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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
in America, and they reckon the gold it has pro-duced at 33 millions of dollars, without countingthat which has been concealed ; but at present theyscarce procure from it 200 pound weight a year,on account of the increased charges of labour, andthe want of energy in the inhabitants. Many lumpsof gold have been found here, among which thereis still remembered to have been one of the figure ofa horse, which weighed 100 weight and some oddpounds, and which was carried to the EmperorCharles V. ; and likewise another lump which wassent to Philip II. bearing a resemblance to thehead of a man, which, however, was lost togetherwith much other riches in the channel of Bahama.This latter lump was found in the washing place ofYnahuaya. Nearly the whole of the territory of thisprovince is interspered with gold. The most cele-brated washing places that it had were called SanJuan del Oro, Paulo Coya, Ananea, and that whichwas superior to all, Aporoma. In the year 1713, alump of silver also was discovered in the mountainof Ucuntaya, being of a very solid piece of metal,and of prodigious value ; in its rivers are foundsands of gold, to which at certain times of the year,the Indians have recourse, in order to pay their tri-butes. There are also other mines of silver andcopper in various parts, and springs of hot water.It is very liable to earthquakes, and according tothe tradition of the Indians, there was one whichtook place before the conquest, so large as to over-turn mountains, and that, opening the earth, itswallowed up in an abyss many towns with theirinhabitants. They likewise assert, that in the year1747, another earthquake, throwing out of theground a dirty and muddy water, thereby infectedthe rivers to such a degree as to cause a dreadfuland general mortality. It has some large riversas well as small ; all of which empty themselvesinto the Ynambari, thus rendering this river ex-tremely abundant : towards the n. and n. e. which,as we have observed, is bounded by the infidel In-dians, there are large tracts of ground covered withcoca and rice, with an abundance of mountainfruits. In the aforesaid river they are accustomedto take shad and large dories by shooting themwith muskets, or by piercing them with arrows ordarts. There are also some lakes, which, althoughwithout fish, abound in ducks, snipes, and otheraquatic fowl. The infidel Indians have made va-rious irruptions into this province: its capital isSandia, and its natives, who amount to 28,000, aredivided into 26 settlements, as follows : The repar-timiento received by the corregidor used to amountto 82,800 dollars, and it paid 662 yearly for alcavala.
S. Juan del Oro, Ynambari,
CARABAILLO, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Cercado in Peru. It rises in theprovince of Canta from three lakes to the n. of thecapital, and continues its course until it join thesea close to the point of Marques.
CARABAILLO, a settlement of this province andcorregimiento.
CARABANA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana, which runs to the s. andenters the Orinoco between the Corquina and theArrewow. According to Bellin, in his map of thecourse of part of the Orinoco, it is distant fromthe other river called Corobana, which also en-ters the Orinoco on the opposite side.
CARABATANG, a river of the province andcaptainship of Rio Grande in Brazil. It rises inthe sierra of the Tiguares Indians, near the coast,runs s. s. e. and enters the sea between the Congand the Goyana.
CARABELAS, River of the, in the provinceand captainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil. Itrises in the cold sierra of the Pories Indians, runss. e. and according to Cruz, e. and enters the seaopposite the bank of the Escollos (hidden rocks).
Carabelas, Chicas, a bay in the same island,and on the same coast, between the settlement ofGuanajo and the Puerto del Poniente (w. port.)
CARABERES. See article Guarayos.
CARABUCO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Omasuyos in Peru ; in the vici-nity of which are the ruins of a chapel, which wasdedicated to St. Bartholomew ; and the Indianshave a tradition that the above-mentioned saint ap-peared here and preached the gospel to them :thus, in the principal altar of the church, they re-verence a large cross of very strong wood, andwhich is celebrated for having wrought many mi-racles ; splinters of it being anxiously sought afterby the faithful, wherefrom to form small crosses ;
C A X
C A X
dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pasco ; in whichis the celebrated mountain and mine of Lauri-cocha.
