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[order to practise his troops, and subsist them attlie expence of the enemy ; and after defeatingone of V^illagran’s sons, who, with n large force,

I came to give him battle, he marched against Ca-

nete ; but V^illagran, convinced of the imposibilityV of defending it, anticipated him by withdrawing

all the inhabitants, part of whom retired to Impe-rial, and part to Concepcion. The Araucanians, ontheir arrival, did not fail to destroy this city ; tlieyset it on lire, and in a short time it was entirelyconsumed.

i 33. Pedro Villagr an. -—In the mean time Vil-

lagran, more the victim of grief and mental anxietythan of his disoider, died, universally regretted bythe colonists, who lost in him a wise, humane,and valiant commander, to whose prudent con-duct they had been indebted for the preservationof their conquests. Before his death he ap-pointed as his successor, by a special commis-sion from the court, his eldest son Pedro, whose‘ mental endowments were no way inferior to hisfather’s. The death of the governor appeared toAntiguenu to present a fav;ourable opportunity toundertake some important enterprise. Havingformed his army, which consisted of 4000 men,into two divisions, he ordered one, under the com-mand of his vice-toqui, to lay siege to Concep-I cion, in order to attract thither the attention of the

1 Spaniards, while with the other he marched against

the fort of Arauco. The siege was protracted toa considerable length ; the commanders thereforedetermined to settle the affair by single combat;but after having fought, with the greatest obstinacyfor the space of two hours, they were separated bytheir men. But what force had not been able toeffect, was performed by famine. Several boats; loaded with provisions had repeatedly attempted

in vain to relieve the besieged : the vigilance ofthe besiegers opposed so insuperable an obstacle,|j| that Bernal, the commander, saw himself at length

'■ compelled to abandon the place. The Araucanians

J permitted the garrison to retire without molestation,

and contented themselves with burning the housesand demolishing the walls. The capture of An-gol, after that of Cahete and Arauco, appearedI easy to Antiguenu, but the attempt cost him his

I • life ; for after the most brilliant feats of valour andintrepidity, he was forced along with a crowd ofsoldiers who fled, and, falling from a high bank intoa river, Avas drowned.

34. The U'oqui Paillataru — Antiguenu had for' , successor in the toquiate Paillataru, the brother or

I cousin of the celebrated Lautaro. During the same

:i time a change was made of the Spanish governor.

Rodrigo de Quiroga, Avho bad been appointed to

’ ‘ VOI.. I.

that office by the royal audience of Lima, beganhis administration by arresting his predecessor,and sending him prisoner to Peru. Having re-ceived a reinforcement of 300 soldiers in 1665,he entered the Araucanian territory, rebuilt thefort of Arauco, and the city of Canete, con-structed a new fortress at the celebrated post ofQiiipeo, and ravaged the neighbouring provinces.Towards the end of the following year he sent theMarshal Ruiz Gamboa with 60 men to subject theinhabitants of the Archipelago of Chiloe ; thatofficer encountered no resistance, and founded inthe principal island the city of Castro and the portof Chacao.

35. Ar hipelago of Chiloe subjected ; descriptionof the same, iis inh(d)itanis, &c. — The islands ofthe Archipelago amount to 80, and have to all ap-pearance been produced by earthquakes, owingto the great number of volcanoes, with whichthat country formerly abounded. Every part ofthem exhibits the most unquestionable marks offire. Several mountains in the great island ofChiloe, which has given its name to the ArchipC'lago, are conqmsed of basaltic columns, whichsome authors s rongly urge could have been pro-duced only by the operation of fire. The nativeinhabitants, though descerided from the continentalChilians, as them appearance, their manners, andtheir language all evince, are nevertheless of a verydifferent character, being of a pacific, or rather atimid disposition. They made no opposition, aswe have already observed, to the handful of Spa-niards who came there to subjugate them, although^their population is said to have exceeded 70,000 ;nor have they ever attempted to shake off the yokeuntil the beginning of the last century, Avhen an in-surrection of no great importance was excited, andsoon quelled. The number of inhabitants at presentamounts to upwards of 11,000; they are dividedinto 76 districts or ulrnenates, the greater part ofwhich are subject to the Spanish commanders, andare obliged to render personal service for fifty daysin the year, according to the feudal laws, whichare rigidly observed in this province, notwithstand-ing they have been for a long time abolishedthroughout the rest of the kingdom. 'I'iieseislanders generally possess a quickness of'ctipacity,and very readily learn whatever is taught them.They haAm a genius for mechanical arts, an<l excelin carpentry, cabinet-making, and turnery, from thefrequent occasions Avhich they have to exercisethem, all their churches and houses being built ofwood. They are very good manufaefurersof linenand woollen, Avith which they mix the feathers ofsea-birds, and form beautitul coverings for their]


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- fS7. Suppression of the tribunal o f audience. — In1575’ the tribunal of audience was* suppressed, asit is asserted, on the sole principle of economy, andRodrigo Quiroga was reinstated in the governmentby order of Philip II. This experienced olhcer,having received a reinforcement of 2000 men fromSpain, gave directions to his father-in-law, RuizGamboa, to found a new colony at the foot of thecordilleras, between the cities of Santiago andConcepcion, which has since received the appella-tion of Chilian, from the river on whose shore itstands, and has become the captial of the fertileprovince of that name. Shortly after the establish-ment of this settlement, in 1589, the governor diedat a very advanced age, having nominated Gamboaas his successor. The three years of Gamboa’sgovernment were occupied on one side in opposingthe attempts of Paynenancu, the then existingtoqui, and on the other in repelling the Pehuen-ches and Chiquillanians, Avho, instigated by theAraucanians, had begun to molest the Spanish set-tlements.

38. Description of the Pehuenches. — The Pe-huenches form a numerous tribe, and inhabit thatpart of the Chilian Andes lying between lat. 34°and 37° s. to the e. of the Spanish ])rovinces ofCalchagua, Maule, Chilian, and Huilquilemu.Their dress is no way difl’erent from that of theAraucanians, except that instead of drawers orbreeches, they Avear around the waist a piece ofcloth like the Japanese, which falls down to theirknees. Their boots or shoes are all ot one piece,and made from the skin of the hind leg of an oxtaken ofi’ at the knee ; this they fit to the foot whilegreen, turning the hair within, and sewing up oneof the ends, the skin of the knee serving for theheel. These shoes, from being Avorn, and oftenrubbed Avith tallow, become as soft and pliable asthe best dressed leather. Although these moun-taineers have occasionally shown themselves to bevaliant and hardy soldiers, they are neverthelessfond of adorning and decorating themselves likewomen. They wear ear-rings and bracelets ofglass beads upon their arms ; they also ornamenttheir hair with the same, and suspend little Ivellsaround their heads. Notwithstanding they havenumerous herds of cattle and sheep, tlieir usualfood is horse-flesh, which, like the Tartars, tlieyprefer to any other ; but, more delicate than thatpeople, they eat it only Avhen boiled or roasted.They dwell in the manner of the Redouin Arabs,in tents made of skins, disposed in a circular form,leaving in the centre a spacious field, where theircattle feed during the continuance of the herbage.When that begins to fail, they transjAort themselves

to another situation, and in this manner, continu-ally changing place, they traverse the valleys of thecordilleras. Each village or encampmeirt is go-verned by an ulmen or hereditary prince. Intheir language and religion they differ not from tlieAraucanians. They are fond of hunting, andoften, in pursuit of game, traverse the immenseplains Avhich lie between the great riv^r of Plataand the straits of Magellan. These excursions theysometimes extend as far as Buenos Ayres, andplunder the country in the vicinity. They fre-quently attack the caravans of merchandize goingfrom thence to Chile ; and so successful have theybeen in their enterprises, that, owing to that cause,the commerce in that quarter Avas once almost en-tirely stopped, though very lately resumed Avitli a to-lerable degree of A'igour. They have, nevertheless,for many years abstained from committing hostilitieswithin the Chilian boundaries in time of peace ;induced either by the advantages which they de-rive from the trade with the inhabitants, or fromthe fear of being roughly handled by them. Theirfavourite Aveapon is the laqve, Avhich they alwayscarry with them fastened to their girdles. It isvery probable that the ten Americans conductedby the valiant Orellana, of Avhose amazing couragemention is made in Lord Anson’s voyage, were ofthis tribe. Notwithstanding their wandering andrestless disposition, these people are the most in-dustrious and commercial of any of the savages.When in their tents they are never idle. The avo-men Aveave cloths of various colours : the menoccupy themselves in making baskets and a varietyof beautiful articles of Avood, feathers, or skins,Avhich are highly prized by their neighbours. Theyassemble every year on the Spanish frontiers, Avherethey hold a kind of fair, which usually conti-nues for 15 or 20 days. Hither they bring fos-sil salt, gypsum, pilch, bed-coverings, ponchos,skins, woo], bridle-reins beautifully wrought ofplaited leather, baskets, wooden vessels, feathers,ostrich eggs, horses, cattle, and a variety of otherarticles ; and receive in exchange wheat, Avine,and the manufactures of Europe. They are veryskilful in traffic, and can with difficulty be over-reached. Eor fear of being plundered by thosewho believe every thing is lawful against infidels,they never all drink at the same time, but separatetiiemsch'es into several companies ; and Avhilesomekeep guard, the others indulge themsehms in thepleasures of Avine. They are generally humane,complacent, lovers of justice, and possess all thosegood qualities that are produced or perfected bycommerce.

39. Description of the Chiquillanians. — The]3 I 2

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428 CHI

[ChiquUIanians, whom some have erroneously sup-posed to be a part of the Pehuenches, live to then. e. of them, on the e. borders of the Andes.These are the most savage, and of course the leastnumerous of any of the Chilians ; for it is an esta-blished fact, that the ruder the state of savage life,the more unfavourable it is to population. Theygo almost naked, merely wrapping around themthe skin of the guanaco : their language is guttural,and a very corrupt jargon of the Chilian. It isobservable that all the Chilians who inhabit the e.valleys of the Andes, both the Pehuenches, thePuelches, and the Huilliches, as well as the Chi-quillanians, are much redder than those of theircountrymen who dwell to the zo. of that mountain.All these mountaineers dress themselves in skins,paint their faces, live in general by hunting, andlead a wandering and unsettled life. They are noother, as we have hitherto observed, than the somuch celebrated Patagonians, who have occasion-ally been seen near the straits of Magellan, and havebeen at one time described as giants, and at an-other as men a little above the common stature. Itis true, that they are, generally speaking, of a loftystature and great strength.

40. Landing and defeat of the Engish. — Nowwhilst the Araucanians endeavoured to oppose theprogress of the Spaniards in their country, andwhilst Don Alonzo Sotomayor, who succeeded Ro-drigo Quiroga in the government, was strenuouslyexerting his influence to [suppress the Pehuenchesand the Chiquillanians on the e. the English alsohad planned an expedition to these remote parts.On the 21st July 1586, Sir Thomas Cavendishsailed with three ships from Plymouth, and in thefollowing year arrived on the coast of Chile. Helanded in the desert port of Quintero, and endea-voured to enter into a negociation with the nativesof the country. But his stay there was of shortcontinuance ; he rvas attacked by Alonzo Molina,the corregidor of Santiago, and compelled to quitthe coast with the loss of several of his soldiers andseamen.

Sect. III. Comprising a period of 201 years^from 1586 to 1787.

The history of the Araucanians, with regard totheir Avars with the Spaniards in the above period,Avould form little more than a recapitulation ofbattles similar to those already described, but bear-ing, nevertheless, a corroborative testimony to theexertions which a brave and generous people Avillever exhibit for the just maintenance of their na-tural rights. The interest of these wars must,therefore, have been in a great measure anticipated,

L E.

and they will consequently be treated of in a man-ner much more general than those which have beenalready mentioned; and this, since they will allowspace for the more free detail of other politicalevents.

41. Nature of the war in anno 1589. — In thetoquiate of Guanoalca, in 1589, the Spanish go-vernor, Don Alonzo Satomayor, apprehensive thathe should not be able to defend them, or not con-sidering them of sufficient importance, evacuatedthe forts of Puren, Trinidad, and Spirito Santo,transferring the garrison to another fortress whichhe had directed to be built upon the river Puchan-qui, in order to protect the city of Angol : so thatthe war now became in a great measure reducedto the construction and demolition of fortifications.To the Toqui Guanoalca sncceeded Quintuguenuand Paillaeco, and it has been observed that therepeated victories gained over them by the Spa-niards, and which they held as the cause of suchexultation, were but the preludes of the severestdisasters that they had ever experienced inChile.

42. Independence restored. — After the death of thelast mentioned toqui, the Araucanians appointed tothe chief command the hereditary toqui of the se-cond uthal-mapu, called Paillamachu, a man ofa very advanced age, but of wonderful activity.Fortune, commonly supposed not to be propitiousto the old, so far favoured his enterprises, that hesurpassed all his predecessors in military glory,and had the singular felicity of restoring his coun-try to its ancient state of independence. Owing tothe continued successes of this general, on the 22dof November 1598, and under the government ofLoyola, not only the Araucanian provinces, but thoseof the Cunchese and Huilliches were in arms, andeven the whole of the country to the Archipelagoof Chiloe. It is asserted, that every Spaniard whohad the misfortune of being found without the gar-risons was put to death ; and it is certain that thecities of Osorno, Valdivia, Villarica, Imperial,Canete, Angol, Coya, and the fortress of Arauco,were nil at once invested with a close siege. Butnot content with this, Paillamachu, without loss oftime, crossed the Biobio, burned the cities of Con-cepcion and Chilian, laid waste the provinces intheir dependence, and returned loaded rvitli spoilto his country. In some successive battles he like-wise caused the Spaniards to cvacute the fort ofArauco, and the city of Canete, and obliged the in-habitants to retire to Concepcion. On the 14th ofNovember 1599, he caused his army to pass thebroad river Calacalla or Valdivia, by swimming,stormed the city at day-break, burned the houses, J

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|]th€ government now devolved upon the eldest sonof die auditor, Don Louis Merlo de la Fuente.

46, Ineffectual efforts of Philip III. to establisha lasting^ peace. — Among the missionaries aboutiliis time charged with the conversion of the Chili-aiis, there was a Jesuit called Luis Valdivia,who perceiving that it was impossible to preach tothe Araucanians during the tumult of arms, wentto Spain, and represented in'! the strongest termsto Philip 111. who was then on the throne, thegreat injury done to tlie cause of religion by thecontinuance of the war. That devout prince, whobad more at lieart the advancement of religion thanthe augmentation of his territories, sent orders im-mediately to the government of Chile, to discon-tinue the war and settle a permanent peace withthe Araucanians, by establishing the river Eiobioas the line of division between tlie two nations.The articles of peace had been discussed, and wereabout to be mutually agreed upon, w hen an unex-pected event rendered abortive all the measuresthat had been taken. Among the wives of Anca-namon, the existing toqui, was a Spanish lady,who, taking advantage of his absence, fled for re-fuge to the governor, with two small children, andfour women, whom she had persuaded to becomeChristians, two of whom were the wives, and theothers the daughters of her husband. The indig-nation of the toqui on this occasion w as carried tosuch an extreme, that, upon some missionariesbeing sent under the superintendence of Valdiviato preach the gospel among the Araucanians, hehastened to meet them at Illicura, where, withoutdeigning to listen to their arguments, he put themall to the swwrd. Thus were all the plans of paci-fication rendered abortive ; Ancanamon incessantlyharassed the Spajiish provinces, and the war w'asrecommenced in 1617, with greater fury than be-fore. From the above-mentioned period to theyear 1637, nothing material occurred in our his-tory, saving the enterprises of the Toquis Lcinturand Pntapichion ; these, however, did not servematerially to change the state of affairs.

47. Second expedition of the Dutch. — In the fol-lowing year the Dutch attempted a second time toform an alliance with the Araucanians, in order toobtain ] ossession of Chile ; but this expeditionwas not more fortunate than the first. Tlie squa-dron, which consisted of four ships, was dispersedby a storm on i(s arrival on the coast, in 1638. Aboat well manned and armed, being afterwards dis-patched to the island of Mocha, belonging to theAraucanians, the inhabitants supposing that theycame to attack them, fell upon the crew, put thewhole to death, and took possession of the boat.

L E.

A iioliicrcrew' experienced a similar misfortune in thelittle island of Ta'ca or Santa Miwia. 'he Arau-canians, as has been already observed, were equallyjealous, and not (as inay be readily imagined)without reason, of every European nation.

