The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]



>v1io inhabit the woods lying near the river Cucliigara, bomided by the nation of the Cunmnaes, It is but little known.

CUMBA, a settlement of tlie province and corregimicnto of Luya and Chillaos in Peru.

CUMBAL, a settlement of the province and j corregimknlo of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito.

CUMBAL, a very lofty mountain of this province (Pastos), always covered with snow ; from it rises the river Carlosama, which runs e. and the Mallama, which runs n. In Lat. .54° n.

CUMBAYA, a settlement of the kingdom of Quito, in the corregimiento of the district of Las Cinco Leguas de su Capital.

CUMBE. See Chumbe.

CUMBERLAND, Bay of, on the most «. coast of America. Its entrance is beneath the polar circle, and it is thought to have a communication with Batlin’s bay to the n. In it are several islands of the same name. The bay was thus called by the English, according to Martiniere, who, however, makes no mention of the islands.

Cumberland, a port of the island of Cuba, anciently called Guantanamo; but the Admiral Vernon and General Werabort, who arrived here in 1741 with a strong squadron, and formed an encampment upon the strand, building at the same time a fort, gave it this name in honour to the Duke of Cumberland. It is one of the best ports in America, and from its size capable of sheltering any number of vessels. The climate is salutary, and the country around abounds in cattle and provisions. Here is also a river of very good fresh water, navigable for some leagues, and named Augusta by the said admiral. It is 20 leagues to the e. of Santiago of Cuba, in lat. 20° 71. and long. 75° 12' w.

Cumberland, another bay, of the island of Juan Fernandez, in the S. sea. It lies between two small ports, and was thus named by Admiral Anson. It is the best in the island, although exposed to the n, wind, and insecure.

Cumberland Cumberland, an island of the province and colony of Georgia, in N. America, near 20 miles distant from the city of Frederick. It has two forts, called William and St. Andrew. The first, which is at the s. extremity, and commands the entrance, called Amelia, is well fortified, and garrisoned with eight cannons. There are also barracks for 220 men, besides store-houses for arms, provisions, and timber.

[Cumberland, a harbour on the e. side of Washington’s isles, on the n, is, coast ofN. Ame-

C U M 559

rica. It lies s. of Skitikise, and n. of Cummashawaa.J

[Cumberland House, one of the Hudson’s bay company’s factories, is situated in New South Wales, in N. America, 158 miles e. n. e. of Hudson’s 'house, on the s. side of Pine island lake. Lat. 53° 58' 7i. Long. 102° w. See Nelson River.]

[Cumberland, a fort in New Brunswick ; situated at the head of the bay of Fundy, on the e. side of its n. branch. It is capable of accommodating 300 men.]

[Cumberland, a county of New Brunswick, which comprehends the lands at the head of the bay of Fundy, on the bason called Chebecton, and the rivers which empty into it. It has several townships ; those which are settled are Cumberland, Sackville, Amherst, Hillsborough, and Hopewell. It is watered by the rivers Au Lac, Missiquash, Napan Macon, Memrarncook, Petcoudia, Chepodi^, and Herbert. The three first rivers are navigable three or four miles for vessels of five tons. The Napan and Macon are shoal rivers ; the Herbert is navigable to its head, 12 miles, in boats ; the others are navigable four or five miles.]

[Cumberland, a town of New Brunswick, in the county of its own name. Here are coal mines.]

[Cumberland, County, in the district of Maine, lies between Y ork and Lincoln counties ; has the Atlantic ocean on the s. and Canada on the w. Its sea-coast, formed into numerous bays, and lined with a multitude of fruitful islands, is nearly 40 miles in extent in a straight line. Saco river, which runs s. e. into the ocean, is the dividing line between this county and York on the s.w. Cape Elizabeth and Casco bay are in this county. Cumberland is divided into 24 townships, of which Portlatid is the chief. It contains 25,450 inhabitants.]

[Cumberland County`, in New Jersey, is bounded s. by Delaware bay, 7i. by Gloucester county, s. e. by cape May, and w. by Salem county. It is divided into seven townships, of which Fairfield and Greenwich are the chief; and contains 8248 inhabitants, of whom 120 are slaves.]

