Search for "La Laxa" La<lb/>Laxa*
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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Luis de Cabrera, to make an cfl’ecliial discoveryof this nation, but he did not succeed. In 1662the innermost part of this country was penetratedby Fatlier Geronimo Montemayor, of the extin-guished company of Jesuits. He discovered anation of Indians, whose manners correspondedwith this ; but he did not succeed in establishingmissions, for want of labourers, and from other ob-stacles which arose.
Ceuadas, a very abundant river of the sameprovince and kingdom, from which the above set-tlement borrowed its title. It rises from the lake ofCoraycocha, Avhich is in the desert mountain or"pararno of Tioloma. It runs n. and passing bythe former settlement, becomes united witli anotherriver, formed by two streams flowing down fronrtheparamo of Lalangiiso, and from the waste watersof the lake Colta ; it then passes through the set-tlement of Pungala, its course inclining slightly tothe e. and at a league’s distance from the settlementof Puni, is entered by the Riobamba near the Cu-bigies, another river which flows down from themountain of Chimborazo, and following its courseto the«. for some distance, turns to the c.as soon asit reaches the w. of the mountain of Tungaragua,and at last empties itself into the Maranon ; rvhenit passes through the settlement of Penipe, it flowsin so large a body that it can be passed only bymeans of a bridge, which is built there of reeds ;and before it reaches the ba/ios or baths, it col-lects the Avaters of the Tacunga, Ambato, and otherrivers, Avhich flowing doAvn from the one and theother cordillera, have their rise in the s. summitof Eiinisa, and in the s. part of Ruminambi andCotopasci.
CEUALLOS, Morro de los, an island ofthe river Taquari, formed by this dividing itselfinto two arms to enter the river Paraguay, in theprovince and government of this name.
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runs from w. to e. being navigable by small vesselstill it enters the S. sea.
CHACALTANGUIS, a settlement and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofCozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, is of a moisttemperature, and situate on the shore of the largeriver Alvarado. It contains seven families of Spa-niards, 18 of Mulattoes and Negroes, and 75 ofPopolucos Indians. Within its district are 19 en-gines or mills for making refined sugar ; and itsterritory produces maize and cotton in abundance ;is three leagues to the e. of its capital.
CHACALTONGO , Natividad de, a settlementand head settlement of the district of the alcaldiamayor of Tepozcolula, is of a cold temperature,and surrounded by eight wards within its district ;in all of which there are 160 families of Indians,who cultivate much maize and wheat ; is sevenleagues between the e. and s. of its capital.
(CHACAPOYAS. See Chachapoyas.)
CHACARACUIAN, a settlement of the pro-province and government of Cumaná in thekingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate in the mid-dle of the serrania of that province. It isunder the care of the Catalanian Capuchin fa-thers ; and, according to Cruz, on the coast ofthe sea of Paria.
of declaring war is by sending from town to townan arrow clenched in a dead man’s hand,which they call comocatoria; and this they didin the year 1723, making terrible havoc andslaughter. This kingdom is evidently, fromwhat has been asserted, the most fertile, abun-dant, rich, and delightful region of all America ;to which Nature has granted, in profusion, allthat she has given to others, either with a sparinghand, or at too high a price. The people areliealthy and robust. The wind which generallyprevails is thes. w. and the Puelche, which comesfrom the cordillera, is somewhat troublesome. [ThePuelche wind takes its name from some Indians socalled, and from whose country it blows.] Chileis divided into two bishoprics, suffragan to thearchbishopric of Lima ; and these are of Santiagoand La Concepcion. It is governed by a president,governor, and captain-general, which title wasfirst possessed by Doii Melchor Bravo de Saravia,and its government is divided into 18 provincesor districts, which are,
l-a Serena or CoquimbiQuillota,
And the islands of Juatal is Santiago.
Catalogue of the barbarous Nations and principalPlaces in the kingdom of Chile.
Coquimbo or La Se-
San Juan de la Fron-tera,
San Luis de Loyola,Valdivia,
Nubbe or Nuble,Pereroa,
Estancia del Rey or
Fernandez. The capi-
Estancia de Rey, gold,Larapangui, silver,Ligua, vole.
Llaon, gold,Llupangui, gold,Notuco, vole.
Petorca, gold,Quillacoya, gold,Sinn, vole.
De la Sal,
Catalogue of the Presidents, Governors, and Cap-tains-general of the Kingdom of Chile.