48. Second expeddion of the English. — Notwith-standing the ill success of the Dutch, Sir JohnNarborough, an English naval commander, un-dertook some years alter a similar enterprise, byorder of his sovereign Charles II. ; but in pass-ing the straits of Magellan, he lost his whole fleet,which was much better equipped than that of theDutch. The war continued to rage with undi-minished fury until the year 1640, the time whenthe reins of government were assumed by DonFrancisco Zuniga, Marquis de Baydes. It wasunder his milder auspices, that, in January of thefollowing year, the articles of peace were agreedupon, the day of its ratification being fixed for thesixth of that month, and the place of meeting, thevillage of Quillin, in the province of Puren.

49. Peace at length concluded. — At the timeprefixed, the marquis appeared at the appointedplace, with a retinue of about 10,000 persons,from all parts of the kingdom. Lincopichion, theexisting toqui, at the head of the four hereditarytoquis, and a great number of ulraenes and othernatives, opened the conference with a very elo-quent speech. He then, according to the Chiliancustom, killed a llama., and sprinkling some of theblood on a branch of cinnamon, presented it intoken of peace to the governor. The articles ofthe treaty were next proposed and ratified, and inone of these the marquis stipulated that the Arau-canians should not permit the landing of anystrangers upon the coast, or furnish supplies toany foreign nation whatever; which being conform-able to the political maxims of the nation, wasreadily complied with. Thus Avas a period putto a w^ar of 90 years duration, and this grand nego-ciation Avas terminated by a sacrifice of 28 camels^and an eloquent harangue from Antiguenu, cliiefof the district, upon the mutual advantages Avhichbotli nations Avould derive from the peace.

50. Last expedition of the Dutch. — In 1643, twoyears after tlie peace, the importance of the articleinserted by the governor in tlie treaty was renderedvery apparent to the Spaniards, by a last attemptmade by the Dutcli to possess themselves of Chile.Their measures were so Avell taken, that had theybeen in tlie least seconded by the Araucanians, tlieymust liave infallibly succeeded. Having left Bra-zil, Avhich they had conquered, Avith a numerousfleet, Avell provided Avitli men and cannon, theytook possession of the harbour of Valdivia, which]

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[had been deserted for more than 40 years, wherethey intended to form an establishment in order toconquer the rest of the kingdom. With this viewthey immediately began building three strong fortsat the entrance of the river, in order to secure itspossession. The Araucanians were invited, withthe most flattering promises, to join them ; this theynot only declined, but strictly adhering to the sti-pulations of the treaty, refused to furnish them withprovisions, of which tliey were greatly in want.The Cunchese, to whom the territory which theyhad occupied belonged, following the counsel oftheir allies, refused also to treat with them or sup-ply them. In consequence of this refusal, theDutch, pressed with hunger, and hearing tliat acombined army of Spaniards and Araucanians wereon their march against them, were compelled toabandon the ])lace in three months aftertheir land-ing. The Marquis de Mancura, son to the vice-roy of Pern, having soon after arrived there insearch of them, with 10 ships of war, fortified theharbour, and particulary the island, which hassince borne the titular name of his family. Onthe termination of the sixth year of his govern-ment, Baydes was recalled by the court, and DonMartin IVluxica appointed in his place.

51. Dreadful earthquake.— lAa succeeded inpreserviiijr the kingdom in that state of tranquil-lity in which he found it, no other commotion oc-curring during his government, but that producedby a violent earthquake, which, on the 8th of May1617, destroyed part of the city of St. Jago.The fortune of his successor, Don vVntonio Acugna,was very dift'erent. During his government thewar was excited anew between the Spaniards andAraucanians ; but contemporary writers have leftus no accounts of the causes that produced it,Clentaru, the hereditaiy toqui of Lauquemapu,being, in 1655, unanimously elected general, sig-nalized his first campaign bj’ the total defeat ofthe Spanish army. He, moreover, continued topersecute the Spaniards with great violence for aperiod of 10 years, under the governments of DonPedro Portel Casanate, and Don Francisco Me-neses. The last, who was a Portuguese l)y birth,had the glory of terminating it, in 1665, by a peacemore permanent than that made by Baydes. Allthe succeeding governors appear to have kept upa good understanding witli the Araucanians untilthe year 1686, when Garro was nearly breaking it,on occasion of removing tlie inhabitants of theisland of Mocho to the ?z. shore of the Biobib,iti order to cut off all communication with foreignenemies.

^ 52. Commerce zeilh the French.~T\\Q com-

mencement of the present aera was marked in Chileby the deposition of the Governor Doi^ FranciscoIbanez, the rebellion of the inhabitants of Chiloe,and the trade with the French. The islandersof Chiloe were soon restored to obedience, throughthe prudent conduct of the quarter-master-generalof the kingdom, Don Pedro Molina, who succeededin reducing them rather by mild measures than byuseless victories. The French, in consequence ofthe war of the succession, possessed themselvesfor a time of all tlie external commerce of Chile.From 1707 to 1717, its ports were filled with theirships, and they carried from thence incrediblesums in gold and silver. It w as at this period thatthe learned F'ather Feuille, whoremained there threeyears, made his botanical researches and meteorolo-gical observations upon the coast. His amiable quali-ties obtained him the esteem of the inhai)itants, whostill cherish his memory with much affection. Itw'as in 1722 that the Araucanians, impatient atthe insolence of those who were designated by thetitle of captains of the friends ; and who having"'been introduced under pretence of guarding themissionaries, arrogated to themselves a species ofauthority over the natives, resolved to create atoqui, and have recourse to arms. A war in con-sequence ensued, but it soon became reduced tolittle skirmishes, which were finally terminated bytlie celebrated peace of Negrete, a place situatedat the confluence of the rivers Biobio and Lara,where the treaty of Quillan was reconfirmed, andthe odious title of captain of friends wholly abo-lished.

53. How the Pehuenches became inimical tothe Spaniards. Governor Gonzaga was thenext Avho excited the flames of war by endeavour-ing to effect more than his predecessors. He un-dertookto compel the Araucanians to live in cities.This chimerical scheme was ridiculed by thosewho knew the prejudices of tiiis people, and it wasfinally abandoned, not, however, till it had pro-cured another powerful, and for ever after impla-cable enemy to the Spaniards. Tiiis was no otherthan the Peliuenches, avIio being in the above warin alliance with (he Spaniards, and who sufiered aconsiderable defeat whilst fighting against theAraucanians, resolved all at once to'change sides,and have ever since been the firm allies of the lat-ter. They have a practice of attacking the Spa-nish caravans from Buenos Ayres to Chile, andevery year furnishes some melancholy inforinationof that kind. We shall not proceed particularlyto notice several actions, and among others abloody battle wdiich was fougiit in tlie beginning ofthe year 1773 ; mention of which was made in t1iel

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[European gazettes of that period, at which timethe war had cost the royal treasury and individuals1,700,000 dollars.

54. Peace restored . — The same year an accom-modation' was agre(?d on; and by this it was al-lowed that the Araucaiiians should afterwards havea minister resident in the city of St. Jago. Withrespect to the other articles of the peace, it is suf-ficient fo state, that the treaties of Quillan andNegrete were by mutual consent revived. On thedeath of Gonzaga, the court of Spain sent DonAugustin Jaiiregui to govern Chile, who has sincefilled with universal approbation the important of-fice of viceroy of Peru. His successor, DonAmbrosio Benavides, has rendered the countryhappy by his wise and beneficent administration.

Chap. V.

Present slate of Chile.

From the brief relation that we have given ofthe occurrences in Chile since its discovery, it willbe seen that its possession has cost Spain moreblood and treasure than all the rest of her settle-ments in America. The Araucanians, occupyingbut a small extent of territory, have with far in-ferior arms not only been able to counterbalanceher power, till then reputed irresistible, but toendanger the loss of her best established possessions.Though the greater part of her officers had beenbred in that school of war, the Low Countries, andher soldiers, armed with those destructive wea-pons before which the most extensives empires ofthat continent had fallen, were considered the bestin the world, yet have these people succeeded inresisting them. The Spaniards, since losingtheir settlements in Araucania, have prudentlyconfined their views to establishing themselvesfirmly in that part of Chile Avhich lies betweenthe s. confines of Peru and the river Biobio,and extends from lat. 24° to 36|° 5. : this they havedivided into 13 provinces. They also possess thefortress of Valdivia, in the country of tiie Cuu-chese, the Archipelago of Chiloe, and the islandof Juan Fernandez.

1. Civil government . — These provinces are go-verned by an officer, who has usually the rank oflieutenant-general, and combines the title of pre-sident, governor, and captain-general of the king-dom of Chile, lie resides in the city of St. Jago,and is solely dependent upon the king, e.xcept incase of war, when, in certain points, he receiveshis directions from the viceroy of Peru. In qua-lity of captain-general he commands the army, andhas under him not only the three principal officersof the kingdom, the quarter-master, the serjeant-

major, and the commissary, but also the four go- .vernors of Chiloe, Valdivia, Valparaiso, and JuanFernandez. As president and governor, he has thesupreme administration of justice, and presidesover the superior tribunals of that capital, whosejurisdiction extends all over the Spanish provincesin those parts. The principal of these is the tri-bunal of audience, or royal senate, whose decisionis final in all causes of importance, both civil andcriminal ; and is divided into two courts, the onefor the trial of civil, and the other for the trial ofcriminal causes. Both are composed of severalrespectable judges, called auditors, of a regent, afiscal or royal procurator, and a protector of theIndians. All these officers receive large salariesfrom the court. Their judgment is final, exceptin causes Avhere the sum in litigation exceeds10,000 dollars, when an appeal may be had tothe supreme council of the Indies. The other su-preme courts are those of finance, of the cruzada,of vacant lands, and the consulate or tribunal ofcommerce, which is wholly independent of anyother of that kind. The provinces are governedby prefects, formerly called corregidors, but atpresent known by the name of sub-delegates ; these,according to the forms of their institution, shouldbe of royal nomination, but owing to the distanceof the court they are usually appointed by thecaptain-general, of whom they style themselvesthe lieutenants, d hey have jurisdiction both ofcivil and military affairs, and their emoluruents ofoffice depend entirely upon their fees, whichare by no means regular. In each capital of aprovince there is, or at least should be, a munici-pal magistracy, called the cabildo, which is com-posed, as in other parts of the Spanish dominions,of several members, called regidores, who are ap-pointed for life, of a standard-bearer, a procura-tor, a forensic judge, denominated the provincialalcalde, an alguazil or high sllerift, and of twoconsuls or burgo-masters, called alcaldes. Thelatter are chosen annually from among the princi-pal nobility by the cabildo itself, and have juris-diction both in civil and criminal causes in thefirst instance.

2. Military force.— The inhabitants are dividedinto regiments, which are obliged to march to thefrontiers or the sea-coast in case of war. In 1792there were 15,856 militia troops enrolled in the twobishoprics of Santiago and Concepcion; 10,218 inthe first, and 5638 in the latter. Besides this re-gular militia, there are a great many city militias,that are commanded by commissaries, who act ascolonels. A sufficient force also of regular troopsfor the defence of the country is maintained by]

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[{he king. All the veteran troops in Cliile do notexceed 2000, and these consist of artillery, dra-goons, and infantry. The infantry as well as theartillery is under the command of two lieutenant-colonels.

3. Ecdesiasikal government .— respects theecclesiastical government, Chile is divided intothe two large dioceses of St. Jago and Concepcion,which cities are tlie residencies ot the bishops,who are suffragans to the archbishop of Lima.The first diocese extends from the confines of Peruto the river Maule, comprehending the provinceof Cnjo upon the other side of the Andes. Thesecond comprises all the rest of Chile, with theislands, although the greater part of this extent isinhabited by pagans. The cathedrals are sup-plied with a proper mmiber of canons, whose re-venues depend upon the tithes, as do those of thebishops. The court of inquisition at Lima hasat St. Jago a commissioner with several subalternofficers. Pedro Valdivia, on his first enteringChile, brought with him the monks of the orderof Mercy ; and about the year 1553, introducedthe Dominicans and strict Franciscans. The Au-gustins established themselves there in 1595; andthe Hospitallers of St. John of God, about thethe year 1615. These religious orders have all anumber of convents, and the three first form dis-tinct jurisdictions. The brothers of St. John ofGod have the charge of the hospitals, under acommissary, who is dependent upon the provin-cial of Peru. These are the only religious frater-nities now in Chile. The Jesuits, who came intoChile in 1593, with the nephew of their founder,Don Martin de Loyola, formed likewise a separateprovince. Others have several times attempted,but without success, to form establishments, theChilians having always opposed the admission ofnew orders among them. In St. Jago and Con-cepcion are several convents of nuns ; but theyare the only cities that contai?i them.

4. The cities and dwellings . — The cities arebuilt in the best situations in the country. Manyof them, however, w ould have been better placed,for the purposes of commerce, upon the shores ofthe large rivers. This is particularly the case withthose of more recent construction. The streetsare straight, intersecting each other at right angles,and are 36 French feet in breadth. On accountof earthquakes the houses are generally of onestory ; they are, however, very commodious,whitewashed without, and generally painted within.Each is accommodated with a pleasant garden, ir-rigated by an aqueduct which furnishes water forthe use of the family. Those belonging to the


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wealthier classes, particularly the nobility, arefurnished with much splendour and taste. Theinhabitants perceiving that old buildings of twostories have resisted the most violent shocks, ha\ eof late years ventured to reside in the upper rooms,and now begin to construct their houses in theEuropean naanner. In consequence of this thecities have a better appearance than formerly ; andthe more so, as instead of forming their houses of clayhardened in the sun, which was supposed less liableto injury, they now employ brick and stone. Cel-lars, sewers, and wells, were formerly much morecommon than at present; a circumstance whichmay have contributed to render the buildings moresecure from earthquakes. The churches are ge-nerally more remarkable for their wealth than theirstyle of architecture. The cathedral and thechurch of the Dominicans in the capital, whichare built of stone, are however exceptions. Thefirst was constructed at the royal expcnce, underthe direction of the Bishop Don Manuel Alday,an excellent and learned prelate; it is built in amasterly style, and is 384 French feet in front.The plan was drawn by two English architects,who superintended the work : but when it washalf finished they refused to go on, unless theirwages were increased. In consequence of this tliebuilding was suspended, when two of the Indianswho had worked under the Englishmen, and hadsecretly found means of instructing themselves inevery branch of the art, offered to complete it :which they did with as much skill and perfectionas their masters themselves could have displayed.In the capital the follow ing edifices are also worthyof remark : the barracks for the dragoons, themint, which has been lately built by a Homan ar-chitect, and the hospital for orphans.

5. Population . — Spanish Chile, in consequenceof the freedom granted to its maritime trade, ispeopling with a rapidity proportioned to the salu-brity of its climate and the fertility of its soil. Itspopulation in general is composed of Europeans,Creoles, Indians, Negroes, and Musters. TheEuropeans, except a few French, English, andItalians, are Spaniards, who for the most part arefrom the s. provinces of Spain. D. Cosrne Bueno,whose manuscript account of Peru is stated byRobertson, as having been drawn up in 1764,(though the copies w hich v/e have seen of this workcontain facts of a later date by at least 20 years),ffives to Chile a population of 240,000 souls.Malespina, who visited that country in 1790, is ofopinion that this estimate, is greatly under thetruth ; and we hove been lately informed, on goodauthority, that the present population of Chile]

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[their masters, tliat the greatest punishment inflictedon them would be to sell them to others. Mastersnevertheless exercise the rights of fathers of fami-lies over their slaves, in correcting them for theirfaults.

12. Internal and external commerce, mines,imports, and exports. — The internal commerce ofChile has been hitherto of very little importance,notwithstanding the advantages that the countryoffers for its encouragement. Its principal source,industry, or more properly speaking, necessity, iswanting. An extensive commerce is correlativewith a great population, and in proportion as thelatter increases, the former will also be augmented.Hitherto it may be said, that of the two branchesthat in general give birth to commerce, agricultureand industry, the first is that alone which animatesthe internal: commerce of Chile, and even thatpart of the external which is carried on with Peru.The working of mines also occupies the attentionof many in the provinces of Copiapo, Coquimbo,and Quillota ; but the industry is so trifling thatit does not deserve the name. Notwithstanding theabundance of its fruits and materials of manufacture,as flax, wool, hemp, skins and metals, which mightproduce a flourishing commerce, it is conductedbut languidly. The’inhabitants employ themselvesonly in making ponchos, stockings, socks, carpets,blankets, skin-coats, saddles, hats, and other smallarticles chiefly made use of by the common orpoorer class of people, since those of the middlerank employ those of European manufacture.These, but more particularly the sale of hides andtanned leather, which they have in great plenty,with that of grain and wine, form the whole of theinternal commerce of the kingdom. The external,which is carried on with all the ports of Peru, par-ticularly Callao, arises from the exportation offruits ; this amounts to 700,000 dollars annually,according to the statements given in the periodicalpublications at Lima. The commerce betweenChile and Buenos Ayres is quite otherwise, sincefor the herb of Paraguaj/ dXone, it is obliged to ad-vance 300,000 dollars annually in cash ; theother articles received from thence are probablypaid for by those sent thither. In the trade withSpain, the fruits received from Chile go but a littleway in payment of more than a million of dollars,which are received from thence annually in Euro-pean goods, either directly, or by the way ofBuenos Ayres, and sometimes from Lima. Gold,silver, and copper, are the articles which formnearly the whole of this commerce, since the hidesand vicuna wool are in such small quantities as torender them of little importance.