[Cumberland, the «. easternmost township of the state of Rhode Island, Providence county. Pawtucket bridge and falls, in this town, are four miles 71. e. of Providence. • It contains 1964 inhabitants, and is the only town in the state which has no slaves.]

[Cumberland County, in Pennsylvania,, is

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bounded ??. and 71 . w. by Mifiiin ; e. and n.e. by Susqiiehaiinah river, which divides it from Dauphin ; i-. by York, and s.w. by Franklin county. It is 47 miles in length, and 42 in breadth, and has 10 townships, of which Carlisle is the chief. The county is generally mountainous; lies between^ North and Soutli mountain ; on each side of Conedogwinet creek, there is an extensive, rich, and well cultivated valley. It contains 18,243 inhabitants, of whom 223 are slaves.]

[Cumberland, a township in York county, Pennsylvania. Also the name of a township in Washington county, in the same state.]

[Cumberland County, in Fayette district, N. Carolina, contains 8671 inhabitants, of whom 2181 are slaves. Chief town Fayetteville.]

rCUMBERLAND, a township of the above county (Cumberland), in N. Carolina,]

[Cumberland, a post-town and the chief township of Alleghany county, Maryland, lies on the «. bank of a great bend of Potowmack river, and on both sides of the mouth of Will’s creek. It is 148 miles w. by n. of Baltimore, 109 measured miles above Georgetown, and about 105 ». w. of Washington City. Fort Cumberland stood formerly at the w. side of the mouth of Will’s creek.]

[Cumberland County, in Virginia, on the «, side of Appamatox river, which divides it from Prince Edward. It contains 8153 inhabitants, of whom 4434 are slaves. The court-house is 28 miles from Pawhatan court-house, and 52 from Richmond.]

[Cumberland Mountain occupies a part of the uninhabited country of the state of Tennessee, between the districts of Washington and Hamilton and Mero district, and between the two first named districts and the state of Kentucky. The ridge is about SO miles broad, and extends from Crow creek, on Tennessee river, from s. w. ion. e. The place where the Tennessee breaks through the Great ridge, called the Whirl or Suck, is 250 miles above the Muscle shoals. Limestone is found on both sides the mountain. The mountain consists of the most stupendous piles of craggy rocks of any mountain in the w. country ; in several parts of it, it is inaccessible for miles, even to the Indians on foot. In one place particularly, near the summit of the mountain, there is a most remarkable ledge of rocks, of about SO miles in length, and 200 feet thick, shewing a perpendicular face to the s. e. more noble and grand than any artificial fortification in the known world, and apparently equal in point of regularity.]

[Cumberland River, called by the Indians “ Shawanee,” and by the French “ Shavanon,” falls into the Ohio 10 miles above the mouth of Tennessee river, and about 24 miles due e. from fort Massac, and 1113 below Pittsburg. It is navigable for large vessels to Nashville in Tennessee, and from thence to the mouth of Obed’s or Obas river. The Caney-fork, Harpeth, Stones, Red, and Obed’s, are its chief branches ; some of them are navigable to a great distance. The Cumberland mountains in Virginia separate the head waters of this river from those of Clinch river ; it runs s. w. till it comes near the s. line of Kentucky, when its course is w. in general, through Lincoln county, receiving many streams from each side ; thence it flows s. w. into the state of Tennessee, where it takes a winding course, inclosing Sumner, Davidson, and Tennessee counties ; afterwards it takes a n. w. direction, and reenters the state of Kentucky ; and from thence it preserves nearly an uniform distance from Tennessee river to its mouth, where it is 300 yards wide. It is 200 yards broad at Nashville, and its whole length is computed to be above 450 miles.]

[Cumberland-River, a place so called, where a post-office is kept, in Tennessee, 13 miles from Cumberland mountain, and 80 from the CrabOrchard in Kentucky.]

CUMBICOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Piura in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Trias.

CUMBINAMA. See Loyola.

CUMINACA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Asangaro in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Combaya.

