390

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JoshuaOB at Oct 10, 2018 09:24 AM

390

390

tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues to
the w. n. w. of Mexico.

Chilchota, another settlement of the head
settlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cui
catlan
; situate at the top of a pleasant mountain
which is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80
families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading in
cochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits.
It is eight leagues from its head settlement.

Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory title
of San Pedro. It is of the head settlement of
Quimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de los
Llanos
, in Nueva España. It contains 210 fami
lies of Indians.

CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlement
and real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ix
miquilpan
in Nueva España. It contains 215
families of Indians, and in the real are 27 of
Spaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. It
is of an extremely cold and moist temperature,
and its commerce depends upon the working of
the lead mines. Some silver mines were formerly
worked here, but these yielded so base a metal,
and in such small quantities, that they were en
tirely abandoned for those of lead, which yielded
by far the greatest emolument. Five leagues to
the e. of its capital.

CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. Ame
rica
, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by the
straits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on the
e. by the provinces of Tucuman and Buenos
Ayres
, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, and
on the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios.
472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magal
lanicas from the straits and the plains or deserts
of Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. The
Inca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carried
his conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, in
lat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the first
Spaniard who discovered this country, in the year
1335, and began its conquest, which was after
wards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pe
dro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, and
afterwards met with a disgraceful death at the
hands of the Indians, having been made prisoner
by them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are the
most valorous and warlike of all in America ) they
have maintained, by a continual warfare, their inde
pendence of the Spaniards, from whom they are
separated by the river Biobio. This is the limit
of the country possessed by them ; and though
the Spaniards have penetrated through different
entrances into their territories, and there built va
rious towns and fortresses, yet have all these been
pulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-

fenders of their liberty and their country. They
are most dexterous in the management of the lance,
sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macana
wood ; and although they are equally so in the
practice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom,
saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” They
are very agile and dexterous horsemen, and their
horses are excellent, since those which run wild,
and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have not
degenerated, or become at all inferior to the best
which that country produces. The part which
the Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends its
whole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapo
to the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond the
isle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues,
at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, as
it were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera of
the Andes ; from these descend infinite streams and
rivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys,
and forming a country altogether charming and
luxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for the
convenience and enjoyment of life, producing, in
regular season, all the most delicate fruits of Ame
rica and Europe. The summer here begins in
September, the estio (or hot summer) in December,
the autumn in March, and the winter in June.
The climate is similar to that of Spain, and the
temperature varies according to the elevation of
the land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru,
and which are very low, are of a warm tempera
ture, and lack rain, having no other moisture than
what they derive from some small rivers descend
ing from the cordillera^ and running, for the space
of 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the other
provinces it rains more frequently, in proportion
as they lay more to the s. especially in the winter,
from April to September ; for which reason they
are more fertile. These provinces are watered by
more than 40 rivers, which also descend from the
cordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snow
melted in the summer, swelling them to a great
height. They generally abound in fish of the
most delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~
gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and many
others. The sea-coast is of itself capable of main
taining a vast population by the shell-fish found
upon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the most
delicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ;
here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasy
a species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados,
pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes,
and tunnies, which come at their seasons on
the coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadra
bas of Andaluda. For some years past they salt
down cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a


Translation

as
CHILCHOIAQUE, Pueblo de la Cabecera de Tlacolula y Alcaldía mayor de Xaiapa en Nueva España, situado en una cañada de mucha extensión, que principia en los derrames de Xilotepec, y corre por mas de una legua: es Pueblo muy corto y de mal temperamento, por cuya causa, de las muchas familias que lo habitaban, solo se cuentan hoy 19, que sirven de trabajar en las rancherías deja comarca por la esterilidad de su territorio: a distancia de una legua al N de Xaiapa y a orilla del camino Real que sube a México está el gran molino de Lucas Martin, cuyas tierras fertiliza el caudaloso río Cerdeño, y de sus aguas se proveen varios Pueblos y ranchos de labor en que asisten mas de 30 familias de Españoles, algunos mestizos y muchos Indios: está 4 leguas al SO de su Cabecera.

CHILCUAUTLA y Cardonal, Pueblo y Real de Minas de la Alcaldía mayor de Ixmiquilpan en Nueva España: tiene 215 familias de Indios, y en el Real 27 de Españoles y 40 de Mestizos y Mulatos que viven en él: es de temperamento sumamente frío y húmedo,; y su comercio la labor de las minas de plomo; antiguamente se trabajaron algunas de plata que hábia en su recinto; pero daban tan poco metal y de tan baxa ley, que las abandonaron por las de plomo, que les dexa mas utilidad: está 5 leguas al Oriente de su Capital.