Notwithstanding theworkingofthe mines in Chilehas in a great measure been relinquished from theex-pence,and from the impediments offered by the war-like spirit of the Araucanians, there are more than athousand now in work between the cities of Co-quimbo and Copiapo, besides those of the provinceof Aconcagua ; and it is a matter of fact that theproduce of its mines has been increasing eversince that the passage into the S. sea by cape Hornwas frequented by the Spanish merchants. Thegold coined in the capital was lately regulated at5200 marks annually ; but the present yearly pro-duce of the mines, as calculated from the amountsof the royal duties, and therefore considerablyunder the truth, amounts to 10,000 Spanish marksof pure gold, and 29,700 do. of pure silver. Thevalue in dollars of both is 1,737,380; the goldbeing estimated at 145i*#^ dollars, and the silverat 9 t'V dollars the Spanish mark. Besides^ this, wemust add for contraband 322,620 dollars ; andthe total produce will then be 2,060,000. Accord-ing to liumboldt, the dollars imported into Chileand Peru in 1803 amounted to 11,500,000, andthe exports consisted of produce to the value of4,000,000 dollars, besides 8,000,000 dollars inspecie. The receipts of Chile, Guatemala, and Ca-racas, are consumed within the country. The re-mittances of gold and silver to Spain are usuallymade from Buenos Ayres ; the first being lessbulky, is carried by the monthly packets insums of 2 or 3000 ounces ; as to the second,it has, till within a very late period, been sent intwo convoy ships in the summer, by which con-veyances gold is also remitted. The copper whichis extracted from the mines is estimated from 8to 10,000 quintals. From these data it will notbe difficult to form a general estimate of all thatChile produces annually. A communication bywater, which greatly facilitates the progress ofcommerce, has been already commenced. In se-veral of the ports, barks are employed in the trans-portation of merchandize, which was before carriedby land upon mules. Several large ships havealso been built in the harbour of Concepcion andthe mouth of the river Maule. The external com-merce is carried on with Peru and Spain. In thefirst, 23 or 24 ships, of 5 or 600 tons each, are em-ployed, which are partly Chilian and partly Peru-vian. These usually make three voyages in ayear; they carry from Chile wheat, wine, pulse,almonds, nuts, cocoa-nuts, conserves, dried meat,tallow, lard, cheese, sole-leather, timber for build-ing, copper, and a variety of other articles, andbring back in return silver, sugar, rice and cotton.The Spanish ships receive in exchange for Euro-1

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]^pean merchandise gold, silver, copper, vicugnawool, and hides. A trade with the East Indieswould be more profitable to the Chilians'than anyother, as tlieir most valuable articles have eitherbecome scarce, or are not produced in that wealthypart of Asia ; and the passage, in consequence ofthe prevalence of the s. winds in the Pacific, wouldbe easy and expeditious. No money is coined orhas currency in Chile except gold and silver, acircumstance very embarrassing to the internaltraffic. Their smallest silver coin is one sixteenthof a dollar, and their weights and measures are thesame that are used in Madrid.

13. Natural divisions. — Chile, properly called,or that part which is situated between the Andes andthe sea, and within lat. 24° and 45° s. is at least 120miles in breadth. It is commonly divided intotwo equal parts, that is, the maritime country, andthe midland country ; the maritime country is in-tersected by three chains of mountains, runningparallel to the Andes, between which are numerousvalleys watered by delightful rivers. The midlandcountry is almost flat ; a few insulated hills only areto be seen, which diversify and render the appear-ance of it more pleasing. The Andes, which areconsidered as the loftiest mountains in the world,cross the whole continent of America, in a directionfrom s. to n. for we cannot consider the mountainsin North America in any other light than as a con-tinuation of the cordilleras. The part appertainingto Chile may be 120 miles in breadth ; it consistsof a great number of mountains, all of tliernofaprodigious height, which appear to be chained toeach other, and where nature displays all thebeauties and all the horrors of the most picturesquesituations. Although it abounds witli frightfulprecipices, many agreeable valleys and fertile pas-tures are to be found there; and the rivers, whichderive their sources from the mountains, often ex-hibit the most pleasing as well as the most terrify-ing features. That portion of the cordilleras whichis situated between lat. 24° and 33° is wholly de-sert ; but the remainder, as far as the 45°, is in-habited by some colonies of Chilians, who areCcallcd Chiquillanes, Pehuenches, Puelches, andHuilliches, but are more generally known by thename of Patagonians. The surface of Chile isestimated at 378,000 square miles. There areabout eight or nine roads which cross its cordillera ;of which that leading from the province of Acon-cagua to Cuyo, although dangerous, as being nar-row, and having on either side lofty and perpendi-cular mountains, is the most travelled. Mules areoften precijiitated from these roads into the riversbeneath.

14. Political divisions . — The political divisionsof Chile consist of the part occupied by the Spa-niards, and that which is inhabited by the Indians.The Spanish part is situated between lat. 24° and37° s. and is divided into 13 provinces, viz.Copiapo, Coquimbo, Quillota, Aconcagua, Meli-pilla, and St. Jago, (which contains the capital cityof the country of the same name), Rancagua, Cal-diagua, Maule, Ytata, Chilian, Puchacay, andIluilquelemu. The Indian country is situated be-tween the river Biobio and the Archipelago ofChiloe, or lat. 36° and 41°. It is inhabited by threedifferent nations, the Araucanians, the Cunches,and the Huilliches. The Araucanians do not, asMr. De Paun pretends, inhabit the barren rocks ofChile, but, on the contrary, the finest plains in thewhole country, situate between the rivers Biobioand Valdivia.

15. Climate . — Chile is ono of the best countries

in America. The beauties of its sky, the constantmildness of its climate, and its abundant fertility,render it, as a place of residence, extremely agree-able ; and with respect to its natural productions,it may be said, without exaggeration, not to be in-ferior to any portion of the globe. The seasons suc-ceed each other regularly, and are sufficientlymarked, aithougli the transition from cold to heatis very moderate. The spring in Chile commences,as in all the countries of the s. hemisphere, the 22dSeptember, the summer in December, the autumnin March, and the winter in June. The followingaccount is from Robertson s History of America^vol. IV. c. 7. “ That part of Chile which may

properly be deemed a Spanish province, is a narrowdistrict, extending along the coast from the desertof Atacamas to the island of Chiloe, above 900miles. Its climate is the most delicious of thenew world, and is hardly equalled by that of anyregion on the face of the earth. Though border-ing on the torrid zone, it never feels the extremityof heat, being screened on the e. by the Andes, andrefreshed from the w. by cooling sea-breezes. Thetemperature of the air is so mild and equable, thatthe Spaniards give it the preference of that of the

provinces in their native country. The fertiliU’of the soil corresponds with the benignity of theclimate, and is wonderfully accommodated toEuropean productions. The most valuable ofthese, corn, wine, and oil, abound in Chile, as ifthey had been native in the country. Ail the fruitsimported from Europe attain to full maturity there.The animals of our hemisphere not only multiply,but improve in this delightful region. The hornedcattle are of larger size than those of Spain. Itsbreed of horses surpasses, both in beauty and in]

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[w hich come from the n. occasion very heavy rains,accompanied with thunder, in all the provincesbey ond the Andes, ^particularly in those of Tucu-man and Cujo, while at the same time the atmos-phere of Chile is constantly clear, and its inhabi-tants enjoy their finest season. The contrarytakes place in winter, wl)ich is the fine season inthese provinces, and the rainy in Chile. Thes.wind never continues blowing during the wholeday with the same force ; as the sun .approaclicsthe meridian, it falls very considerably, and risesagain in the afternoon. At noon, when this windis scarcely perceptible, a fresh breeze is felt fromthe sea, which continues about two or three hours ;the husbandmen give it the name of the twelveo’clock breeze, or the countryman’s watch, as it.serves to regulate them in determining tliat hour.Th is sea-breeze returns regularly at midnight, andis supposed to be produced by the tide; it isstronger in autumn, and sometimes accompaniedwith hail. The e. winds rarely prevail in Chile,their course being obstructed by the Andes. Hur-ricanes, so common in the Antilles, are unknowuhere; there exists indeed a solitary example of ahurricane, which, in 1633, did much injury to thefortress of Caremalpo, in the part of Chile.The mild temperature which Chile almost alwaysenjoys must depend entirely upon the succession ofthese winds, as a situation so near thetroj)ic wouldnaturally expose it to a more violent degree ofheat. In addition to those, the tide, the abundantdews, and certain winds from the Andes, whichare distinct from the e. wind, coot the air so muchin summer, that in the shade no one is ever in-commoded with perspiration. The dress of theinhabitants of the sea-coast is the .same in the win-ter as in the summer ; and in the interior, Avherethe heat is more perceptible than elsewhere, Reau-mur’s thermometer scarcely ever exceeds 25°.The nights, throughout the country, are generallyof a very agreeable tem.pcraturc. Notwithstand-ing the moderate heat of Chile, all the fruits ofAvarin countries, and even those of the tropics,arrive to great perfection there, Avhich renders itprobable that the Avarmth ofthe soil far exceedsthat ofthe atmosphere. The countries borderingon the e. of Chile do not enjoy these refreshingwinds ; the air there is suffocating, and as oppres-sive as in Africa under the same latitude.

18. ]\Teleors . — Meteors are A'ery frequent inChile, especially those called shooting stars, whicharc to be seen there almost the Avliole year ; alsoballs of fire, that usually rise from the Andes, andfall into the sea. The aurora australis, on thethe contrary, is very uncommon ; that which was

observed in 1640 was one of the largest; it wasvisible, from the accounts that have been left usfrom the month of February until April. Duringthis century they have appeared at four differenttimes. This phenomenon is more frequently vi-sible in the Archipelago of Chiloe, from the greaterelevation ofthe pole in that part of the country.

19. Volcanoes . — That a country producing suchan abundance of sulphureous, nitrous, and bitu-minous substances, should be subject to volcaniceruptions, is not to be Avondered at. The nume-rous volcanoes in the cordilleras wmdd, of them-selves, furnish a sufficient proof of the quantity ofthese combustible materials ; there are said tobe 14 Avhich are in a constant state of eruption,and a still greater number that discharge smokeonly at intervals. 'J’hese are all situated in thatpart of the Andes appertaining to Chile, and nearlyin the middle of that range of mountains ; so thatthe lava and ashes thrown out by them never ex-tend beyond their limits. These mountains andtheir vicinities are found, on examination, to con-tain great quantities of sulphur and sal-ammoniac,marcasite in an entire and decomposed state, cal-cined and crystaliized stones, and various metallicsubstances. The greatest eruption ever known inChile was that of Peteroa, Avhich happened on theSd of December 1760, when that volcano formeditself a new crater, and a neighbouring mountainAvas rent asunder for many miles in extent; theeruption was accompanied by a dreadful explo-sion, Avhich Avas heard throughout the wholecountry ; fortunately it Avas not succeeded by anyvery violent shocks of an earthquake : the quan-tify of lava and ashes was so great that it filledthe neighbouring valleys, and occasioned a rise oftlie Avaters of the Tingeraca, which continued formany days. At the same time the course of theLontue, a very considerable river, was impededfor 10 days, by a part of the mountain which felland filled its bed ; the Avater at length forced itselfa passage, overfloAved all the neighbouring plains,and formed a lake which still remains. In theAvhole ofthe country not included in the Andes,there are but two volcanoes ; the first, situate atthe mouth of the river Rapel, is small, and dis-charges only a little smoke from time to time ; thesecond is the great volcano of Villarica, in thecountry of Arauco. This volcano may be seen atthe distance of 130 miles ; and although* it appearsto be insulated, it is said to be connected by itsbase Avith the Andes. 'J'he summit of the moun-tain is covered with snoAv, and is in a constantstate of eruption ; it is 14 miles in circumferenceat its base, which is principally covered with]

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ipleasant forests : a great number of rivers derive*heir sources from it, and its perpetual verdureturnishes a proof that its eruptions have never beenvery violent.

20. Earthquakes . — The quantity of inflammablesubstances with which the soil of Chile abounds,rendered active by the electric fluid, may be con-sidered as one of the principal causes of earth-quakes, the only scourge that afflicts this favouredcotintry. Another, however, not less capable ofproducing this terrible phenomenon, is the elas-ticity of the air contained in the bowels of theearth, in consequence of the water which, insinuat-ing itself by subterranean passages from the sea,becomes changed into vapour. This hypothesiswill explain why the provinces to the e. of theAndes, at a distance from the sea, are so little in-commoded by earthquakes. Two, however, Co-piapo and Coquimbo, although near the sea, andas rich in minerals as the others, have never suf-fered from earthquakes ; and whilst the otherparts of the country have been violently shaken,these have not experienced the least shock, orbeen but slightly agitated. It is a general opinionthat the earth in these provinces is intersected bylarge caverns. The noises heard in many places,and which appear to indicate the passage of waters,or subterraneous winds, seem to confirm this opinion,and it is highly probable that by affording a freevent to the inflamed substances, these caverns mayserve to counteract the progress of those convul-sions to which the neighbouring country is subject.The inhabitants usually calculate three or fourearthquakes at Chile annually, but they are veryslight, and little attention is paid to them. Thegreat earthquakes happen but rarely, and of thesenot more than five have occurred in a period of244 years, from the arrival of the Spaniards to thepresent period, J8I2. From a course of accurateobservations it has been ascertained, that earth-quakes never occur unexpectedly in this country,but are always announced by a hollow sound pro-ceeding from a vibration of the air; and as theshocks do not succeed each other rapidly, the in-habitants have sufficient time to provide for theirsafety. They have, however, in order to securethemselves at all events, built their cities in avery judicious manner ; the streets are left so broadthat the inhabitants would be safe in the middle ofthem, should even the bouses fall upon both sides.In addition to this, all the houses have spaciouscourts and gardens, which would serve as places ofrefuge ; those who are wealthy have usually intheir gardens several i^eat wooden barracks,where they pass the night whenever they are

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threatened wdth an earthquake. Under these cir-cumstances the Chilians live without apprehension,especially as the earthquakes have never beenhitherto attended with any considerable sinking ofthe earth, or falling of buildings ; this is probablyowing to subterranean passages coramunicatino-with the volcanoes of the Andes, w Inch are so manyvent-holes for the inflamed substances, and serveto counteract tlieir effects. Were it not for thenumber of these volcanoes, Chile would, in allprobability, be rendered uninhabitable. Somepretend that they can foretel an earthquake fromcertain changes in the atmosphere : although tinsdoes not appear to be impossible, it is altogetlierdiscredited by many of the best writers on Chile :these observe that they will occur both in therainy and dry seasons, during a storm as well as acalm.

