St. Augustiti, one of La Merced, two colleges which belonged to the regulars of the extinguished company of Jesuits, the principal, in the part lying towards the c. being destined, at the present time, for an armoury ; and the other at the back of the same, in which was the house for noviciates and students, serving now as barracks for the troops ; add to these the chapel of ease to the cathedral. Here are four hospitals ; the first and most ancient is that of the Espiritu Santo, in which are received Indians of both sexes, subject to the patronage of the secular cabildo, and governed by a junta of S3 persons, the president of whom, the alcalde, has the first vote, and after him the administrator or first brother. It has two chaplains and very ample revenues ; one of the sources being the duties paid upon all effects passing over the bridge of Yipuriraac, the which droits belonged to the royal exchequer until the year 1763, at which time, at the instance of the king’s ensign, Don Gabriel de Ugarte, they were conceded by the king to the hospital, together with the right and property of the bridge, in redemption of some crown grants which were left to the hospital by
Rodrigo de Leon, in Seville ; and it was by this means that the hospital, having become so well endowed, has now no less than 250 beds. A jubilee has been granted by the apostolical see to its chapel; and this is celebrated at the octave of Pentecost with much solemnity, and by an unusually great concourse of people, and was once the best observed jubilee of any in America. The second hospital, being of the religious order of San Juan de Dios, is for the men, and has 50 beds; the third, called. Of Nuestra Senora de la Almudena, is for all descriptions of individuals, and has also 50 beds ; the tburih, called San rlndres, has 30 beds for Spanish women. Here are three monasteries of nuns ; the first of Santa Catalina dc Sena, founded where the Incas kept the virgins dedicated to the sun ; and the others are of Santa Clara and the bare-tboted Carmelites. Here are also four other religious houses, which are that^of the Nazarenes, thatof Nuestra Senora del Carmen, that of Santiago, and that of San Bias ; three colleges, which are, that of San Bernardo, wherein are taught grammar, philosophy, and theology, and was founded by a Aizcayan for the sons of the conquerors, having been formerly under the charge of the regulars of the company of Jesuits, and at present under an ecclesiastical rector ; that of San Borja, for the sons of the Indian caciques, where they are initiated in their letters, and in the rudiments of music, at least as many of them as show any disposition to this science, (this accomplishment having been formerly taught by the same regulars of the company) ; and that of San Antonio Abad, which is a seminary and university, and is a very sumptuous piece of architecture. This city preserves many monuments of its ancient grandeur ; and amongst the rest, the great fortress built for its defence, which, although injured by time, bears testimony to the powers of the Incas, and excites astonishment in the mind of every beholder, since the stones, so vast and shapeless, and of so irregular a superficies, are knit together, and laid one to fit into the other with such nicety as to want no mortar or other material whereby to fill up the interstices ; and it is indeed difficult to imagine how they could work them in this manner, when it is considered that they knew not the use of iron, steel, or machinery for the purpose. The other notable things are the baths ; the one of warm and the other of cold water ; the ruins of a large stone-way, which was built by order of the Incas, and which reached as far as where Lima now stands ; the vestiges of some subterraneous passages which led to the fortress from the houses or palaces of the Inca, and in which pass4 n ?
s;iges the walls were cut Tery crooked, admitting for a certain space only one person to pass at a time, and this sidewise, and with great difficulty, when shortly afterwards two raio^ht pass abreast. The exit was by a rock, worked in the same narrow manner on the other side ; and this was altogether a plan adopted through prudence, and for the better security against any sudden assault, since here a single man might defend himself against a great number. In a magnificent chapel of the cathedra! is venerated a miraculous crucifix, which was presented by the Emperor Charles V. and which is called De los Temblores, from the city having invoked it as a patron in the tremendous earthquake which happened here in 1590; also an image of Nuestra Senora de Helen, which they call La Linda, (the Beautiful), the gift of the same royal hand. It is the second city of Peru, and inferior only to the capital of the kingdom. It was governed, after the time of the conquests made by the Spaniards, by a secular cabildo, composed of two ordinary alcaldes, a royal ensign, an alguaxil mayor, a provincial alcalde, a depositor-general, 12 perpetual regidors, two alcaldes of the inquisition, and a regidor, nominated annually, with the title of judge of the natives, who is entrusted with the causes of the Indians; these having also a protector, nominated every two years by the viceroy of Lima. This cabildo maintains, through the grant of the Emperor Charles V. the same privileges as the cabildo of Burgos. The city has also many other prerogatives, with the title of Gran Ciudad, and Cabeza, or head of the kingdoms and provinces of Peru, in reward for its having supported the crown against the traitor Diego de Almagro, in the conflicts that he maintained with Francis Pizarro, and from its liaving taken him prisoner in 1553, in the celebrated battle of Las Salinas, a league from Cuzco ; also from its having refused to acknowledge the title of governor of Peru, assumed by Diego de Almagro the younger, supporting, in preference, the legitimate government. Again, when the Licentiate Christoval Vaca de Castro arrived, thinking to be governor, the people of Cuzco took him prisoner, under the orders of the lieutenant-governor, Diego Salazar de Toledo, and the ordinary alcalde, Antonio Ruiz de Guevera, and kept him in confinement until he was beheaded in that place by the same person that executed his father. For these services, and for the valuable presents, which on several occasions it has made to the crown, this city was allowed to be by the laws of the Indies, and, as appears by its records, one of the first cities in all Castilla, having a priority of
vote ; and in 1783, it was ordered by the king of Spain, that in consideration of the resistance it offered in the late rebellion of the Indians of the province of Tinta and the other immediate provinces, it should be endowed with the title of Most Noble, Most Loyal, and Most Faithful, and that it should enjoy the same privileges as Lima. In 178i, the office of corregidor was extinguished, and his Majesty established an intendant and governor vice-patron; and in 1787, the tribunal of royal audience, composed of a president, four oidors, and aJiscaL It has for arms a golden castle upon a blue field, with various trophies and colours on the sides, and an eagle at the top. It has been the native place of many illustrious men, and of these are,
Don Bernardo de Aviza y Ugarte, oidor of Panama, bishop of Cartagena and Truxillo, and elected archbishop of Charcas.
Don Cayetano Marcellano y Agramont, bishop of Buenos Ayres, and archbishop of Charcas.
Don Gabriel de Ugarte, royal ensign of the said city.
Don Diego Esquivel and Navia, dean of its church.
Don Ignacio de Castro, curate of San Geronimo and rector of the university.
Don Francisco Espinosa and Medrano, alias El Lunarejo, magistral canon of its church,
Don Francis Xavier de Lagos, penitentiary canon.
The Father Maestro Fray Pedro de la Sota, of the order of La Merced ; a subject who was often consulted by the viceroys in matters of the utmost importance.
The Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, a celebrated historian of Peru.
Its jurisdiction, although it may retain the title of province, is so reduced as to extend merely as far as the district of the city, notwithstanding it formerly comprehended all the neighbouring provinces, until the president, Lope Garcia de ()astro, established in each of these separate corregidors. Its principal commerce consists in the very large quantity of sugar which is made in the neighbouring jurisdictions, and where the inhabitants have many sugar plantations ; that of San Ignacio de Pachachaca, in the boundaries of the jurisdiction of Abancay, and formerly belonging to the regulars of the extinguished company of Jesuits, being the most celebrated. Tliere is made here a vast quantity of baize and ordinary cloth, called panete, woven stuffs, saddles, floor-carpets, and tucuyo, which is an ordinary kind of linen used as clothing by the poor; galloons of gohl, silver,