1. The Adelantado Pedro de Valdivia, conquer-or of the kingdom; he served much, and withgreat valour, in the conquest of Peru, was a colo-nel of foot under Francis Pizarro, entered in theyear 1537, founded the first towns, and governeduntil the year 1551 ; he was made prisoner, fight-
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kingdom of Chile. It rises from one of the lakesof Avendafio, runs w. and then turning s. entersthe river Laxa. On its shore the Spaniards havea fort, called Yumbel, or Don Carlos de Austria,to restrain the Araucanos Indians.
[CLAVERACK, a post-town in Columbiacounty. New York, pleasantly situated on a largeplain, about two miles and a half e. of Hudsoncity, near a creek of its own name. It containsabout 60 houses, a Dutch church, a court-house,and a goal. The township, by the census of 1791,contained 3262 inhabitants, including 340 slaves.By the state census of 1796 tkere appears to be412 electors. It is 231 miles from Philadelphia. 1
[CLERK’S Isles lie s, w. from, and at theentrance of Behring’s straits, which separate Asiafrom America. They rather belong to Asia, beingvery near, and s. s. w. from the head-land whichlies between the straits and the gulf of Anadir inAsia. They have their name in honour of thatable navigator, Captain Clerk, the companion ofCaptain Cook. In other maps they are called St.Andrea isles.]
[CLERMONT, a post-town in Columbia coun-ty, New York, six miles from Red hook, 15from Hudson, 117 miles n. of New York, and212 from Philadelphia. The township contains867 inhabitants, inclusive of 113 slaves.]
[Clermont, a village 13 miles from Camden,S. Carolina. In the late war, here was ablock-house encompassed by an abbatis; it wastaken from Colonel Rugely of the British militia,in December 1781, by an ingenious stratagem ofLieutenant-colonel W ashington.]
[CLIE, Lake Le, in Upper Canada, about 38miles long and 30 broad; its waters communicatewith those of lake Huron,]
[CLINCH Mountain divides the waters ofHolston and Clinch rivers, in the state of Tennessee.In this mountain Burk’s Garden and MorrisesNob might be described as curiosities.]
[Clinch, or Peleson, a navigable branch ofTennessee river, which is equal in length to Hol-ston river, its chief branch, but less in width. Itrises in Virginia, and after it enters into the stateof Tennessee, it receives Powel’s and Poplar’screek, and Emery’s river, besides other streams.The course of the Clinch is s. w. and s. w. by w . ;its mouth, 150 yards wide, lies 35 miles belowKnoxville, and 60 above the mouth of the Hiwasse.It is beatable for upwards of 200 miles, andPowel’s river, nearly as large as the main river, isnavigable for boats 100 miles.]
[CLINTON, the most n. county of the state ofNew York, is bounded n. by Canada, e. by thedeepest waters of lake Champlain, which line se-parates it from Vermont, and s. by the county ofWashington. By the census of 1791, it contained16 14 inhabitants, including 17 slaves. It is di-vided into five townships, viz. Plattsburgh, thecapital. Crown Point, Willsborough, Champlain,and Peru. The length from n. to s. is about 96miles, and the breadth from e. to w. including theline upon the lake, is 36 miles. The number ofsouls was, in 1796, estimated to be 6000. By thestate census, in Jan. 1796, there were 624 personsentitled to be electors. A great proportion of thelands are of an excellent quality, and produce
Cold spring is 4200 feet above the level of the sea ;and few or none of the tropical fruits will flourishin so cold a climate. The general state of thethermometer is from 55° to 63° ; and even some-times so low as 44° : so that a fire there, even atnoon-day, is not only comfortable, but necessary,a great part of the year. Many of the Englishfruits, as the apple, the peach, and the strawberry,flourish there in great perfection, with several othervaluable exotics, as the tea-tree and other orientalproductions.)
(Cold Spring Cove, near Burlington, New Jer-sey, is remarkable for its sand and clay, used inthe manufacture of glass ; from whence the glassworks at Hamilton, 10 miles w. of Albany, are sup-plied with these articles.)
(COLEBROOKE, in the «. part of New Hamp-shire, in Grafton county, lies on the e. bank ofConnecticut river, opposite the Great Monadnock,in Canaan, state of Vermont ; joining Cockburneon the s. and Stuartstown on the n. ; 126 miles n.w. by «. from Portsmouth.)
(COLEBROOKE, a Tougb, hilly township on then. line of Connecticut, in Litchfield county, 30miles n. w. of Hartford city. It was settled in1736. Here are two iron works, and several mills,on Still river, a n. w. water of Farmington river.In digging a cellar in this town, at the close of theyear 1796, belonging to Mr. John Hulburt, theworkmen, at the depth of about 9 or 10 feet, foundthree large tusks and two thigh-bones of an animal,the latter of which measured each about four feetfour inches in length, and 12|; inches in circum-ference. When first discovered they were entire,but as soon as they were exposed to the air theymouldered to dust. This adds another to themanj^ facts which prove that a race of enormousanimals, now extinct, once inhabited the UnitedStates.)