21. Some detail of productions . — Chile pro-duces none of those dangerous or venomous ani-mals which are so much dreaded in hot countries ;and it has but one species of small serpent, whichis perfectly harmless, as the French academiciansascertained when they went to Peru, in 1736, tomeasure a degree of the meridian. IJIIoa also, inhis Voyage, part II. vol. 111. observes, “ Thiscountry is not infested by any kind of insect ex-cept the chiguas, or pricker, or any poisonousreptile ; and although in the w oods and fields somesnakes are to be found, their bite is by no meansdangerous ; nor does any savage or ferociousbeast excite terror in its plains. The puma, orAmerican lion, which is sometimes met w'ith in thethickest and least frequented forests, is distinguish-ed from the African lion, both by its being with-out a mane and its timidity ; there is no instanceof its ever having attacked a man, and a personmay not only travel, but lie down to sleep withperfect security, in any part of the plain, andeven in the thickest forests of the mountains. Nei-ther tigers, wolves, nor many other ferociousbeasts that infest the neighbouring countries, areknown there. Probably the great ridge of theAndes, which is every where extremely steep,and covered with snow, serves as a barrier to theirpassage. The mildness of the climate may alsobe unfavourable to them, as the greater part ofthese animals are natives of the hottest countries.Horses, asses, cattle, sheep, goats, many kindsof dogs, cats, and even mice, have been broughthither by the Spaniards. All these animals havemultiplied exceedingly, and increased in size.The price of the best horses is from 100 to 500crowns ; the asses are strong and stately, thoughhunted chiefly for their skins; and the mules are]

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Spaniards, and the rest having fled, and thuspenetrating n. have confounded themselves withother nations. It abounds in maize, plantains,and cacao of an excellent quality ; its gold minesrender it rich and well peopled ; it also carries on,through this branch of revenue, a great commercewith the province of Popayan, the nativ'es of thatplace coming here to purchase gold, and leavingin exchange whatever is necessary for the comfortand convenience of life. There is no inconsider-able number of Negro slaves employed in work-ing the mines, and in 1750 they amounted to20,000, without mentioning the men of colour,such as the Mustees and Mulattoes, and even Whiteswho are engaged in this lucrative concern. Theclimate is warm, but moist from the continualrains, and consequently unhealthy. This countryabounds in tigers, wild boars, alligators, parrots,monkeys of various sorts, and a multitude of rep-tiles and insects, especially in vipers and ve-nomous snakes ; such as corales, exis, and rattle-snakes. Here are also an infinite variety of beau-tiful sorts of wood, curious balsams, herbs, fruits,and flowers. It was subject to the government ofPopayan, until it became divided in the time ofDon Fernando Guerrero. All the gold which istaken out of the mines here, and which is the cur-rent money, was formerly carried to be coined atthe mint of Santa Fe, until that the house ofValencia established another, at its own cost, in thecity of Popayan ; this privilege having been firstgranted that house by the mayoralty, though itwas afterwards taken away and added by the kingto the crown, upon the payment of a compensationof 100,000 reals per annum to the original pro-prietors. This province extends 48 leagues froms. to n. and is 39 in width from e. to w. Thecapital is the city of Nevita.

[Choco, Canal of. In the interior of the pro-vince of Choco, the small ravine (quebrada) Dela Raspadura unites the neighbouring sources ofthe Rio de Noanama, called also Rio San Juan,and the small river Quito : the latter, the RioAndageda, and the Rio Zitasa, form the Riod’Atrata, which discharges itself into the Atlanticocean, while the Rio San Juan flows into the S.sea. A monk of great activity, cure of the villageof Novita, employed his parishioners to dig asmall canal in the ravine De la Raspadura, bymeans of which, when the rains are abundant,canoes loaded with cacao pass from sea to sea.Th is interior communication has existed since1788, unknown in Europe. The small canal ofRaspadura unites, on the coasts of the two oceans,


two points 75 leagues distant from one ano-ther.]

CHOCO, San Juan Chrisostomo de , anothersettlement of the province and corregimiento ofCondesuyos de Arequipa in Peru.

[CHOCOLATE Creek, a head-water of Tiogariver in New York, whose mouth lies 10 miless. w. of the Painted post.]

[CHOCOLOCO-CA, which the Spaniards callCastro Vireyna, a town of Peru, 60 leagues s. e.of Lima, is very famous for its silver mines,which are at the top of a great mountain alwayscovered with snow, and but two leagues from thetown. The stones of the mine are, of a dark bluecolour ; these being calcined and powdered, thensteeped in water and quicksilver, the filth is sepa-rated, and the silver melted and formed into bars.These veins are not very rich, but the metal is veryfine. They make plenty of wine here, where itattains a greater degree of perfection, owing to thepureness of the air, than it is observed to have else-where.]

CHOCONA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Paria in Peru; annexed to thecuracy of Toledo.

CHOCONTA, a settlement of the corregimientoof Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.It is of a cold but healthy temperature, beingsituate upon a llanura. It produces abundanceof wheat, maize, papas, barley, and garlic, of thewhole of which an abundant crop is gathered ;these indeed form the principal branches of itscommerce, as they supply all the neighbouringprovinces. It was , in the time of the Indians alarge, rich, and populous city, and the barrierof the province of Tunja; also the place wherethe zipas held a garrison of their best troops.This city was entered by Gonzalo Ximinez deQuesada in 1537, when he gave it the name ofEspiritu Santo, from this festival having beencelebrated here. After the conquest of the Spa-niards it became a became a curacy of the relio-ionof St. Domingo, and was one of those which wasconsidered the first step to the advantages to bederived from these missions. It was close to thissettlement that the sanguinary conflict took placewhich was fought between Michua, king of Tunja,and Saguanmachica, zipa or king of Bogota, inwhich both princes fell dead upon the field ; atpresent it is a small village of Indians, who amountto the number of 200, besides 400 other inhabi-tants, who consist of whites. Ten leagues n. ofSanta Fe, and as many from Tunja, just midwaybetweeen these two jurisdictions.

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CHOCOPE, San Pedro y San Pablo de,a small settlement of the province and corregi-miento of Truxillo in Peru ; situate in the valleyof Chicama, watered and fertilized by the river ofthis name. It produces in abundance grapes,sugar-canes, olives, and every kind of Europeanfruit of the most excellent flavour. It was formerlya large population, since that the few inhabitantswho had been lel't at Concepcion, and those ofLicapa in the same valley, have incorporatedthemselves here. It has a very large and handsomechurch, although this underwent some damagefrom an earthquake experienced in this provincein 1759; the settlement suffered much also in 17S6,as did all the other towns of the coast, as, verycontrary to the custom of the climate here, it rainedwithout cessation for a period of 40 days, fromfive o’clock in the evening to the same hour in thefollowing morning, so that the houses were almostall entirely destroyed. Itis 10 leagues from the capi-tal, in the royal road which leads to Lima, andwhich is called De Valles. Lat. 7° 52' s.

[CHOCORUA, a mountain in Grafton county,New Hampshire, on the n. line of Strafford county,n. of Tamworth.]

[CHOCUITO. See Chucuito.]

CHOGUY. See Laches.

[CHOISEUL Bay, on the n. w. coast of theislands of the Arsacides, w. of port Praslin. Theinhabitants of this bay, like those at port Praslin,have a custom of powdering their hair with lime,which burns it and gives it a red appearance.]

CHOIX, a port of the w. coast of the island ofNewfoundland.

CHOLCHOL, a settlement of the district ofRepocura in the kingdom of Chile ; situate at themouth of the river Rumulhue before it enters theCauten.

CHOLCO-COCHA, a great lake of the pro-vince and corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru,upon the heights of the mountains of the Andes.It is navigated by rafts made by the Indians;fish it has none, from the excesisve cold of itswaters ; from it springs the river Caica-mayu.Mr. De la Martiniere confounds this lake, whichis called Chocolo-cocha, with the city of CastroVireyna, maintaining that the Indians call it bythe latter name, but which is erroneous.

CHOLI, a settlement and establishment of theEnglish in S. Carolina, and country of the Che-rokees Indians; situate at the source of the riverApalachicola.

CHOLIQUE, San Pablo de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Caxaraarca la Grande in Peru.

CHOLOAPA, San Bartolome de, a settlement of the head settlement of Huitepec, andalcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva Espana.It contains 84 families of Indians.

CHOLOSCOPO, San Mateo de, a settlementof the district, and alcaldia mayor of Mexilcaltzingo,in Nueva Espana, somewhat more thanhalf a league’s distance to the m. of ^his place.It contains 102 families of Indians, and has ahandsome convent of the strict observers of St.Francis, which is also a college for studies.

CHOLULA, a district and jurisdiction of analcaldia mayor in Nueva España. Its extent isvery limited, being only three leagues in length atthe widest part ; but it is nevertheless well filled withinhabitants ; its territory is level, and very fertilein wheat, maize, and pepper, which is here calledchile^ as also in other seeds, of which abundant cropsare gathered ; it formerly acquired agreat emolumentfrom the sale of cochineal, but this is laid asideand entirely abandoned. The Spaniards, Mustees^and Mulattoes, busy themselves in making clothsand woven stuffs of cotton, and they have manyworkshops, by which they supply with these articlesthe other provinces. Its population consists of 43settlements of Indians, which are,

San Juan Quantlazingo, Sta. Maria Quescomate,Santiago de Momospan, San Bernardino,

Santa Barbara, Sta. Clara Ocovica,

Todos Santos, Sta. Maria Malacatepe»

San Luis, que,

San Gregorio de Saca- Sta. Maria Coronango,pecpan, S. Miguel Coztla,

S. Francisco de Quapan, San Francisco Ocotlan

S. Diego Cuaucotla, San Antonio, ^

S. Sebastian, San Francisco,

S. Juan Cuautla, San Mateo,

Tonanchin, San Gabriel,

Santa MariaZacatepeque, San Lucas,

San Geronimo, San Martin,

San Pablo Zochimehua, San Lorenzo,

San Andres de Oiolula, TIantenango,

San Francisco Acate- Santa Isabel,peque, Los Santos Reyes,

San Bernardo Tlaxcal- S. Pablo Ahuatempa,zingo, S. Mateo, distinct from

S.AntonioCacalotepeque, the other,

Santa Ana, S. Miguel Papalotla,

San Martin TIanapa, S. Andres de Cholula.

[The district of Cholula contained in 1793 apopulation of 22,423 souls. The villages amount-ed to 42, and the farms to 45. Cholula, Tlax-clala, and Huetxocingo, are the three republicswhich resisted the Mexican yoke for so many cen-turies, although the pernicious aristocracy of theiff

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wliich there is a bank of fine sand, extending amile into the sea, and affording good anchorage.Lat. 1° 59' n. Long. 157° 35' w.]

[Christmas Sound, in Tien a del Fuego, S.America. Lat. 55° 21' n. Long. 69° 48' tw.]

CHRISTOVAL, San, atown of the government and jurisdiction of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Rey no de Granada; foundedby Captain Juan de Maldonado in 1560. It is of•a hot but healthy temperature, produces abundanceof sugar-canes, of which are made honey, sugar,and conserves, in immense quantities ; also a greatproportion of smoking tobacco, which is carried toMaracaibo. It has a good church and a conventt)f St. Augustin, which latter has fallen much todecay with regard to its establishment. The po-pulation of the town consists of 400 housekeepers.It lies 20 leagues n. e. of Pamplona, from the juris-diction of which it is divided by the river Pam-plonilla. It is the native place of Don Gregoriode Jaimes, archdeacon of Santa Fe, and bishop ofSanta Marta.

Same name, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lipes, archbishopric of Char-cas in Peru ; in which took place the following ex-traordinary occurrence: The curate of this placegoing to confess a sick person in the settlement ofTahisa of the province of Paria, which was annexedto this, sunk into a spring of water in the pampasor llanos dela Sal, when he was drowned, and withthe two Indians who accompanied him on horse-back, never more appeared, nor were any vestigesever found of them : this was the reason why thelatter settlement has since been disunited from thecuracy of San Christoval.

Same name, a capital city of the provinceand captainship of Sergipé in the kingdom of Bra-zil ; being also known by that name. It is foundedon the sea-shore, and has a fine and well defendedport. It has a magnificent parish church with thetitle of Nuestra Senora de la Victoria ; two fineconvents, the one of the order of the Franciscans,and the other of the Carmelites ; also a chapel ofdevotion of the Virgin of the Rosary. The council-house is a very fine edifice, and in the suburbs isa hermitage of San Gonzalo, which is frequentedas a pilgrimage by this and other settlements of thejurisdiction. In this city resides the chief captain,who governs this province, and who is attended bya company of troops as a body-guard. In earlytimes it was filled with nobility, descended from thefirst families in Portugal; but it is now reduced to600 housekeepers. in its district, towards thepart called Coninquiva, is a parish with fourchapels, and towards the river Vaza-Barris fiveothers. It has also 25 engines, by which abundanceof sugar of an excellent quality is manufactured ;this article affords a great commerce w ith t!ic bayof Todos Santos. Lat. ll°40's. Long. ST'* SO' tw.

Same name, an island of the N. sea ; oneof the Antilles, discoverctl by Admiral Christoj)herColumbus, who gave it his name, in 149S. It isfive leagues in circumference, and is very fertile,and abounding in productions, particularly in cot-ton, tobacco, indigo, sugar, and brandy ; by allof which it carries on a great commerce. Here arcsome good salines, and in the mountains are somewoods of fine timber, well adapted for the buildingof ships. The English and the French both esta-blished themselves here in 1625, holding a dividedpossession, when they were driven out by the Spa-niards. After this the former again returned andre-established themselves in the greatest part of theisland, leaving, however, a small share to theFrench, until the year 1713, when the latter, inconjunction with the Spaniards themselves, cededit entirely to the English, who from that time haveheld it and kept it well fortified. [St. Christopher,situate in lat. 17° 21', long. 62° 48' ze. was calledby its ancient possessors, the Charibes, Liamuiga,or the Fertile Island. It was discovered in Novem-ber 1493 by Columbus himself, who was so pleasedwith its appearance, that he honoured it with hisown Christian name. But it was neither plantednor possessed by the Spaniards. It was, however,(notwithstanding that the general opinion ascribesthe honour of seniority to Barbadoes), the eldest ofall the British territories in the \V. Indies, andin truth, the common mother both of the Englishand French settlements in the Charibean islands.A Mr. Thomas Warner, an Englishman, asso-ciated himself Avith 14 other persons in the year1622, and with them took his passage on board aship bound to Virginia. From thence he and hiscompanions sailed from St. Christopher’s, wherethey arrived in January 1623, and by the monthof September following had raised a good crop oftobacco, which they proposed to make their staplecommodity. By the generality of historians whohave treated of the affairs of the W. Indies, it isasserted that a party oflhe French, under the com-mand of a person of the name of D’Esnambuc,took possession of one part of this island, on thesame day that Mr. Warner landed on the other;but the truth is, that the first landing of Warnerand his associates happened two years before thearrival of D’Esnambuc; who, it is admitted byDu Tertre, did not leave France until IG25. Un-fortunately the English settlers, in the latter end of

1623, had their plantations demolished by a dread- j

3 N 2

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territory, where the noble families of Loxa havetheir best possessions.

CHUQUIS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huamalies in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Bailos.

CHUQUISACA, La Plata,a city and capital of the province of Peru, foundedby Pedro Anzures in 1539, who gave it this name.It had a settlement of Indians on the same spot.The first founders called it La Plata, from thecelebrated mine of this metal (silver) in the moun-tain of Porco, close to the aforesaid settlement,and from whence immense wealth was extractedby the emperors the Jncas of Peru. This city issituate on a plain surrounded by pleasant hills,which defend it from the inclemency of the winds ;the climate is mild and agreeable, but during thewinter, dreadful tempests, accompanied with thun-der and lightning, are not unusual ; the edificesare good, handsome, and well adorned, havingdelightful orchards and gardens. The waters aredelicate, cold, and salutary, and divided intodifferent aqueducts, by which they are carried tothe public fountains, forming an object at onceuseful and ornamental. Its nobility is of the firstand most distinguished families of Peru, who havemany privileges and distinctions. The cathedralconsists of three naves ; it is very rich, and adorn-ed with fine furniture and beautiful paintings.It contains convents of the religious orders of St.Domingo, St. Augustin, St. Francis, La Merced,and San Juan de Dios, with a good hospital, ahandsome college and a magnificent church whichbelonged to the regulars of the company ; alsothree monasteries of nuns, the one of Santa Clara,the other of Santa Monica, and the third of theCarmelites ; a royal university with the title ofSan Francisco Xavier, the rector of which wasuniversally of the college of the regulars of thecompany of the Jesuits. It has also two housesof study for youth, the one the seminary of SanChristoval, and the other the college of San Juan,which were likewise under the controul of theJesuits until the year 1767 ; also an hermitage de-dicated to San Roque. It was erected into abishopric by the pontiff Julius III. in 1551, andafterwards into a metropolitan in 1608, with anarchbishop, five dignitaries, six canons, four pre-bends, and as many more demi-prebends. Thetribunal of audience was erected here in 1559, andafterwards those of the inquisition of the cruzada.Its arms are a shield divided horizontally, havingin the upper part two mountains with a cross uponeach, in the middle a tree with two columns on thesides, in the lower part to the left two lions rampant,

on the right two towers with two lions, a standardbeing in the middle, and the whole embossedupon a silver field. At the distance of six leaguesfrom this city passes the river Pilcoraayu, bywhich it is supplied with good fish, and upon theshores of the Cachimayu, which is only twoleagues distant, the nobility have many rural seats.In 1662 a great insurrection took place hereamongst the Mustees and the people of colour.It is the native place of several illustrious persons,and amongst others of the following :

Don Rodrigo de Orozco, Marquis of Mortara,captain-general of the principality of Cataluna,and of the council of state and war.

Fra}/ Antonio de Calancha, a monk of St. Au-gustin, a celebrated author.

Don Rodrigo de Santillana, oidor of Valladolid,and afterwards in his country.

The venerable Friar Martin de Aguirre, of theorder of St. Augustin.