CAXAMARQUILLA Y COLLAOS, the territory ofthe missions which forms part of the former pro-vince, and which is a reduccion of the infidel moun-tain Indians, who have been converted by themonks of St. Francis: these Indians are main-tained by a portion paid by the kin«?’s procuratorout of the royal coffers at Lima. They dwell tothe e. of the province, and are reduced to foursettlements ; two of the Ibita, and two of the Cho-lona nation. It is now 90 years since their foun-dation, and the number of Indians may at presentamount to 2000. Those settlements are situateupon mountains covered with trees and thickwoods ; from whence the natives procure incense,cffCflo, resinous gums, oil of Maria, dragon’s blood,the reed called bejuco^ dried fish, honey, wax,monkeys, parrots, and macaws, whicli^ are thebranches of its commerce ; tliough not less so isthe coca plant, which they pack up in measures offour bushels each , and carry in abundance to differentparts, for the consumption of the whole province.The missionaries of the above order have madevarious attempts, and have spared neither painsnor labour in penetrating into the interior parts ofthe mountains ; having repeatedly discovered otherbarbarous nations, whom they would fain have re-duced to the divine knowledge of the gospel.
The aforesaid settlements are,
Jesus de Sion, San Buenaventura,
Jesus de Ochonache, Pisano.
CAXATAMBO, a province and corregimientoof Peru, bounded n. by that of Huailas, n. e. bythat of Conchuios, e. by that of Huamalies, s. e.by that of Tarma, s. by the part of Chancay calledChecras, s. e. by the low part of Chancay, and n.w. by that of Santa. It is in length 34 leagues n. e.s. w. and 32 in width n. w. s. e. ; the greaterpart of it is situate in a serrama. Its temperatureis consequently cold, except in the broken and un-even spots and in the low lands. Besides the pro-ductions peculiar to the serrama., this provinceabounds in all sorts of seeds and fruits; in allspecies of cattle, especially of the sheep kind, fromthe fleece of whicli its inhabitants manufacturemuch cloth peculiar to the country ; this beingthe principal source of its commerce. It producessome grain and cochineal, used for dyes ; and if thislatter article were cultivated, it would bring greatprofit. Amongst tlie mountains of this provincethere is one called Huilagirca of fine flint, and twomines of sulphur and alcaparrosa, articles employedin the colouring of wools, not only in this province,
but in those of Huanuco, Huamalies, and Jauja:It has also mines of good yeso or gypsum. Theprincipal rivers by which it is irrigated, are twowhich rise in the same soil, and both of which enterthe S. sea, after having laved the contiguous pro-vinces ^ in former times there were fine silver mines,which are still worked, but for some reason or other,to very little profit. On the n. c. part, on some emi-nences, is a spot called Las Tres Cruces, (The ThreeCrosses), there being as many of these fixed up hereto determine its boundaries, and that of the pro-vince of Santa Huailas. Its population consists ofthe 69 following settlements : its repartimiento usedto amount to 1^0, (XX) dollars, and the akavala to1046 dollars per annum.
Caxatambo, the ca-
A cay a,
Palpas, distinct from
C H A
C H A
and pleasantly situated. Before the deslrnction oftil is town by the British in 1775, several brandiesof mannfadures were carried on to great advan-tage, some of which have been since revived : par-ticularly tlic manufacture of pot and pearl ashes,ship-building, rum, leather in all its branches,silver, tin, brass, and pewter. Three rope-walkshave lately been erected in this town, and tlie in-crease of its houses, population, trade, and naviga-tion, have been very great within a few' years past.This town is a port of entry in conjunction withBoston. At the head of the neck there is a bridgeover Mystic river, which connects Charlestown withMalden.)