(COLERAIN, a town on the». bank of St. Mary’sriver, Camden county, Georgia, 40 or 50 milesfrom its mouth. On the 29th of June 1796, atreaty of peace and friendship was made and con-cluded at this place, between the president of theUnited States, on the one part, in behalf of theUnited States, and the king’s chiefs and warriorsof the Creek nation of Indians, on the other. By
this treaty, the line between the white people andthe Indians was established to run from theCurrahee mountain to the head or source of themain s. branch of the Oconee river, called by thewhite people Appalatohee, and by the IndiansTulapoeka, and down the middle of the same.”Liberty was also given by the Indians to the pre-sident of the United Stutes to “ establish a tradingor military post on the s. side of Alatamaha,about one mile from Beard’s bluff', or any wherefrom thence down the river, on the lands of theIndians and the Indians agreed to “ annex tosaid post a tract of land of five miles square ;and in return for this and other tokens of friendshipon the part of the Indians, the United States stipu-lated to give them goods to the value of 6000dollars, and to furnish them with two blacksmithswith tools.)
COLIMA, the alcaldia mayor and jurisdictionof the province and bishopric of Mechoacán inNueva Espana. It is bounded e. by the jurisdic-tion of Zapotlan, s. by that of Mortincs, n. by thatof Tuzcacuesco, and w. by that of Autlan, and theport of La Navidad in the kingdom of Nueva Ga-licia. It carries on a great trade in salt, collectedon the coasts of the S. sea, where there are wellsand salt grounds, from which great emolumentis derived, supplying, as they do, the inlandprovinces with this article. Formerly the best
cocoa wine of any in the kingdom was made here,from the abundance of this fruit found in all thepalm estates ; but the art of bringing it to perfec-tion was lost, and this branch of commerce diedaway, from the additional cause, that the making ofthis liquor was prohibited by the viceroy, the Dukeof Albuquerque, as being a drink calculated toproduce great inebriety. The capital is of the samename ; and the settlements of this district are,Almoloioyan, Zinacantepec,
Nagualapa, Cuatlan. ,
The capital is a town sitimteupon the coast ofthe S. sea, near the frontiers ofXalisco, in themost fertile and pleasant valley of Nueva Espaiia.It abounds in cacao and other vegetable produc-tions ; is of a hot temperature, and the air is verypure. Its buildings are regular and handsome,3 R 2
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It is of a mild temperulurcj but rather inclined tocold than heat. It contains 264 families of In-dians, and a convent of the religious order of St.Domingo, and in its district are various estates, inwhich, and in the 10 settlements of which its dis-trict consists, are collected scarlet dje, seeds, fruits,coal, woods, and timber. It is two leagues s. e. ofthe capital.
CUILOTO, a river of the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, It rises in the mountains of Bogota,runs e. through the llanos or plains of Casanare andMeta, and afterwards enters the river Meta. Somebarbarian Indians, the liraras and Chinalos, liveabout its borders, dispersed amongst the woods.
CUIQUILA, Santa Maria de, a settlementand head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold tem-perature, contains 76 families of Indians, whoseonly employment is that of making stone flags ;and these in sufficient quantity to supply the wholeprovince. Is nine leagues s.w. of its capital.
CUISILLO, San Francisco de, a settlementand head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of thetown of Leon, in the province and bishopric ofMechoacan, contains S3 families of Indians, whoemploy themselves in the cultivation of maize andmany fruits. It is very close to its capital.
CUITINA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate in the llanura of Sogamoso, be-tween the settlement of this name and that of Tota.It is of a cold temperature, produces wheat, maize,papas, and the other fruits of a cold climate. Itcontains 60 housekeepers, and as many Indians ;lies eight leagues to the n. of Tunja.
CUIXTLAHUACA, San Juan de,, a settle-ment of the alcaldia mayor of Yanguitlan in NuevaEspaila. It contains 604 families of Indians, withthose of the wards of its district. It is of a hottemperature, and lies 16 leagues s. w. of its capi-tal. It produces some scarlet dye and seeds,
CUL DE Sac, a settlement and parish of theFrench, in the part possessed by them in theisland of St. Domingo. It is in the head of the w.and upon the w. coast, on the shore of a river be-tween port Principe and the river of Naranjos orOranges.
Cul de Sac, another settlement and parish inthe island of Guadalupe. It lies on the shore ofthe bay of its name, between the rivers Vondi-piques and Testu. There is also another settle-ment in the same bay, between the rivers Lezardand Sarcelles.