Don Alonso Corveda de Zarate, canon of Lima,and professor of languages.

The Father Maestro Diego Trexo, a Do-minican monk.

The Father Juan de Cordoba, of the extin-guished company of Jesuits, a celebrated theo-logist.

Its archbishopric has for suffragans, the bishop-rics of Santa (3ruz de la Sierra, La Paz, Tucu-man, and La Ascencion of Paraguay ; and to itsdiocese belong 188 curacies. Its inhabitants inand about it amount to 13,000, of which 4000 areSpaniards, 3000 Mustees, 4500 Indians, and 15,000Negroes and Mulattoes. It is 290 leagues fromCuzco, in lat. 19° 31' s.

Archbishops of the church of La Plata.

1. Don Frau Tomas de San Martin, a monk ofthe order of St. Dominic, a master in his order,and one of the first monks who passed over intoPeru with the Friar Vicente de Valverde; he W 2 isprovincial there, returned to Spain with the Licen-tiate Pedro de la Gasca, and as a reward for hislabours, presented by the king to the first arch-bishopric of Charcas, in 1553: he died in 1559.

2. Don Fraj/ Pedro de la Torre, who waselected, but not consecrated ; and in his place,

3. Don Fray Alonso de la Cerda.

4. Don Fernan Gonzalez de la Cuesta, who laidthe foundation of the cathedral church.

5. Don Fray Domingo de Santo Tomas, of theorder of St. Dominic, a noted preacher, and one ofthose who went over to Peru with the Fray VicenteValverde ; he was prior in different convents, andgeneral visitor of his order in those kingdoms.

6. Don Fernando de Santillana, native of Se-

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but very little known, of Indians, of the NuevoReyno de Granada, bordering upon the riverFusagasuga. They are few, and live dispersed inthe woods, having a communication with the Faecesand Fusungaes.

[CHYENNES, Indians of N. America, theremnant of a nation once respectable in point ofnumber. They formerly resided on a branch ofthe Red river of Lake Winnipie, which still bearstheir name. Being oppressed by the Sioux, theyremoved to the w, side of the Missouri, about15 miles below the mouth of Warricunne creek,where they built and fortified a village ; butbeing pursued by their ancient enemies the Sioux,they fled to the Black hills, about the head of theChyenne river, where they wander in quest of thebuffalo, having no fixed residence. They do notcultivate. They are well disposed towards thewhites, and might easily be induced to settle on theMissouri, if they could be assured of being pro-tected from the Sioux. Their number annuallydiminishes. Their trade may be made valuable.]

[CIACICA. See Cicasica.]

CIBAMBE, a settlement of the district and cor-regimiento of Alausi in the kingdom of Quito.

CIBAYA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Arica in Peru.

[CIBOLA, or Civola, the name of a town in,ana also the ancient name of, New Granada inTierra Firroe, S. America. The country here,though not mountainous, is very cool ; and theIndians are said to be the whitest, wittiest, mostsincere and orderly of all the aboriginal Americans.When the country was discovered, they had eachbut one wife, and were excessively jealous. Theyworshipped water, and an old woman that was amagician ; and believed she lay hid under one oftlicir

CIBOO, Minas de, some rough and craggymountains, nearly in the centre of the island of St. Domingo, where some gold mines are worked, andfrom whence great wealth was procured at the be*ginning of the conquest.

CIBOUX, a small island near the e. coast ofthe Isla Real, or Cape Breton, between the portDelfin and the entrance of the lake of Labrador.

CICASICA, a province and corregimiento ofPerú ; bounded n. and n. e. by the mountains ofthe Andes, and the province of Larecaxa ; e. bythe province of Cochabamba ; s. e. by that of Pariaand coTTCgirnicnto of Oruro ; on the s . it is touchedby the river of Desaguadero ; s. w, by the provinceof Pacages ; and n. w.. and w. by the city of La Paz.It is one of the greatest in the whole kingdom,since the corregidor is obliged to place here 12lieutenants for the administration of justice, on ac-count of its extent. It is five leagues from n. to j.and 80 from e. to w. Its temperature is various ;in some parts there are some very cold serrantasyin which breed every species of cattle, in proportionto the number of estates found there. That partwhich borders upon the Andes is very hot andmoist, but at the same time fertile, and aboundingin all kinds of fruits and plantations of sugar-cane,and in cacao estates, the crops of which are verygreat, and produce a lucrative commerce ; the useof this leaf, which was before only common to theIndians, being now general amongst the Spaniardsof both sexes and all classes ; so that one basket-ful, which formerly cost no more than five dollars,will now fetch from 10 to 11 ; vines are also culti-vated, and from these is made excellent wine. Thisprovince is watered by the river La Paz, which isthe source of the Beni ; also by a river descendingfrom the branches of the cordillera, and which, inthe wet season, is tolerably large. At the riverCorico begins the navigation by means of rafts tothe settlement of Los Reyes. Amongst the pro-ductions of this province may be counted Jesuitsbark, equal to that of Loxa, according to the ex-periments made at Lima. This province begins atthe river Majaviri, which divides the suburbs ofSanta Barbara from the city of La Paz, and hereis a little valley watered by the above river, and init are a few houses or country-seats belonging tothe inhabitants of the above city. This valley,which is of a delightful temperature, extends asfar as the gold mine called Clmquiahuilla, onthe skirt of the cordillera, where was foundthat rich lump of gold which weighed 90 marks,the largest ever seen in that kingdom, with the pe-culiarity, that upon assaying it, it was found tohave six different alloys ; its degrees of perfec-tion differing from 18 to 23 j ; and that beingvalued in Spanish money, it proved to be worth11,269 dollars reals. This prize was carried tothe royal treasury, and upon this occasion theMarquis of Castelfuerte, then viceroy, receivedthe thanks of his majesty. In the territory ofCinco Curatos (or Five Curacies) of the Andes arefound in the forests excellent woods, such as cedars,corcoholos, &c. and many fine fruits, also tobacco.It had formerly very rich mines of gold and silver,which are still known to exist in other mountainsbesides that of Santiago, but the natives have no in-clination to work them. The aforementionedmountain has the peculiarity of abounding in eithersort of the said metals. In the asiento of the minesof Arica, there is a gold mine which produces butlittle. From the wo^ of the flocks are made sora«

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abundance of the various kinds of grain cultivatedin other parts of the state ; the people manufactureearthenware, pot and pearl ashes, in large quanti-ties, which they export to New York or Quebec.Their wool is excellent ; their beef and pork se-cond to none ; and the price of stall-fed beef inMontreal, 60 miles from Plattsburg, is such as toencourage the farmers to drive their cattle to thatmarket. Their forests supply them with sugarand molasses, and the soil is well adapted to theculture of hemp. The land-carriage from anypart of the country, in transporting their produceto New York, does not exceed 18 miles ; the car-rying place at Ticonderoga is one mile and a half,and from fort George, at the s. end of the lakeof that name, to fort Edward, is but 14 miles.The small obstructions after that are to be removedby the proprietors of the n. canal. From thiscountry to Quebec, are annually sent large rafts ;the rapids at St. John’s and Chamblee being theonly interruptions in the navigation, and those notso great, but that at some seasons batteaux with60 bushels of salt can ascend them ; salt is soldhere at half a dollar a bushel. Seranac, Sable, andBoquet rivers water Clinton county ; the first isremarkable for the quantity of salmon it pro-duces.]

[Clinton, a township in Dutchess county.New York, above Poughkeepsie. It is large andthriving, and contains 4607 inhabitants, including176 slaves. Six hundred and sixty-six of its in-habitants are electors.]

[Clinton, a settlement in Tioga county. NewYork, bounded by Fayette on the n. Warren onthe s. Green on the w. and Franklin in Otsegocounty on the e. Unadilla river joins the Susque-hannah at the n. e, corner, and the confluent streamruns s. zis. to Warren.]

[Clinton, a plantation in Lincoln county,district of Maine, lies 27 miles from Hallowell.]

[Clinton Parish, in the township of Paris,seven miles from Whitestown, is a wealthy, plea-sant, flourishing settlement, containing severalTiandsome houses, a newly erected Prebyterianmeeting-house, a convenient school-house, and anedifice for an academy, delightfully situated, butnot yet finished. Between this settlement and theIndian settlements at Oneida, a distance of 12 miles,(in June 1796), was wilderness without any inha-bitants, excepting a few Indians at the Old Oneidavillage.]

[Clinton’s Harbour, on the ??. w. coast of N.America, has its entrance in lat. 52° 12' n. Cap-tain Gray named it after Governor Clinton of NewYork.]

[CLIOQUOT. See Clyoquot.]

CLIPSA, a fertile and pleasant plain, or llanura,of the kingdom of Peru, in the jurisdiction ofChuquisaca, and bounded by that of Cochabamba.It is 30 miles in circumference, is well peopled,and very fertile and pleasant, and its climate ishealthy.

[CLISTINOS, a fierce nation of Indians, whoinhabit round Hudson bay. See New Britain.]

CLOS, a settlement of North Carolina, in the countyof Anson.

[CLOSTER, a village in Bergen county, NewJersey, nearly seven miles s. e. ofPeramus, and16 n. of New York city.]

[CLIOQUOT, a sound or bay on the n. w.coast of America, to. from Berkley’s sound. SeeHancock’s Harbour.]

COACALCO, San Francisco de, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Ecatepec in NuevaEspafia. It contains 129 families of Indians.

COACHIC, a settlement of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province of Taraumura, and kingdomof Nueva Vizca 3 >^a. It is S4 leagues to the s. w.of the town and real of Mines of Chiguagua ; andabout the distance of a league and a half in thesame direction, lies an estate of the same name.

COACLAN, San Gaspar de, a settlement ofthe alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco in Nueva Espana.It contains 218 families of Indians, in which areincluded those of its six neighbouring wards. Itis oiie league s. of its capital.

COACULA, Asuncion de, a settlement ofthe head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Igualain Nueva Espana. It contains 37 families of In-dians.

COAGUILA, aprovince of Nueva España, bounded by theNuevo Reyno de Leon. It extends as far as theriver Medina ; runs 200 leagues in length towardsthe n. and is 160 wide from s. w. to n. e. All thisextensive country is as it were unpeopled, beinginhabited no otherwise than by some few settle-ments established by the missions, who consist ofthe monks of St. Francis of the city of Queretano,who have succeeded in converting some of the na-tives. There are, however, three garrisons upoathe frontiers of the sierras^ and country of the in-fidel Indians, for the purpose of checking anyirruption. This province is watered by manylarge rivers, the principal of which arc those ofNadadores and St. Domingo. There arc heresome estates, in Avhich large and small cattle breedplentifully, on account of the fineness of the pas-tures. The capital is the town and garrison of

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it has a large proportion of families of Spaniards,Mustees^ and Mulalloes ; besides which, it con-tains 387 of Indians, and a convent of monks ofSt. Francis. Seven leagues to the n. n. w. ofMexico, although the distance is commonly count-ed at only six. Long. 274° 12'. Lat. 19° 50'.

COAUTLA, a province and alcaldia mayor oiNueva España ; bounded s. by the corregimientoof Mexico. It is also called. Of Amilpas. Itsjurisdiction extends 25 leagues ; it is of a warmand moist temperature, but is fertile, and aboundsin wheat, maize, French beans, lentils, barley,and tares, as also in other productions, which serveas a commerce to its natives. Great quantities ofsugar are also manufactured in various mills andmachines for the purpose. This province is water-ed by two rivers, the one very large, called theAmazinaquc, which runs e. and the other, some-what less, to the e . ; in both of them are caughtmany bagres and trout, which, being much es-teemed in the neighbouring provinces, afford alsoanother considerable branch of commerce. It hassilver mines which produce tolerably well, andfrom one, which is vulgarly called La Peregrina,much riches were formerly extracted. The juris-diction consists of the following settlements ;

The capital of the sarne Xamiltepec,

name, Tlacotepec,

Tetelzingo, Zacoalpan,

Tlamimilulpa, Temoaque,

Cacoyoc, Ancuilco.


The capital forms three streets, of regular pro-portion and symmetry in the buildings, with twoelegant edifices, one of the monks of St. Domingo,'and the other of the barefooted monks, or Descal-zos, of St. Francis. It contains 36 families of Spa-niards, 70 of 40 of Mulattoes, and 200

of Indians ; the part of the city inhabited by thelatter is never visited by the Spaniards but as awalk, or place of recreation, and the Indians neverattempt to encroach upon the part not appropriatedto them. Twenty-five leagues 5. of Mexico. Long.274° 10'. Lat. 19° 5'.

Same name, another settlement and real of thesilver mines of this province, in which are twosugar mills, and some engines for grinding metal.It contains 56 families of Spaniards, Mustees, andMulattoes, and lies 12 leagues to the s. w. of itscapital.

COAUTLACO, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapain Nueva Espana. It contains 35 families of In-dians, and is two leagues to the n. e. of that place.

COAZA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Larecaja in Peru; annexed to the cu-racy of Combaya.

COBAN, a settlement and capital of the pro-vince and alcaldia mayor of Vera Paz in the king-dom of Guatemala. It contains a good convent ofthe order of St. Domingo, and is 30 leagues fromGuatemala.

[COBBESECONTE, or Copsecook, whichin the Indian language signifies the land where stur-geons are taken, is a small river which rises fromponds in the town of Winthorp, in the district ofMaine, and falls into the Kennebeck within threemiles of Nahunkeag island, and 15 from Mooseisland.]

COBEQUIT, a large settlement of the provinceand colony of Nova Scotia; situate on the side ofthe basin of Minas, on the innermost shore of thebay of Fundy.

[Cobequit or Colchester River, in NovaScotia, rises within 20 miles of Tatamogouche, onthe n. e. coast of Nova Scotia ; from thence it runss. ; then s. w. and w. info the e. end of the basinof Minas. At its mouth there is a short bank, butthere is a good channel on each side, which vesselsof 60 tons burden may pass, and go 40 miles .upthe river. There are some scattered settlements onits banks.]

[COBESEY, in the district of Maine. See


[COBHAM, a small town in Virginia, on thes. bank of James river, opposite James town ; 20miles n. w. of Suffolk, and eight or nine 5. w. ofWilliamsburg.]

[Cobh AM Isle, mentioned by Captain Mid-dleton, in the journal of his voyage for finding a71, e. passage. Its two extremities bear n. by e.and e. by n. in lat. 63° «. long. 3° 50' fromChurchill, which he takes to be the Brook Cob-ham of Fox.]

COBIJA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Atacama in Peru, and archbishopricof Charcas; annexed to the curacy of Chinchin.It is founded on the sea-shore, has a good port,where the inhabitants are busied in the fishing forcongers ; and these being called charqnecillos, orsalted, are carried in abundance for sale to theneighbouring provinces, to the sierra, and otherparts. In lat. 23° 20' s. according to Don CosmeBueno ; and according to the ex-jesuit Coleti,in lat. 22° 25' s.

[COBEZA. See Cobija. This obscure portand village is inhabited by about 50 Indianfamilies, and is the most barren spot on thecoast. This is, however, the nearest port to Lipei^where there are silver mines, and also to Potosi,2

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rapid current, between high banks on eacli side,and pours the whole body of its water over a per-pendicular rock of about 40 (some say more) feetin height, which extends quite across the riverlike a mill-dam. The banks of the river, imme-diately below the falls, are about 100 feet high.

A bridge 1100 feet long, and 24 feet wide, restingon 13 piers, was erected, at the expence of 12,000dollars, in 1794, a mile below the falls, from whicha spectator may have a grand view of them; butthey appear most romantically from Lansinburghhill, five miles e. of them. 1

(COHONGORONTO is the name of Potow-raack river before it breaks through the Blueridge, in lat, 39° 45' n. Its whole length to theBlue ridge may be about 160 miles ; from thenceit assumes the name of Potowmack, which see.)

(COHUIXCAS, a country in New Spain, inwhich there is a considerable mountain of load-stone, between Tcoiltylan and Chilapan.)

COIABAMBA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chilques and Masques inPeru; annexed to the curacy of Calpi. Anearthquake was experienced in this province in1707, Avhich desolated many settlements ; whenalso happened that extraordinary phenomenonwhich is accredited and related by Don CosineBueno, geographer of Lima, as having takenplace ; which was, that a small estate was by thisearthquake removed from one side of the river tothe other, together with the house, garden, andinhabitants, without their perceiving any thinghad happened ; and as the event took place atmidnight, Avhen they were all asleep, that theywere not a little surprised to find themselves esta-blished in the curacy of Colcha. This extraordi-nary occurrence, however, has its precedent ina similar circumstance which happened in thekingdom of Quito.

COIACHI, a settlement of the missions whichwere held at the expence of the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara,and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, 18 leagues andan half between the s. w. and s. e. of the town andreal of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguagua.