[CUMMASHAWAS, or Cummasuawaa, a sound and village on the e. side of Washington island, on the n. w. coast of N. America. The port is capacious and safe. In this port Captain Ingraham remained some time, and he observes, in his journal, that here, in direct opposition to most other parts of the world, the women maintained a precedency to the men in every point ; insomuch that a man dares not trade without the concurrence of his wife, and that he has often been witness to men’s being abused for parting with skins before their approbation was obtained ; and this precedency often occasioned much disturbance.

[CUMMINGTON, a township in Hampshire county, Massachusetts, having 873 inhabitants; lying about 20 miles n. w. of Northampton, and 120 n. w. by zjj. of Boston. It was incorporated in 1779.1

CUMPAYO, a settlement of the province of

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Ostimiiri in Nueva Espana ; situate 45 leagues from the river Chico.

CUMPLIDA, an island of Paraguay, in the province and government of this name. It issues from an arm thrown out on the w. side of the river, and forms the lake Jayba.

CUMPLIDA, another island, of the Itenes or Guapore, in the province and country of Las Amazonas.

CUMPLIDO, Cayo, an inlet of the N. sea, near the coast of the island of Cuba, the Cayo Romano, and the Cayo de Cruz.

[CUNCHES, Indians of Chile. See index to additional history respecting that country, chap.

CUNDAUE, a settlement of the province and government of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.


Cundurmarca|CUNDURMARCA]], a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of its capital.

CUNEN, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Zacapula in the kingdom of Guatemala.

CUNGAYO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraez in Peru.

CUNGIES, a barbarous nation of Indians, who inhabit the «. of the river Napo, between the rivers Tambur to the e. and the Blanco, a small river, to the w. These infidels are bounded n. by the Ancuteres, and dwell near to the Abijiras and the Icahuates.

[Cuniue|CUNIUE]], a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito ; in the district of which are many estates, as those of Pillachiquir, Guanacauri, Tianorte, Pugni, Tambo de Marivina, Alparupaccha, and Chinan.

CUNIUOS, a barbarous and ferocious nation of the province and country of Las Amazonas, to the c. of the river Ucayale, and to the s. of the Maranon. It is very numerous, and extends as far as the mountain of Guanuco, and the shore of the river Beni. These Indians are the friends and allies of the Piros, and were first converted by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, the missionaries of the province of Maynas ; but in 1714 they rose against these holy fathers, and put to death the Father Bicter, a German, and the Licentiate Vazquez, a regular priest, who accompanied the said mission.

[Cuntuquita|CUNTUQUITA]], a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya ; annexed to the curacy of Coaza.

VtL. I.


CUNUMAL, San Geronimo de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Olto.

[Cunuri|CUNURI]], a settlement of the province and government of Guayana, one of those belonging to the missions held there by the Capuchin fathers. It is on the shore of the river Y uruario, near the settlement of San Joseph de Leonisa.

CUNURIS, a river of the same province as the above settlement (Guyana). It rises in the mountain of Oro, or of Parima, and runs s. until it enters the Maranon, in lat. 2° SO' s. It takes its name from the barbarous nation of Indians who live in the woods bordering upon its shores.

CUPALEN, a river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and enters the Uruguay, between the rivers Gualeguay and Saspoy.

CUPANDARO, Santiago de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuiceo in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the lake. It contains 33 families of Indians, who have the peculiarity of being very white and good looking ; they live by fishing in the same lake. The settlement is two leagues from its capital.

CUPE, a large and abundant river of the province and government of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Fir me. It rises in the mountains in the interior, runs many leagues, collecting the waters of other rivers, and enters the Tuira.

CUPENAME, a river of the province and government of Guayana, or country of the Amazonas, in the part of the Dutch colonies.

CUPl, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chumbivilcas in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Toro.