CUL DE SAC, a large bay and convenient portof the same island (Guadalupe), which is the principal of thewhole island, and in which are many smallerislands. There is also another close to it, dis-tinguished by the title of Cul de Sac Petit ; andthese are divided by an isthmus of land, which al-lows a communication to the same lakes by a nar-row channel.
CULATAS, a small settlement of the districtand jurisdiction of the town of San Gil, in the cor-regimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada ; annexed to the curacy of Oiba, It lies be-tween the settlements of Socorro and Charala,
CUR AGO A.
[tion for privateers, and in the war of 1780 thecruisers from Cura^oa greatly annoyed the Eng-lish W. India trade ; so that tliere was a balanceaccounted for by the treasury of 190,000 francs,(about 17,275/.), arising from the duties on theprize-cargoes. This had been invested on mort-gage for the benefit of the company. The governorshould be a milhary man ; the mixed nature ofthe inhabitants renders a strict and more arbitraryform of government necessary here than in theotlier colonies. Excepting a tew merchants, thereare scarcely any white inhabitants at the chieftown, Williamstad, or on the opposite side of theharbour; such as have any lands live upon them,and the public officers and servants of the com-pany reside in or near the fort. The town’s peopleare a mixture of Jews, Spaniards, sailors, freeMulattoes, free Negroes, Musquito and otherIndians. I'he licentiousness of the Negro slavesis very great here, and attributable to variouscauses ; they are nevertheless worse off than inother colonies, as, in case of a scarcity of provi-sions, the distress falls chiefly on them. Themanumission of slaves, as practised here, is verypreposterous ; for it is generally when they aretoo old to work, that their proprietors pay a smallfine to government to emancipate them, and thenthey must either acquire a precarious subsistenceby begging, or are exposed to perish by want, asthere is no provission for such objects. There arestill at Bonaire a few remaining of the original in-habitants, and three or four aged people at Cura-50 a ; with these exceptious the natives have be-comeextinct. There are hardly half a dozen familiesof whites who have not intermarried with Indiansor Negroes on the intermediate coasts. AtWilliamstad there is a Dutch reformed church, aLutheran church, a Roman Catholic chapel, and^ Jewish synagogue ; houses are built so near thewalls of the fort, that a ladder from the upperstories would be sufficient to get within the] walls.A remarkable blunder of the engineer is noticed,who, in building a stone battery, turned the em-brasures inwards instead of outwards. In thefront of that battery of the fort which is intendedto command the entrance of the harbour, a rangeof warehouses has been built, which are not onlythemselves exposed to the fire of an enemy, butimpede the use of the guns of the fort, whichwould first have to level those warehouses to acertain height before their shot could reach ahostile force. The powder magazine was placedat a distance from the fort, and in such a situa-tion as to expose the road or access to it, to thefire of any ship coming round on that side. The
town, harbour, and fort, are however capable ofbeing made impregnable by any force attackingthem from the sea-side ; yet they would be greatlyexposed on the land-side, and there are severalplaces on the shores of the island where an enter-prising enemy might find means to effect a landingwith small craft ; these spots ought, therefore,likewise to be fortified, and a garrison ought to bemaintained, numerous enough to dispute theground foot by foot, which, in such a rockyisland, abounding with difficult passages and de-files through the broken rocks, could easily bedone; and an enemy, however strong at theirlanding, if they should effect it, would be exhaust-ed by a well contested retreat, before they couldreach the chief settlement. Cura 9 oa is in lat. 12 °6 '. Long. 69° 2'.]
CURAÇOA. This beautiful city is well situated ;its buildings are large, convenient, and magnificent ;is full of store-houses and shops well provided withevery species of merchandise, and of all kinds of ma-nufactories ; so that you may see at one glance avessel building, the sails and rigging, and all itsother necessary equipments preparing, and eventhe articles being macufactured with which it is tobe laden. It has a good port, in which vesselsfrom all parts are continually lying ; its entranceis defended by a castle, but dangerous and difficultto be made, and to effect it, it is necessary to makefast a cable to the same castle, although a vessel,when once in, will lie very safe. It has a synagoguefor the convenience of the many Jews who inhabitthe city, and who are the principal merchants. TheFrench, commanded by M. Caissar, bombarded itin 1714: ; but the commanding ship of his squa-dron was wrecked upon the coast.
CURAGUE, a small river of the island of LaLaxa in the kingdom of Chile. It runs n. n. w. andenters the Huaque, opposite the mouth of the Ra-ninco. On its shores the Spaniards have built ^fort, called De los Angeles, to restrain the incur-sions of the Araucanos Indians.