COIAIMA, a settlement and head settlementof the corregimiento of this name in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature,produces cacao, sugar-cane, maize, ^uca<!, plan-tains, and an infinite quantity of cattle and swine ;but it is much infested with reptiles and insects,vipers, snakes, spiders, and mosquitoes. It alsoabounds in gold, and the Indians to the number of450, who go to Santa Fe to pay their tribute, pro-ceed in companies, and are accustomed to collect

in four or five daj's, on Die shores of the river Sal-dana, as much gold as is necessary for the tributethey are obliged to pay in the city.

COIAME, a river of the province and countryof Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions.It runs n. in a serpentine course, and enters theMaranon between the rivers Tefe and Catoa.

COIBA==, a small island of the S. sea, close to thecoast of the province and government of Veragua,in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, and five leaguesdistant from the point Blanca.

COIN, a river of the island of Guadalupe. Itruns to the n. w. in the isthmus Avhich almost di-vides the island into two parts, and enters the seaat the bottom of the bay of Cul de Sac Petit.

COIOACAN, a district and alcaldia mayor ofNueva España. It is one of the most pleasant,and fertile in wheat, maize, barley, and other seeds.Nearly the whole of its population live in coun-try houses, in gardens and orchards which pro-duce quantities of fruit, such as pears of severalkinds, peaches, apples, prunes, plums, damsons,pomegranates, quinces, oranges, and lemons, withwhich a great commerce is carried on rviththe cityof Mexico. In some parts of this province clothsand baizes are fabricated. It belongs to thejurisdiction of the marquisate Del Valle de Oax-aca ; to which the tributes are paid, the king re-taining the sum of four tomines, (a Spanishcoin weighing the third part of a drachm.) Thesettlements of this district are,

San Angel, Chapultepec,

San Augustin de las Nuestra Senora de los

Culvas, Remedies.


The capital, which bears the same name, is alarge, pleasant, fertile, and well peopled town. Ithas shady arbours, country houses, and orchardsand gardens, which serve as a recreation to thepeople of Mexico, from whence it is distant twoleagues to the s. s. e. Its population amounts to1885 Indian families. It has a good convent ofthe religious order of St. Dominic, and manywork-shops, in which are fabricated cloths, baizes,and serges. Long. 99° 4'. Lat. 19° 20'.

COIOMEAPA, Santa Maria de, a settle-ment and head settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Theacan in Nueva Espana. It contains 300families of Indians, and 20 of Mustees and Mu-lattoes. Twelve leagues s. e. of its capital.

COIOTEPEC, San Mateo De, a settlement ofthe alcaldia mayor of Yanguitlan in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 22 families of Indians, whosubsist by the trade in cochineal. Six leagues s. c.of its capital.

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COIOTZINGO, S. Miguel de, a settlementof the head settlement and alcaldia mayor ofGuejozingo in Nueva Espana. It contains ISfamilies of Indians.

COIQUAR, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cumaná, situate on tlie shore of ariver, between t!ie city of Cariaco, and the inte-rior bay of the gulf Triste.

COIUCA, San Miguel de, a settlement andhead settlement of tlie district of the government ofAcapulco in Nueva Espana. It contains 137 fa-milies of Indians, and is nine leagues to the n. e.of its capital. Close by this, and annexed toit, is another settlement, called Chinas, with 120families.

Coiuca, with the dedicatory title of San Agus-tin, another settlement of the head settlement andalcaldin mayor of Zacatula in the same kingdom ;containing 32 families of Indians and some Mus-tees, and being annexed to the curacy of itscapital.

COIULA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan in Nueva Es-paua. It contains SO families of Indians, whotrade in cochineal. Three leagues e. of its ca-pital.

COIUTLA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan in Nueva Es-pana ; situate on a plain surrounded bj^ heights.It is annexed to the curacy of its capital, andcontains 37 families of Indians, being; 15 leagrucsdistant from its capital.

COJATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Paucarcolla in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Vilques.

COJEDO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; situate on the skirt of a mountain near theriver Guarico,

(COKESBURY College, in the town ofAbington, in Harford county, Maryland, is an in-stitution which bids fair to promote the improve-ment of science, and the cultivation of virtue. Itwas founded by the methodists in 1785, and has itsname in honour of Thomas Coke and FrancisAsbury, the American bishops of the methodistepiscopal church. The edifice is of brick, hand-somely built on a healthy spot, enjoying a fine airand a very extensive prospect. The college waserected, and is wholly supported by subscriptionand voluntary donations. The students, who areto consist of the sons of travelling preachers, annualsubscribers, members of the society, and orphans,are instructed in English, Latin, Greek, logic,rhetoric, history, geography, natural philosophy,


and astronomy ; and when the finances of the col-lege will admit, they are to be taught the Hebrew,French, and German languages. The rules forthe private conduct of the students extend to theiramusements ; and all tend to promote regularity,encourage industry, and to nip the buds of idlenessand vice. Their recreations without doors arewalking, gardening, riding, andbathiiig; withindoors they have tools and accommodations for thecarpenter’s, joiner’s, cabinet-maker’s, or turner’sbusiness. These they are taught to consider aspleasing and healthful recreations, both for thebody and mind.]

COLAISACAPE, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom ofQuito.

COLUMBO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito.

COLAMI, a settlement of Indians of S. Carolina;situate on the shore of the river Albama.

COLAN, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Piura in Peru, on the coast of thePacific ; annexed to the curacy of Paita. its terri-tory produces in abundance fruits and vegetables,which are carried for the supply of its capital.All its inhabitants are either agriculturists or fisher-men. It is watered by the river Achira, alsocalled Colan, as well as the settlement ; and thoughdistinct from Cachimayu, it is not so from Cata-mayu, as is erroneously stated by Mr. La Marti-niere. [Here they make large rafts of logs, whichwill carry 60 or 70 tons of goods ; with these theymake long voyages, even to Panama, 5 or 600leagues distant, 'fhey have a mast with a sailfastened to it. They always go before the wind,being unable to ply against it ; and therefore onlyfit for these seas, where the wind is always in amanner the same, not varying above a point or twoall the way from Lima, till they come into the bayof Panama ; and there they must sometimes w'aitfor a change. Their cargo is usually wine, oil,sugar, Quito cloth, soap, and dressed goat-skins.The float is usually navigated by three or four men,who sell their float where they dispose of theircargo ; and return as passengers to the port theycame from. The Indians go out at night by thehelp of the land-wind with fishing floats, moremanageable than the others, though these havemasts and sails too, and return again in the davtime with the sea-wind.] Lat. 4° 56' s.

Colan, the aforesaid river. See Cat am a yu.

COLAPISAS, a settlement of Indians of theprovince and government of Louisiana ; situate onthe shore of the Mississippi, upon a long strip ofland formed by the lake Maurepas.

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COLARIA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the district of thecapital, to the zo. of this province.

COLASTINA, a small river of the provinceand government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. andenters the Parana,

COLATE, a small river of the province andalcaldta mayor of Tecoantepec in the kingdom ofGuatemala. It runs into the S. sea, between therivers Azatian and Capanerealte.

COLATPA, a settlement of the head settlementof Olinalá, and alcald'in mayor of TIapa, in NuevaEspana. It contains 29 families of Indians, whoemploy themselves in the commerce of chia, av/hite medicinal earth, and cochineal, which aboundin their territory : n. w. of its head settlement.

COLAZA, a small and ancient province, ex-tremely fertile and delightful, belonging at the pre-sent day to the province of Popayán in the NuevoReyno de Granada. It was discovered by Sebas-tian de Benalcazar in 1536. Its inhabitants, whowere a warlike and cruel race, are entirely extir-pated.

COLCA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Vilcas Huaman in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Huanacapi.

COLCA, another settlement in the province andcorregimiento of Xauja in the same kingdom ; an-nexed to the curacy of Chongos.

COLCA, another, in the province and corregi-miento of Aimaraez in the same kingdom ; an-nexed to the curacy of Pampamarca.

COLCABAMBA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru.

COLCABAMBA, another settlement, in the pro-vince and corregimiento of Theanta in the samekingdom.

COLCAHUANCA, a settlementof the provinceand corregimiento of Huailas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Pampas.

COLCAMAR, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Luya, its capital.

COLCHA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento oi Lipes, and archbishopric of Charcas,in Peru. It was formerly the capital, and pre-serves in its cluirch an image of the blessed virgin,sent thither by the Emperor Charles V. It is nowannexed to the curacy of San Christoval.

COLCHA, another settlement, of the'province andcorregimiento of Chilques and Masques in the samekingdom.

COLCHA, another, of the province and corregi-miento of Cochabamba in the same kingdom ; an-nexed to the curacy of Berenguela,

COLCHAGUA, a province and^ corregimientoof the kingdom of Chile ; bounded on the e. bythe cordillera Nevada ; s. by the province ofMaule, the river Teno serving as the boundary ;and w. by the sea. It is 40 leagues in length frome. to w. and 32 in width from n. to s. Here aresome gold mines, and there were several others,the working of which has been discontinued : hereare also some copper mines. It abounds in wheat,large and small cattle, horses and mules. In apart called Cauquencs are some hot baths, whicharc much frequented, from the salutary affects theyproduce, especially upon those affected with theFrench disease, leprosy, spots on the skin, orwounds. The inhabitants of this province amountto 15,000 souls, and its capital is the town of SanFernando.

COLCHAGUA, a settlement of this province andcorregimiento, which is the head of a curacy ofanother, and contains four chapels of ease.

(COLCHESTER, a township in Ulster county.New York, on the Popachton branch of Delawareriver, s. w. of Middletown, and about 50 miless. w. by s. of Cooperstown. By the state censusof 1796, 193 of its inhabitants are electors.)

(Colchester, a large township in New Londoncounty, Connecticut, seltled in 1701 ; about 15miles tc. of Norwich, 25 s. e. of Hartford, and 20n. w. of New London city. It is in contemplationto have a post-office established in this town.)

(Colchester, the chief town in Chittendencounty, Vermont, is on the e. bank of lake Cham-plain, at the mouth of Onion river, and n, of Bur-lington, on Colchester bay, which spreads n. of thetown.)

(Colchester, a post-town in Fairfax county,Virginia ; situate on the n. e. bank of Ocquoquamcreek, three or four miles from its confluence withthe Potowmack ; and is here about 100 yardswide, and navigable for boats. It contains about40 houses, and lies 16 miles s. w. of Alexandria,106 n. by e. of Richmond, and 172 from Phila-delphia.)

(Colchester River, Nova Scotia. See Cohe-QUIT.)

COLCURA, a fortress of the kingdom of Chile,built on the opposite shore of the river Biobio, torestrain the incursions of the warlike AraucanianIndians, who burnt and destroyed it in 1601.

COLD Bay, in the extremity of the n. coast ofthe island of Jamaica, between the port Antonioand the n. e. point.

(COLD Spring, in the island of Jamaica, is avilla six miles from the high lands of Liguania.The grounds are in a high state of improvement.

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Cold spring is 4200 feet above the level of the sea ;and few or none of the tropical fruits will flourishin so cold a climate. The general state of thethermometer is from 55° to 63° ; and even some-times so low as 44° : so that a fire there, even atnoon-day, is not only comfortable, but necessary,a great part of the year. Many of the Englishfruits, as the apple, the peach, and the strawberry,flourish there in great perfection, with several othervaluable exotics, as the tea-tree and other orientalproductions.)

(Cold Spring Cove, near Burlington, New Jer-sey, is remarkable for its sand and clay, used inthe manufacture of glass ; from whence the glassworks at Hamilton, 10 miles w. of Albany, are sup-plied with these articles.)

COLE, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes,in the district of the parish of St. George, distinctfrom the other of its name in the same parish.

COLEA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Maynas in the kingdom of Quito. It runss. and enters the Tigre.

(COLEBROOKE, in the «. part of New Hamp-shire, in Grafton county, lies on the e. bank ofConnecticut river, opposite the Great Monadnock,in Canaan, state of Vermont ; joining Cockburneon the s. and Stuartstown on the n. ; 126 miles n.w. by «. from Portsmouth.)

(COLEBROOKE, a Tougb, hilly township on then. line of Connecticut, in Litchfield county, 30miles n. w. of Hartford city. It was settled in1736. Here are two iron works, and several mills,on Still river, a n. w. water of Farmington river.In digging a cellar in this town, at the close of theyear 1796, belonging to Mr. John Hulburt, theworkmen, at the depth of about 9 or 10 feet, foundthree large tusks and two thigh-bones of an animal,the latter of which measured each about four feetfour inches in length, and 12|; inches in circum-ference. When first discovered they were entire,but as soon as they were exposed to the air theymouldered to dust. This adds another to themanj^ facts which prove that a race of enormousanimals, now extinct, once inhabited the UnitedStates.)

(COLERAIN, a township in Lancaster county,Pennsylvania.]

(COLERAIN, a town on the». bank of St. Mary’sriver, Camden county, Georgia, 40 or 50 milesfrom its mouth. On the 29th of June 1796, atreaty of peace and friendship was made and con-cluded at this place, between the president of theUnited States, on the one part, in behalf of theUnited States, and the king’s chiefs and warriorsof the Creek nation of Indians, on the other. By

this treaty, the line between the white people andthe Indians was established to run from theCurrahee mountain to the head or source of themain s. branch of the Oconee river, called by thewhite people Appalatohee, and by the IndiansTulapoeka, and down the middle of the same.”Liberty was also given by the Indians to the pre-sident of the United Stutes to “ establish a tradingor military post on the s. side of Alatamaha,about one mile from Beard’s bluff', or any wherefrom thence down the river, on the lands of theIndians and the Indians agreed to “ annex tosaid post a tract of land of five miles square ;and in return for this and other tokens of friendshipon the part of the Indians, the United States stipu-lated to give them goods to the value of 6000dollars, and to furnish them with two blacksmithswith tools.)

COLGUE, a settlement of the island of Laxa inthe kingdom of Chile ; situate on the shore of theriver Tolpan.

COLIMA, the alcaldia mayor and jurisdictionof the province and bishopric of Mechoacán inNueva Espana. It is bounded e. by the jurisdic-tion of Zapotlan, s. by that of Mortincs, n. by thatof Tuzcacuesco, and w. by that of Autlan, and theport of La Navidad in the kingdom of Nueva Ga-licia. It carries on a great trade in salt, collectedon the coasts of the S. sea, where there are wellsand salt grounds, from which great emolumentis derived, supplying, as they do, the inlandprovinces with this article. Formerly the best

cocoa wine of any in the kingdom was made here,from the abundance of this fruit found in all thepalm estates ; but the art of bringing it to perfec-tion was lost, and this branch of commerce diedaway, from the additional cause, that the making ofthis liquor was prohibited by the viceroy, the Dukeof Albuquerque, as being a drink calculated toproduce great inebriety. The capital is of the samename ; and the settlements of this district are,Almoloioyan, Zinacantepec,

Comala, Totolmoloyan,

Zaqualpa, Caxitlan,

Xulua. Tecoman,

Xilotlan, Ixtlahuaca,

Guezalapa, Tomala,

Nagualapa, Cuatlan. ,


The capital is a town sitimteupon the coast ofthe S. sea, near the frontiers ofXalisco, in themost fertile and pleasant valley of Nueva Espaiia.It abounds in cacao and other vegetable produc-tions ; is of a hot temperature, and the air is verypure. Its buildings are regular and handsome,3 R 2


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particularly those of (lie parish church, the con-vent of the monks of Niiestra Sonora de la Merced,another of St. Francis, and the hospital of S. J uande Dios. Its population consists of 200 familiesof Spaniards, 122 oi Mustees, 15 Mulattoes, and22 of Indians. In its district is found and gatheredthe celebrated plant called in the country oleacazan^■which is considered as a wonderful restorer of loststrength, and a certain specific against all kinds ofpoison. The leaves of it are applied to the partaffected, and the natives are accustomed to judgeof its virtues by its degree of adhesion. One hun-dred and fifty leagues to the w. of Mexico, inlong. 103^ 20', and lat. 18° 34'.

COLIMAS, a barbarous nation of Indians informer times, but now reduced to the faith, in theprovince of its name; this being now incorporatedwith that of Muzo of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.These Indians are also known by the name of Ca-napayes, being united to them. Its capital is thecity of La Palma de los Colimas. See articleMuzos.

COLIMBA, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Popayán in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada.

COLINA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Santiago in the kingdom of Chile ;in the district of which there are five chapels ofcase, in a spacious and beautiful valley.

COLINA, a river of this province and kingdom,which rises in the mountains of its cordillera, andenters the Maypo.