[CUPICA, a bay or small port to the s. e. of Panama, following the coast of the Pacific ocean, from cape S. Miguel to cape Corientes, The name of this bay has acquired celebrity in the kingdom of New Granada, on account of a new plan of communication between the two seas. From Cupica we cross, for five or six marine leagues, a soil quite level and proper for a canal, which would terminate at the Embarcadero of the Rio Naipi ; this last river is navigable, and flows below the village of Zatara into the great Rio Atrato, which itself enters the Atlantic sea. A very intelligent Biscayan pilot, M. Gogueneche, was the first rvho had the merit of turning the attention of government to the bay of Cupica, which ought to be for the new continent what Suez was formerly for Asia. M. Gogueneche proposed to transport the cacao of Guayaquil by the 4 c

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llio Naipi to Cartagena. The same way offers the advantage of a very quick communication between Cadiz and Lima. Instead of dispatching couriers by Cartagena, Santa Fe, and Quito, or by Buenos Ayres and Mendoza, good quick-sailing packet-boats might be sent from Cupica to Peru. If this plan were carried into execution, the viceroy of Lima would have no longer to wait five or six months for the orders of his court. Besides, the environs of the bay of Cupica abounds with excellent timber fit to be carried to Lima. We might almost say that the ground between Cupica and the mouth of the Atrato is the only part of all America in which the chain of the Andes is entirely broken.]

CUPIN, a small river of the province and captainship of Para in Brazil. It runs n. n. zo and enters the Guama, before it runs into the Amazonas or Maranon.

CUPIRA, a river of the province of Barcelona, and government of Cumana, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the serrania, and runs f. until it enters the sea, close to the settlement of Tucuyo.

CUPITA, Cano de, an arm of the river Orinoco, which runs out by the w. side, and takes its course n. opposite the mouth of the Caura.

CUPLICOS, a river of the province and alcaldia maijor of Tabasco in Nueva Espana, which falls into the sea in the bay of Mexico, between the Dos Bocas and the Tabasco.

CUPO, a small river of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the part possessed by the Portuguese. It rises in the territory of the Nourises Indians, runs s. and enters the Trqpibetas.

CUQUE, a large river of the province and government of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises near the N. sea, to the e. of the province, and following an e. course, enters the canal of Tarena.

CUQUIARACHI, a settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province and government of La Sonora.

CUQUIO, the alcaldia mayor and jurisdiction of Nueva Espana, in the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara ; is one of the most civilized and fertile, abounding in fruits and seeds, and being of a mild temperature. It is watered by three rivers, which are the Verde on the e. the Mesquital on the w. and the Rio Grande on the s. in which last the two former become united.

The capital is the settlement of its name, inhabited by a large population of Indians, some

Mmtets and Mulattoes, and a few Spaniards ; is 13 leagues to the n. e. of Guadalaxara, in long. 268° ; and lat. 21° 40'. The other settlements are, Cantla== , ==Tenalucan,

Manalisco== , ==Quaquala,

Huisculco== , ==Ocotic,

Yagualica== , ==Tepunahuasco,

Acatico== , ==Yotahuacan,

Mestitlan== , ==Tacotan,

Nochistlan== , ==San Christoval,

Toyagua== , ==Iscatlan.


[CURA, with the surname of St. Louis de, is situate in a valley formed by mountains of a very grotesque appearance ; those on the s. w. side are capped with rocks. The valley is, however, fertile, and covered with produce, but the greater part of the property consists in animals. The temperature is warm and dry ; the soil is a reddish clay, which is extremely muddy in the rainy seasons ; the water is not limpid, although it is wholesome. The inhabitants are 4000, governed by a cabildo. In the church is an image of our Lady of Valencianosy the claim to which was long a subject of dispute between the curate of Cura and that of Sebastian de los Reynos ; and after a SO years contest, it was ordered by the bishop Don Francisco de Ibarro to be returned to this place, when it was received in a most triumphant manner. This city is in lat. 10° 2' ; twenty-two leagues s. xo. of Caracas, and eight leagues s. e, of the lake of Valencia.]

CURABICO, a river of the province and captainship of Maranan in Brazil.

CURACOA, or Curazao, an island of the N. sea, one of the Smaller Antilles ; situate near the coast of the province and government of Venezuela. It is 30 miles long, and 10 broad, and is the only island of any consideration possessed by the Dutch in America. It was settled in 1527, by the Emperor Charles V. as a property upon theliouse of Juan de Ampues ; is fertile, and abounds in sugar and tobacco, large and small cattle, also in very good saline grounds, by which the other islands are provided : but its principal commerce is in a contraband trade carried on with the coasts of Tierra Firme ; on which account its storehouses are filled with articles of every description imaginable. Formerly its ports were seldom without vessels of Cartagena and Portobelo, which were employed n the Negro trade, bringing home annually froiu 1000 to 15,000 Negroes, with various other articles of merchandise, although this branch ofcommerce has, from the time that it was taken up by the English, greatly declined. On the s. part of

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C U R A C O A.


the island, and at the w. extremity, is a good port, called Santa Barbara ; but the best port is near three leagues to the ,v. e. of the «. part. The Dutch send annually from Europe many vessels richly laden, and carrying merchandise much in request in every part of America, and this is the principal cause of the flourishing state of this colony.