CHILE, Reyno de la América Meridional en la parte mas austral de ella: confina por el N con el Perú, por el S con el estrecho de Magallanes y Tierra del Fuego, por el Oriente con la Provincias del Tucuman y Buenos Ayres, por el N E con el Brasil y Paraguay, y al Poniente tiene por límites la mar del Sur: se extiende del N al S 472 leguas, comprehendiendo las tierras magallánicas hasta el estrecho, desde las llanuras o desiertos de Copiapó, que es la parte mas Septentrional, el Inca Yupanqui XI, Emperador del Perú, conquisto hasta el río Mauli o Maulle, en 34 gr. 30 min. de lat. aust. Diego de Almagro fue el primer Español que descubrió este Pais el año de 1535, y empez0 su conquista, que después prosiguió el de IS4 1 el célebre Pedro de Valdivia, fundador de las primeras Ciudades del Reyno, y murió desgraciadamente a manos de los Indios que lo hicieron prisionero el año de 1551: estos son los mas valerosos y guerreros de toda la América, que han mantenido una continua guerra para no rendirse al dominio de los Españoles, de quienes los separa el río Biobió, límite de la parte que poseen estos, pues aunque en diferentes entradas han penetrado de la otra parte y establecido varias Ciudades y fortalezas, todas han sido arruinadas y destruidas por aquellos valerosos defensores de su libertad y de su patria, que son diestrísimos en el manejo de la lanza, la espada, la flecha y la macana; y aunque también lo son en las armas de fuego, las usan poco porque dicen que es de cobardes, son muy ágiles y diestros en montar a caballo, y los tienen excelentes, pues los que produce el Reyno y se llevaron de los de Andalucía, no han degenerado ni son inferiores a los mejores que produce este Pais: la parte que poseen los Españoles en este Reyno se extiende por toda la longitud de él desde el referido Valle de Copiapó hasta el río sin fondo, mas adelante de la Isla de Chiloe, en 44 grados de lat., pero de ancho solo 45 leguas por donde mas; de modo, que es como una faxa eutre la mar del S y la Cordillera de los Andes, de donde nacen infinitos rios y arroyos que riegan muchos Valles fértiles y hermosos que hacen un delicioso Pais, abundante y pingue de todo quanto es necesario para la comodidad y regalo de la vida, produciendo toda especie de frutos delicados de América y de Europa en sus regulares estaciones, que empiezan en Septiembre el Verano, el Estío en Diciembre, en Marzo el Otoño, y el Invierno en Junio: su temperamento es semejante al de España, variando los temples según sus alturas, pues las primeras Provincias entrando por el Perú, que están mas baxas, son calientes y carecen de lluvias, no teniendo otro riego que el de unos pequeños rios que baxan de la Cordillera al mar por espacio de 20 u 30 leguas: en las otras llueve con mas abundancia quanto están mas al S, especialmente en invierno desde Abril a Septiembre, por lo qual son mas fértiles y regadas de mas de 40 rios, que también descienden de la Cordillera, y se forman de las lluvias y de las nieves derretidas en verano, y 11ergando a juntarse unos con otros hacen algunos muy caudalosos, y generalmente abundan de delicados peces, como anguilas, truchas bagres, reyeques, ahogatos y pejereyes y otros muchos: la Costa del mar pudiera sustentar reynos dilatados solo con el marisco que hay de 20 especies de muy delicado gusto, y lo mismo el pescado, como tollos, congrios, robalos, sienas, cabrillas, viejas, lenguados, machuelos, dorados, pejegallos, pulpos, pámpanos, corbinas, pejereyes, lisas, atunes que vienen por sus tiempos a la Gosta, como en las

390

390

tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues to
the w. n. w. of Mexico.

Chilchota, another settlement of the head
settlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cui
catlan
; situate at the top of a pleasant mountain
which is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80
families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading in
cochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits.
It is eight leagues from its head settlement.

Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory title
of San Pedro. It is of the head settlement of
Quimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de los
Llanos
, in Nueva España. It contains 210 fami
lies of Indians.

CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlement
and real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ix
miquilpan
in Nueva España. It contains 215
families of Indians, and in the real are 27 of
Spaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. It
is of an extremely cold and moist temperature,
and its commerce depends upon the working of
the lead mines. Some silver mines were formerly
worked here, but these yielded so base a metal,
and in such small quantities, that they were en
tirely abandoned for those of lead, which yielded
by far the greatest emolument. Five leagues to
the e. of its capital.

CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. Ame
rica
, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by the
straits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on the
e. by the provinces of Tucuman and Buenos
Ayres
, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, and
on the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios.
472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magal
lanicas from the straits and the plains or deserts
of Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. The
Inca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carried
his conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, in
lat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the first
Spaniard who discovered this country, in the year
1335, and began its conquest, which was after
wards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pe
dro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, and
afterwards met with a disgraceful death at the
hands of the Indians, having been made prisoner
by them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are the
most valorous and warlike of all in America ) they
have maintained, by a continual warfare, their inde
pendence of the Spaniards, from whom they are
separated by the river Biobio. This is the limit
of the country possessed by them ; and though
the Spaniards have penetrated through different
entrances into their territories, and there built va
rious towns and fortresses, yet have all these been
pulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-

fenders of their liberty and their country. They
are most dexterous in the management of the lance,
sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macana
wood ; and although they are equally so in the
practice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom,
saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” They
are very agile and dexterous horsemen, and their
horses are excellent, since those which run wild,
and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have not
degenerated, or become at all inferior to the best
which that country produces. The part which
the Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends its
whole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapo
to the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond the
isle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues,
at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, as
it were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera of
the Andes ; from these descend infinite streams and
rivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys,
and forming a country altogether charming and
luxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for the
convenience and enjoyment of life, producing, in
regular season, all the most delicate fruits of Ame
rica and Europe. The summer here begins in
September, the estio (or hot summer) in December,
the autumn in March, and the winter in June.
The climate is similar to that of Spain, and the
temperature varies according to the elevation of
the land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru,
and which are very low, are of a warm tempera
ture, and lack rain, having no other moisture than
what they derive from some small rivers descend
ing from the cordillera^ and running, for the space
of 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the other
provinces it rains more frequently, in proportion
as they lay more to the s. especially in the winter,
from April to September ; for which reason they
are more fertile. These provinces are watered by
more than 40 rivers, which also descend from the
cordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snow
melted in the summer, swelling them to a great
height. They generally abound in fish of the
most delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~
gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and many
others. The sea-coast is of itself capable of main
taining a vast population by the shell-fish found
upon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the most
delicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ;
here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasy
a species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados,
pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes,
and tunnies, which come at their seasons on
the coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadra
bas of Andaluda. For some years past they salt
down cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a


Translation