COLIUINA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Nicaragua in the kingdom of Guate-mala ; situate upon a long strip of land on the coastof the S. sea.

(COLLA, a parish of the province and govern-ment of Buenos Ayres ; situate on a small rivernear the sea-coast, about eight leagues e. of Coloniadel Sacramento, in lat. 34° 19' 39" s. Long. 57°21' 43" w.')

COLLADOS, Ensenada de los a bay onthe s. coast of the w. head, and in the territory ofthe French, in the island of St. Domingo. It is be-tween the rock of Bareo and the river Damasein.

COLLAHUAS, and Asiento of Mines ofCaylloma, a province and corregwiiento of Peru ;bounded n. by that of Cbumbivilcas, e. by that ofCanes and Canches or Tinta, s. e, by that ofLampa, s. by that of Arequipa, and w. by that ofCamana. It is 52 leagues in length s. e. n. w. and16 in width. Its temperature is cold, from beingsituate in the cordillera ; with the exception of thatpart which borders upon Camana, where it isvery mild, especially in the five leagues where its


jurisdiction extends itself in the valley of Sihuas ;the other five leagues reaching to tlie sea borderingon Camana. Its productions are various : thoseof the valley are comprised in wine, brandies,wheat, maize, pulse, and fruits, especially figs,which being preserved, serve as nourishment tonumbers of poor people. The other territories ofthis province are of the same temperature, thoughcomparatively barren. It abounds in large andsmall cattle, native sheep, vicunas, and some wildanimals. The roads are dangerous, from thecountry’s being extremely unequal, and the greaterpart of it beinga craggy ravine, over which labours,rather than to say runs, a pretty large river, whichhas its rise within the province. Here are manysilver mines, from which great riches were formerlyextracted, since they yielded 80 or 100 marks eachcaxon. Atthe present day they yield but sparingly,on account of their great depth, some of them being200 fathoms in descent ; they are, nevertheless,worked with tolerable profit. The principalmountain of these mines is that of Caylloma, andit was through this mine that the capital wasfounded. There are also not wanting mines ofgold, tin, lead, copper, and sulphur; but these, onaccount of the deficiency of resources, remain un-worked. The capital, as we have before stated, isCaylloma. Its repartimmito used to amount to37,100 dollars, and its alcavala to 456 dollars perannum. The other settlements of the jurisdictionare.
















Y chupampa,









COLLANA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cicasica in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Mccapa. Its Indian inhabitants havekept themselves unmixed from any other cast eversince the time of the conquest ; and in order to stillpreserve themselves so, they will not allow of anystrangers sleeping in the settlement, though heshould be sent by the corregidor. If any otherperson should come among them, he is put intoprison, and after a very short time dispatched.Owing to these precautions, the vicious propen-pensities observable in other settlements are en~

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tirely unknown to tiiis. Its inlmbitants lead aregular life ; they give without cxjicctation of in-demnification, and are governed l!)roughoiit the■whole tribe by the sounding of a bell. In short,they might serve as a model for all the other settle-ments of Indians in the kingdom.

COLLANA, another settlement of the same pro-vince and corregimicnto ; annexed to the curacy ofMecacapaca.

COLLANES, a chain of very lofty mountains,almost continually covered with snow, in the pro-vince and corre"imiento of Riobamba in the king-dom of Quito, to the s. of the river Pastaza, and ofthe mountain runguragua. They take their namefrom the nation of barbarous Indians who livescattered in the woods of these mountains, whichrun from w. to e. forming a semicircle of 20leagues. The mountain which out-tops the rest,they call the Altar.

COLLANI, a settlement of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of theJesuits in Nuevo Mexico.

COLLATA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Santa Olaya.

COLLAY. See Pataz.

COLLETON, a county of the province of Ca-rolina in N. America ; situate n. of the county ofGrenville, and watered by the river Stone, whichunites itself with an arm of the Wadrnoolan. Thatpart which looks to the n, e. is peopled with es-tablishments of Indians, and forms, with the otherpart, an island called Buono, which is a little belowCharlestown, and is well cultivated and in-habited. The principal rivers of this country are,the Idistows, the S. and N. Two or three miles upthe former river, the shores are covered with plan-tations, which continue for more than three milesfurther n. where the river meets with the N. Edis-tow, and in the island formed by both of them,it is reckoned that 20 freeholders reside. Theseare thus called, from the nature of the assignmentand distribution of lands which took place in thenew colonies. But the English governor did notgrant an absolute and perpetual property, save toparticular individuals : the concession was some-times for life, sometimes considered as lineal,sometimes to descend to the wife, children, or re-lations, and sometimes with greater restrictions.The above-mentioned people have, however, theirvote in the assembly, and send to it two members.In the precinct of this county is an Episcopalchurch.

Colleton, another county, of the provinceand colony of Georgia.

Colleton, a settlement of the island of Bar-badoes, in the district of the parish ot TodosSantos.

COLLICO, a small river of the district of Tol-ten Baxo in Ihe kingdom of Chile. It runs h. n.w. and enters the river Tolten.

COLLIQUEN, a llanura, or plain, of thecorregimiento of Truxillo in Peru. It is fertile, andof a dry and healthy climate, although thinly in-habited and uncultivated.

COLLIUE, a settlement of Indians of the king-dom of Chile, situate on the shore of the riverTolpan.

COLLQUE, an ancient, large, and well peo-pled settlement of Peru, to the n. of Cuzco ; con-quered and carried by force of arms by the IncaHuayna Capac, thirteenth Emperor of Peru.

COLNACA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Chichos and Tarija in Peru, ofthe district of the second, and annexed to the cu-racy of its capital.

COLOATPA, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Olinalá, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, inNueva Espana. It contains 29 families of In-dians, who occupy themselves in the commerceof chia^ a white medicinal earth, and cochineal,which abounds in this territory. It lies to then. w. of its head settlement.

COLOCA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru,situate on the shore of the river of La Plata, and tothe n. of its capital.

COLOCINA, San Carlos de, a settlement ofthe province and government of Cartagena, in thedistrict of the town of Tolu; founded in 1776 bythe governor Don J uan Pimienta.

COLOCINA, some mountains of this province andgovernment, also called Betanzi, which run n. formany leagues from the valley of Penco.

COLOCOLO, a settlement of Indians of thekingdom of Chile ; situate on the shore of the riverCarampangue, and thus called from the celebratedcazique of this name, one of the chiefs in the warin which these Indians were engaged with theSpaniards.

COLOLO, a small river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It runs n. and en-ters the river Negro, near where this enters tireUruguay.

COLOMBAINA, a small settlement of the ju-riscidiction of Tocaima, and government of Mari-quita, and in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; an-nexed to the curacy of the settlement of Amba-leina. It is situate on the shore of the riverMagdalena; is of a very hot temperature, and

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much incommoded by mosquitos ; so that its po-pulation is much reduced, and those that remainapply themselves to the cultivation of sugar-canes,maize, yucas^ and plantains.

COLONCHE, a small settlement of Indians,of the district and jurisdiction of Santa Elena,in the government of Guayaquil, and kingdomof Quito ; situate on the s. shore of a river,from whence it takes its name, in lat. 1° 56' s.The said river rises in the mountains of thedistrict, and enters the S. sea, opposite the islandof La Plata.

Colonche, a small island of the S. sea, nearthe coast of the province and government of Gua-yaquil.

COLONIES OF THE English. See thearticles Virginia, Carolina, New England,New York, Jersey, Massachusetts, RhodeIsland, Pennsylvania, Nova Scotia ; of theJ3utch, see Surinam, Berbice, Corentin,CuRAZAo ; of the Portuguese, San Gabriel;of the French, Cayenne, St. Domingo, Mar-tinique; of the Danes, St. Thomas. (See gene-ral Tables of Dominions, &c. in the introductorymatter.)

COLOPO, a large river of the province andgovernment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom ofQuito. It runs from s. e. to n. w. at an almostequal distance between the rivers Esmeraldas andVerde, and runs into the S. sea, in the bay of SanMateo, in lat. 58' n.

COLOR, Cabo de, a cape on the coast of theprovince and captainship of Sergipé in Brazil. Itlies between the rivers Real and Ponica.

COLORADA, Punta, a point on the coast ofthe N. sea, and in the province and governmentof Venezuela, to the e. of the cape San Roman.

COLORADA, a river of tlie jurisdiction andalcaldta mayor of Penonomé, in the governmentof Panama, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It risesin the mountains to the s. and enters the Pacificnear the settlement of Anton.

COLORADO, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tucumán, in the district andjurisdiction of the city of Salta, and s. s. e. of thesame.

Colorado, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Marta in the kingdom of TierraFirme; situate on the shore of the river of its name.

Colorado, a river of the province and corre-^imiento of Cuyo in the kingdom of Chile. Itrises in its cordillera, to the n. runs e. and spendsitself in various lakes, on account of the level oftlie country. The geographer Cruz errs in makingit enter the river Maipo.

Colorado, another, a large river of the pro-:vince and government of Sonora in NuevaEspana.

Colorado, another, a small river of the pro-vince and government of Santa Marta in thekingdom of Tierra Firme, which enters the greatriver Magdalena before you come to the townof Tamalameque.

Colorado, another, in the province and go-vernment of Louisiana, near the road wliich leadsto Mexico. It runs s. e. in a very large stream,and enters the sea in the bay of San Bernardo.

Colorado, a cape or point of land of the s.coast of St. Domingo, in the part possessed bythe French, between the bays of Tondo and Puer. .

Colorado, a mountain of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, on the shore of the riverSalado, and to the s. of the settlement of Nuestra'Sefiora de Buenas Costumbres. ;

COLORADOS, a barbarous nation of Indians,of the province and corregimiento of Tacunga inthe kingdom of Quito, who inhabit some moun-,tains of the same name, very craggy and rugged,abounding in animals and wild beasts, such asbears, lions, tigers, deer, squirrels, monkeys, andmarmosets. These Indians, although the greaterpart of them are reduced to the Catholic faith bythe extinguished company of the Jesuits, aregiven to superstition ; they are divided into twoparts, the one called the Colorados of Angamarca,since tlieir principal settlement bears this title, andthe other the Colorados of St. Domingo ; they now,belong to the province and government of Esme-raklas, and live retired in the woods, and upon thebanks of the rivers Toachi and Quininay, wherethe missionaries of the religion of St. Domingo ofQuito exercise their apostolical zeal. The princi-pal settlement of this place, being situate on the w.shore, is called St. Domingo. The commerce ofthese Indians, and by which they subsist, is incarrying to Guayaquil, the province by whichthey are bounded , w dod for making canoes and rafts,sugar-canes, achiote, and agi pepper, and bring-ing back in exchange cattle, fish, soap, and othernecessary eft'ects.

COLOSO, a settlement of the province andgovernment ©f Cartagena ; situate on the shore ofthe river Pechelin, to the s. s. w. of the townof Maria, to the jurisdiction^of which it apper-tains.

COLOTLAN, a settlement and head settlementof the alcaldia mayor of Mextitlan in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 240 families of Indians, and isthree leagues to the w. of its capital.

COLOTLIPAN, a settlement of the head set-

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(lereent of Quecliollenan^o, and nkaldia mni/orof Chilapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 27families of Indians, and is three leagues from itshead settlement.

COLOYA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Popayán in the corregimiento ofPasto.

COLPA, a settlement of the province and cor-reghniento of Aymaraez in Peru'; annexed to thecuracy ot Pituhuanca in the province of Cocha-bamba.

COLPAPIRHUA , a settlement of the provincean^l corregimiento of Cochabamba in Peru ; an-nexed to the curacy of Tiquipaya.

COLPES, a settlem.ent of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the district of its ca-pital.

COLPI, a small river of the kingdom of Chile,It runs n. and enters the Quisu.

COLQUEMARCA, a settlement of the jrro-vince and correghniento of Chumbivilcas in Peru.

COLQUEPATA, a settlement of tiie provinceand cori'egimienlo of Paucartambo in Peru; an-nexed to the curacy of its capital.

COLQUI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cicasica in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Mohosa in the province of Cocha-bamba.

COLQUIOC, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Caxatambo in Peru ; annexed tothe curncy ofCaxacay.

(COLRAINE, a township in Hampshire coun-ty, Massachusetts, which contains 229 houses,and 1417 inhabitants,)

COLTA, a large lake of the province andforregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom ofQuito, near that city to the s. It is about twoleagues in length from n, to s. and is of an ovalfigure. Its banks are covered with very finerushes and eneax, or flags; but fish will not breedin it, owing to the coldness of the climate ; it hastwo very small streams, the one to the w. and pass-ing very near to Riobamba, and the other to thes. entering the n. side of the river Gamote.

(COLUMBIA, a township in Washingtoncounty, district of Maine, on Pleasant river, ad-joining Macliias on the 7i.e. and was formerlycalled Plantations No. 12 and 13. It was incor-porated in 1796. The town of Machias lies 15miles to the e. ; it is nine miles from Steuben.)

(Columbia County, in New York, is boundedn. by Rensselaer, s. by Dutchess, e. by the stateof Massachusetts, and w. by Hudson river, whichdivides it from Albany county. It is 32 miles inlength and 21 in breadth, and is divided into

eight towns, of which Hudson, Claverack, andKinderhook, are the chief. It contained in 179027,732 inhabitants, and in 1796, 3560 electors.)

(Columbia College. See New York City.)

(Columbia, Territory of. See Washington,or the Federal City.)

(Columbia, a post-town, the capital of Ker-shaw county, and the seat of government of S.Carolina. It is situated in Camden district, onthe e. side of the Congaree, just below the con-fluence of Saluda and Broad rivers ; the streets areregular, and the town contains upwards of 70houses. The public offices have, in some mea-sure, been divided, for the accomodation of theinhabitants of the lower counties, and a branchof each retained in Charlestown. It lies 115 miles«. n. u\ of Charlestown, .35 s. w. of Camden, 85from Augusta in Georgia, and 678 s. u\ of Phila-delphia. Jjat. 33° 58' n. Long. 8° 5' ay.)

(Columbia, a flourishing in Gooch-land county, Virginia, on the «. side of Jamesriver, at the mouth of the Rivanna. It containsabout 40 houses, and a warehouse for the inspec-tion of tobacco. It lies 45 miles above Richmond,35 from Charlottesville, and 328 s. w. of Phila-delphia.)

(Columbia, atown newly laid out in Lancas-ter county, Pennsylvania, on the n. e. bank ofSusquehannah river, at Wright’s ferry, 10 milesw. of Lancaster, and 76 to. by n. of Philadel-phia.)

(Columbia County, in the upper district ofGeorgia, is bounded by Savannah e. on the n. e,and e. which separates it from the state of S. Caro-lina, w. of Richmond county. Its shape isvery irregular.)

(Columbia, a town on the «. w. territory, onthe «. bank of Ohio river, and on thezo. side of themouth of Little Miami river; about six miles s. e. of fort W ashington, eight e. by s. of Cincin-nati, and 87 n. by w. of Lexington in Kentucky.Lat. 38° 44' ? 2 .)

COMACARI, a large river of the kingdom ofNuevo Mexico.

COMACHUEN, Santa Maria de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of Siguinan, and akai-dia mayor of Valladolid, in the province andbishopric of Mechoacan, with 25 families of In-dians, whose only occupation is in making saddle-trees. Two leagues from its head settlement.

COMAGRE, a very small, barren, and desertisland of the N. sea, on the coast of the provinceand government of Darien, and nearly to the s. ofthe island of Pinos.

COMALA, a settlement of the head settlement

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of Atengo, and alcald'ia mayor of Chilapa, inNueva Espana. It contains 27 families of Indians,and is two leagues to the n. of its head settle-ment.

COMALA, another settlement, in the head settle-ment of Almololoyan, and alcald'ia mayor of Co-lima. It contains 67 families of Indians, who ex-ercise themselves in the cultivation of the lands.Two leagues to the n. e.- of its head settlement.

COMALAPA, a .settlement of the province andalcald'ia mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Guate-mala.

COMALTEPEC, a settlement and head settle-ments of the mayor of Villalta, of a hottemperature, with 310 families of Indians. Nineleagues between the e. and ??. of its capital.

COMALTEPEC, another, in the alcald'ia mayorof Tecocuilco. It contains 78 families of Indians,who cultivate nothing but cochineal and maize,and these only in as much as is nece.ssary for theirsustenance.

COMANJA, a settlement of the head settlementof Tirindaro, and alcald'ia mayor of Valladolid, inthe province and bishopric of Mechoacan. Itcontains 13 families of Indians, and is one leagueto the s. of its head settlement.