[The Dutch took this island from the Spaniards in 1632; it was captured by the English in 1798, and again in 1806, when the conduct of Captain Brisbane, who had only three frigates under his command, afforded one of the most wonderful exploits of the British navy. The island, notwithstanding what Algedo remarks, is not oidy barren and dependent on the rains for its water, but the harbour is naturally one of the worst in America ; yet the Dutch have entirely remedied that defect, they have built upon this harbour one of the largest, and by far the most elegant and cleanly towns in the W. Indies. The Dutch ships from Europe used to touch at this island for intelligence or pilots, and then proceed to the Spanish coasts for trade, which they forced with a strong hand, it having been very difficult forthe Spanish guardacostas to take these vessels ; for they were not only stout ships, with a number of guns, but were manned with large crews of chosen seamen, deeply interested in the safety of the vessel and the success of the voyage ; they had each a share in the cargo, of a value proportioned to the station of the owner, supplied by the merchants upon credit, and at a prime cost ; this animated them with an uncommon courage, and they fought bravely, because every man fought in defence of his own property. Besides this, there was, and still is, a constant intercourse between this island and the Spanish continent. 'Cura^oa has numerous warehouses, al-

And the quantities of the principal arlic

ways full of the commodities of Euroi?c and the East Indies. Here are all sorts of woollen and linen cloth, laces, silks, ribbands, iron utensils, naval and military stores, brandy, the spices of the Moluccas, and the calicoes of India, white and painted. Hither the Dutch West India, which was also their African company, snnually brought three or four cargoes of slaves, and to this mart the Spaniards themselves yet come in small vessels, and carry off, at a very high price, great quantities of all the above sorts of goods ; and the seller has this advantage, that the refuse of warehouses and mercers shops, and every thing that is grown unfashionable and unsaleable in Europe, go off here extremely well; every thing being sufficiently recommended by its being European. The Spaniards pay in gold or silver, coined or in bars, cacao, vanilla, Jesuits bark, cochineal, and other valuable emnmodities. The trade of Cura^oa, even in times of peace, was said to be annually worth no less than 500,000/. ; but in time of war the profit was still greater, for then it becomes the common emporium of the W. Indies ; it affords a retreat to ships of all nations, and at the same time refuses none of them arms and amuiiition to destroy one another. The intercourse with Spain being then interrupted, the Spanish colonies have scarcely any other market from whence tiiey can be well supplied either with slaves or goods. The French come hither to buy the beef, pork, corn, flour, and lumber, which are brought from the continent of N. America, or exported from Ireland ; so that, whether in peace or in war, tiia trade of this island flourishes extremely.

The official value of the Imports and Exports of Cura^oa were, in

1809, imports .^241,675, exports 16,696

1810, ^236,181, ^263,996

es imported into Great Britain were, in




Cotton Wool.

Brit. Plant.

For. Plant.

Brit. Plant.

For. Plant.







1809, f()5

24,48 L




1810, 700




The trade between Gura^oa and St. Domingo has already greatly fallen off ; first, by means of supplies trom other parts, especially from Dunkirk, but principally from the commotions in that devoted island ; little cultivation is carried on here ; but as a naval station, Cura 9 oa is pre-eminently important. Its secure and excellent harbour is capable of containing and protecting against all

winds, as well as against any hostile force, upwards of SOO ships of the largest size. All repairs can be conveniently made. In the time of war, it may serve as a rendezvous for merchant vessels bound to Europe, who can always take refuge here, on account of its situation to windward. A fleet defeated at sea may find a safe asylum, and conveniences for refitting ; it is an excellent sta-J 4 c 2

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