=COMANJA==, another settlement and real of minesin the alcald'ia mayor oi Lagos, of the kingdom andbishopric of Galicia ; the population of which con-sists of 30 families of Spaniards, Mustees, andMulattoes, and 50 of Indians, who live by thecommerce of and labour in the mines, which,although these inhabitants are little given to in-dustry, produce good emolument. This settle-ment is at the point of the boundary which dividesthe settlements of this kingdom from the king-dom of Nueva Espana. Seven leagues e. of itscapital.

COMAO, a province of the country of LasAmazonas, to the s. of this river, from the mouthof which it is 40 leagues distant, extending itselfalong the banks of the same; discovered in 1745by Francisco de Orellana. The territory is leveland fertile, and the climate moist and hot. Itabounds in maize, and has some plantations ofsugar-cane. It is watered by different rivers, allof which abound in fish, as do also its lakes ; andin these an infinite quantity of tortoises are caught.This province belongs to the Portuguese, and ispart of the province of Para.

(COMARGO, a town of New Leon in N.America ; situate on the s. side of Rio Bravo,which empties into tlie gulf of Mexico on the w.side.)

COMARU, or De los Angeles, a settle-

ment of the missions held by the Portuguese in thecountry of the Amazonas, on the shore of the riverNegro.

COMARU, another settlement in the provinceand captainship of Pará, and kingdom of Brazil ;situate on th.e s. shore of the river of Las Ama-zonas, on a point or long strip of land formed bythe mouth of the river Topayos.

COMAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regmiienio of Xauxa in Peru.

Comas, a lake of the province and governmentof Venezuela, of an oval figure, between the riverGuarico and the jurisdiction which divides thisgovernment from that of Cumana.

COMATLAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Chixila, and alcald'ia mayor of Villalti.It contains 32 families of Indians, and is fiveleagues to the n. of its capital.

COMATLAN, another settlement, the head set-tlement of the district of the alcald'ia mayor of Te-quepexpa ; of a hot temperature. It contains 20families of Indians, who live by cultivating thelands. Fifteen leagues to the s. of its capital.

COMAU, a settlement of the province and cap-tainship of Pará in Brazil ; situate at the mouth ofthe river Las Amazonas, to the n. n. e. of thetown of Macapa.

COMAUUINI, a river of the province andgovernment of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions,on the shores and at the mouth of which they haveconstructed the fort of Amsterdam. It runs n. andafterwards turning to the s. s. e. enters the Co-tica.

COMAYAGUA, or Valladolid, a city andcapital of the province of Honduras in the king-dom of Guatemala ; founded by the CaptainAlonzo de Caceres, by the order of Pedro de Al-varado. It was at first called Nuestra Senora dela Concepcion, and by this title there is still namedan hospital which is well endowed and served.Here are also some convents of the religious orderof La Merced, and a very good church, erectedinto a bishopric in 1539. One hundred and tenleagues from the capital Guatemala. Lat. 20° 58'n. Long. 87° 5 P

Bishops who have presided in Comayagua.

1. Don Fray Juan de Talavera, of the orderof St. Jerome, prior of his convent of NuestraSenora del Prado, near Valladolid : being nomi-nated first bishop, he refused the appointment.

2. Don Christoval de Pedraza, elected bishopfrom the renunciation of the former; at the sametime nominated protector of the Indies, and resi-dentiary judge to the conquerors Pedro Alvaredoand Francisco de Montejo, in 1539,

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3. Don Fray Geronimo de Corella, of the orderof St. Jerome, native of Valencia, descended fromtlic Connls of Cocentayna ; prior of the convent ofhis country, and afterwards of tliat of NuestraSehora del Prado, when he was elected bishop ofthis diocese in J562.

4. Don Fray Alonso de la Cerda, of the orderof preachers ; promoted to the archbishopric ofCharcas in 1577.

5. Don Fray Caspar de Andrada, a Franciscanmonk, and native of Toledo ; collegian of thecollege of San Pedro and San Pablo of Alcala deHenares, guardian of the convents of S. Juan dclos Reyes in Toledo and in Madrid, visitor of theprovinces of Arragon, a celebrated preacher, andelected to this bishopric in 1588 ; he governed 24years, and died in 1612.

6. Don Fray Alonso Galdo, a monk of theorder of St. Dominic, native of Valladolid, present-ed in 1612; he visited its bishopric, was of ex-emplary conduct, and being full of years and in-firmities, he requested that a coadjutor might benominated in 1628 ; and this was,

7. Xion Fray Luis de Canizares, a religiousminim of St. Francis of Paula, native of Madrid ;he was lecturer in his convent, and in that ofAlcala, calificador and consultor of the inquisitionin Valladolid ; nominated through the nuncio ofof his holiness; was visitor of the province of An-dalucia, bishop of Nueva Carceres in Philippines,and promoted to this see, where he died, in 1645.

8. Don Juan Merlo de la Fuente, doctoral c^Lnonof the church of the Puebla de los Angeles, electedbishop of Nuevo Segovia in the Philippines,which oflBce he did not accept, and was bishophere in 1648.

9. Don Pedro de los Reyes Rios of Madrid,native of Seville, monk of the order of San Benito,master, preacher in general, theological doctor,and poser to the cathedrals of the university ofOviedo, difinidor and abbot of the monasteries ofSan Isidro de Dueilas, San Claudio de liCon, andSan Benito de Sevilla, preacher to Charles II.elected bishop of this church, and before he wentover to it, promoted to that of Yucatan in 1700.

10. Don Fray Juan Perez Carpintero; electedin the same year, 1700.

11. Don Fray Angel Mnldonado, native ofOcaila, monk of San Bernardo, doctor and pro-fessor of theology in the university of Alcala ; hewrote in defence of the right of Philip V. to thecrown of Spain ; presented to the bishopric ofHonduras, and after taking possession, promotedto the church of Antequara in 1702.

12. Don Fray Antonio Guadalupe Lopez Por-

VOIi. I.

tillo, native of Guadalaxara in Nueva Espaha,of the order of St. Francis, a man of great learn-ing and virtue, domestic prelate of his holinessBenedict NHL; presented to the bishopric ofComayagua in 1725 ; he died in 1742.

13. Don Flay Francisco Molina, of the orderof St. Basil, master of theology, abbot of the mo-nastery of Cuellar, thrice of that of Madrid, andtwice difinidor general of Castille ; elected in1743.

14. Don Diego Rodriguez Rivas de Velasco,native of Riobamba in the kingdom of Quito, doc-tor of both laws in the university of Alcala, col-legian of the college of Los Verdes, titular arch-deacon of the holy church of Guatemala; electetlbishop in 1750, and promoted to the bishopric ofGuadalaxara in 1762.

15. Don Miguel Anselmo Alvarez de Abreu,native of Teneriffe, secretary of the bishop, of Se-govia, and canon in the church of Canarias, judgeof the apostolical chamber, and of the tribunal ofthe holy crusade, auxiliary bishop of the Puebla dclos Angeles, presented to this in 1762, and pro-moted to that of Antequera in 1767.

16. Don Isidore Rodriguez ; he died in 1767.

17. Don Antonio de Macarulla, elected in 1767,and promoted to that of Durango in 1773.

18. Don Francisco Joseph de Palencia, elected,in 1773.

19. Don Fray Antonio de San Miguel, in 1776,until 1783.

20. Don Joseph Antonio de Isabella, in 1783.

COMBAGUEN, a settlement of Indians of thedistrict of Tolten Alto in the kingdom of Chile.

(COMBAHEE, a considerable river of S.Carolina==, which enters St. Helena sound, betweenCoosa and Ashepoo rivers.)

(COMBAHEE Ferry, on the above river, is 17miles from Jacksonsborough, 15 from Pocotaglio,and 52 from Charlestown.

COMBACA a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

COMBAPATA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Tinta in Peru ; situate uponan eminence near the royal road which leads fromLa Plata to Lima. Its natives say that it has thebest and most healthy temperature of any in thekingdom, and they mention some persons whohave lived here to the age of 140 years.

COMBAPATA, a river of the above provinceand corregimiento. it rises in the cordillera nearthe settlement of Punoa, runs some distance e. andthen turning n. enters the source of the Vilco-mayo.

COMBEIMA, a large river of the province

3 s

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and government of Neyba in the kingdom of Gra-nada. It rises in the paramo or mountain desertofQuindiu, traverses and waters the valleys ofLas Lanzas, and unites itself witli that of SanJuan, taking the name of Coello, from a Spaniardof this name having been drowned in it. It thenenters the Magdalena.

COMBEJU, a settlement of the province andcaptainship of Rey in Brazil ; situate at the sourceof the river Curitaba.

COMBERUI, Bay of, on the coast of the pro-vince o.i\6. captainship of Rey in Brazil. It liesbetween the bay of Tasay and the island of Gallo.

COMBES, a settlement of the island of Bar-badoes, in the district of the parish of St. George.

COMBINCUMA, a spacious, and but littleknown country of the kingdom of Quito. It isfull of woods, in which there are many wild beastsand snakes of various kinds, and it is watered bymany rivers, all of which enter the s. side of theMaranon. Amongst the various nations whichinhabit it is that of the Tontones.

COMBITA, a settlement of the province andcorregirniento oi Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a cold temperature, and pro-duces the fruits corresponding with its climate.It contains 100 house-keepers, and as many otherIndians, and is two leagues to the n. zo. of itscapital.

COMBLES, Los Cinco, a settlement andparish of the island of St. Christopher, one of theAntilles ; situate on the shore of the n. w. coast,and in the part formerly possessed by the Eng-lish.

COMBOY, a rocky shoal of the N. sea, to thes. of that of La Vivora.

COMEAPA, a settlement of the province andulcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

COMECUERO, a river of the province andgovernment of Honduras in the kingdom of Guate-mala. It runs into the gulf which has tlie nameof the province.

COMETA, PUNTA DE, a point or cape ofthe Caico Grande, or Del N. (of the N.) on the n. e.coast.

Cometa, a shoal of rocks, near upon the n. e.coast of the island of Caico Grande, or Del N.and by the former point, from whence it takes itsname.

(COMFORT Point is the s. easternmost partof Elizabeth City county in Virginia, formed byJames river at its mouth in Chesapeak bay. PointComfort lies 19 miles w. by n. of cape Henry.]Comfort Point, another point, which is also

of the same coast and province as the former, andwithin that bay, being one of the points which formthe entrance of the river York.

Comfort Point, another, on the s. coast ofHudson’s bay, in the province of this name.

COMICHIGELES, Sierra de, in the pro-vince and government of Tucumán, and boundedby the sierra of Cuyo, in the kingdom of Chile. Itruns from 5. s. e. on the shore of the Concara, andin fact follows the course of that river.

COMISARIO, Punta del, a long strip ofland which runs into the sea on the coast of theprovince and government of Cartagena, betweenthis city and the point of S. Bernardo.

COMISTAHUACAN, a settlement of the pro-vince and alcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in thekingdom ol' Guatemala.

COMITLAN, a settlement of the province and'alcaldia mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom ofGuatemala.

COMITLAN, another settlement, in the pro-vince and alcaldia mayor of Capanabastla in thesame kingdom.

(COMMANOES, one of the Small Virginisles, in the W. Indies, situate to the n. n. e. ofTortilla.)

COMOCAUTLA, San Pedro de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of Zapotitlan, andalcaldia mayor of Xacatlan, in Nueva Espana,three leagues distant from its head settlement.

COMO-LEWU, or Rio de los Sauces, call-ed also Gran Desaguadero. See Sauces.

COMONDU, San Joseph de, a settlementof the missions which were held by the regularsof the company of Jesuits in the province of Ca-lifornia ; situate near the sea-coast, between thesettlements of La Concepcion and San FranciscoXavier.

COMONDU, San Joseph de, a bay of this pro-vince, between the bay of Concepcion and theisland of Carmen.

COMOPORO, a settlement of the governmentof Maracaibo in the province of Venezuela;situate on the coast of the lake towards the e. part.

COMORI, Crique de, a creek and establish-ment of the French, in their possessions inGuayana.

COMORIPA, or Comoriopa, as some willhave it, a settlement of the province of Ostimuriin Nueva Espana; situate on the shore of the riverHiaqui, between the settlements of Cocoria andTecoriona.

COMPOSTELA, a province and alcaldiamayor of Nueva Galicia. Its jurisdiction extendsfrom the mouth of the large river San Pedro, as

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CON 499

far as the confines of the akaldia mayof of Tepi-que. It is of an hot temperature, abounding’ inmaize, cotton, cocoa-trees, and other fruits pecu-liar to the climate : and particularly in large andsmall cattle, which breed in numberless wards andcountry estates. It has silver mines, which areworked to tolerable profit. It is but thinlypeopled, and the greater part of its inhabitants arcMustees and Negro slaves. It is watered by theriver Canas, which rises in the jurisdiction ofAcaponeta. The capital is of the same name.This was founded by Nufio de Guzman in 1531,and is the capital of the kingdom, and where thetribunal of royal audience and episcopal see wereerected ; these being afterwards removed to thecity of Guadalaxara. This latter city was at thesame time made the capital, from its proximity tothe shore of the S. sea, its distance from the samebeing only 12 leagues. It was at that time verywealthy, but it afterwards fell to decay ; the pri-macy was also taken from it, and it is nothing nowbut a miserable village. Its natives are the mostpolite and best affected to the Spaniards of any inthe whole kingdom. (To the n. w. of Compos-tela, as well as in the districts of Autlan, Ahux-catlan, and Acaponeta, a tobacco of a superiorquality was formerly cultivated.) Lat. 21° 10' w.Long. 104° 40' w. The settlements of this juris-diction are,

Matanchel, Sapotan,

San Pedro, Mazatlan,

Cali may a, Xaltocan.

Compostela, another city, in the island of St.Domingo. See Azua.

COMPTON, a settlement of the English, in theprovince and colony of Massachusetts ; situate onthe coast, at the entrance of the bay of Buzard.

COMUATO, a small island of the lake or seaof Chalapa, in the district of the alcaldia mayorof Zamora, and kingdom of Nueva Espana. Itis of a hot and moist temperature, surrounded bythick reeds and Indian fig-trees. In the dry sea-son it communicates with the mainland. Its po-pulation is scanty, and consists of 20 families ofSpaniards, and in its plains various herds of largecattle graze. Nine leagues from the capital.

COMUTA, a city of the province and captain-ship of Pará in Brazil, founded in 1581 by JuanPedro de Olivciro, on the e. shore of the riverPaeaxa. It is at present destroyed, and somesmall houses alone remain, where, for the conve-nienee of its situation, a small garrison of Portu-guese resides.

CONAHASET, a rocky shoal of the coast of

the province and colony of New England, at theentrance of port Boston.

CONAICA, a settlement of tlie province andcorrep;imiento of Angaraez in Peru.

(CONAJOHARY, a post-town on the s. side ofMohawk river, New York, very large, 36 milesabove Schenectady, and 318 from Philadelphia.See Canajoiiary.)

CONANAMA, a bay of the province and go-venment of Guayana.

CONANAMA, a river of the same name, in thisprovince.

CONARDO-TUBA, a river of the provincecaptainship o^ Los Ilheos in Brazil. It risesnear the coast, and runs e. between those of theDuna and Ilheos.

(CONAWANGO, a n. branch of Alleghanyriver, in Pennsylvania, which rises from Cha-taughque lake.)

CONCARY, a river of the province and cor-regimiento of Cuyo in the kingdom of Chile. Itrises from a small lake to the e. of the mountain ofthe Pie de Palo, and running s, e. returns, form-ing a curve to the w. when it divides itself into se-veral branches.

CONCEPCION, or Penco, a city of the king-dom of Chile, the capital of the province andcorregimiento of its name, founded in 1550 byPedro de Valdivia. Its situation is upon a barrenand uneven territory, somewhat elevated, on thesea-shore, and on the side of a large, noble, andconvenient bay. On the n. side it is crossed by arivulet, and on the s. it is watered by the riverAndalien, and lies not far from the Biobio. It isa small city, and its houses and buildings arepoor and much reduced. It has, besides the ca-thedral church, convents of the religious orders ofSt. Francis, St. Domingo, La Merced, St. Au-gustin, an hospital of San Juan de Dios, and acollege w hich belonged to the regulars of the com-pany of the Jesuits, and which is the best build-ing in it. Its climate is moderately warm, al-though in the winter the cold is great. It abouiidsgreatly in all kinds of grain, cattle, and deliciousfruits, and these are cultivated in gardens whichare found attached to almost every house. It liesopen on all sides, being commanded by six emi-nences ; amongst the which the most prominent isthat which is called Del Romitorio, and extendsas far as the city. Its only defence is a batteryon a level with the water, which defends the an-choring ground of the bay. The natives resemblethe rest of tliis kingdom : they are strong, robust,valorous, and well made, most dexterous in the3 s 2

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