CHARLESTOWN, another city of the island ofNevis, one of the Caribes, in the Antilles ; in w Inchthere are beautiful houses and shops well providedwith every thing ; is defended by a fort calledCharles. It has a market every Saturday, begin-ning at sun-rise and finishing at mid-day, whitherthe Negroes bring 'maize, names, garden-herbs,fruits, &c. In the parish of San Juan is a pieceof sulphureous land, in the upper extremity of anopening of the land, called Solfatara, or Sulphurgut, which is so hot as to be telt through the solesof the shoes when being trodden upon. At thefoot of the declivity of this same part of the city,is a small hot stream, called the Bath, which beingsupposed to rise from the aforesaid spot, loses itselfshortly in the sand. Towards the side lying nextthe sea are two fountains, one of hot water, theother of cold, and of these two are formed the lakeof Blackrock, the waters of which are of a moderatewarmth, and which lies to the n. of the city, beingnearly a quarter of a mile’s distance from the placewhere are caught eels and silver-fish, resemblingthe cod and slimgut in flavour, the latter of whichlias a head disproportioned to its body. [A prodi-gious piece ol Nevis mountain falling down in anearthquake several years ago, left a large vacuity,which is still to be seen. The altitude of thismountain, taken by a quadrant from Charlestownbay, is said to be a mile and a half perpendicular ;and from the said bay to the top, four miles. Thedeclivity from this mountain to the town is verysteep half-way, but afterwards easy of ascent.] InLat. 17° 8' u. and long. 62° 40' w.
Charlestown, another city of the island ofBarbadoes ; the situation of which is two leaguesfrom that of San Miguel. It has a good port de-fended by two castles ; the one beyoml the other,and both commanding the city and the road: inthe middle of them is a platform. Tlse inhabitantscarry on a great trade with the other islands.
county. New York, on the s. side of Mohawk river,about 32 miles w. of Schenectady. By the statecensus of 1796, 456 of the inhabitants are elec-tors.)
(Charlestown, a township in Mason county,Kentucky ; situate on the Ohio, at the mouth ofLauren’s creek. It contains but few houses, andis six miles n. of Washington, and 60 n. e. of Lex-ington. Lat. 38° 28' n.)
(Charlestown, a post town in Cheshire county,New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecticutriver, 30 miles s. of Dartmouth college, upwards of70 n. of Northampton, 116 n. of w. of Boston, 120w. by 71. of Portsmouth, and 431 n. n. e. of Phila-delphia. It was incorporated in 1753, and con-tains 90 or 100 houses, a Congregational church,a court-house, and an academy. The road fromBoston to Quebec passes through this town. Lat.43° 16' n. Long. 72° 23' w. A small internaltrade is carried on here.)
(Charlestown, a post town in Cecil county,Maryland, near the head of Chesapeak bay ; sixmites e. n. e. from the mouth of Susquehannahriver, 10 zo. s. w. from Elktown, and 50 s. w. by zb.from Philadelphia. Here are about 20 houses,chiefly inhabited by fishermen employed in theherring fishery. Lat. 39° 36' w.)
(Charlestown, a district in the lower countryof S. Carolina, subdivided into 14 parishes. Thislarge district, of which the city of Charleston is thechief town, lies between Santee and Combaheerivers. It pays 21,473/. 14s. 6d. sterling, taxes. Itsends to the state legislature 48 representatives and13 senators, and one member to congress. It con-tains 66,986 inhabitants, of whom only 16,352 arefree.)
(Charlestown, a township in Washingtoncounty, Rhode Island state, having the Atlanticocean on the s. and separated from Richmond on the71. by Charles river, a water of Fawcatiick. Some ofits ponds empty into Fawcatiick river, otliers intothe sea. It is 19 miles /L ti:;. of Newport, andcontains 2022 inhabitants, including 12 slaves. Afew years ago there w'ere about 500 Indians in thestate ; the greater part of them resided in tin's town-ship. They are peaceable and well disposed togovernment, and s|5cak the English language.)
appears to have been a settlement towards the n,of the island, from some vestiges still remaining.It is at present frequented only by some of the in-liabitants of Chepo, who cultivate and gather hereoral^ges, lemons, and plantains of an excellent fla-vour, which are found here in abundance. Inlat. 8^ 57' n.
CHEPO, San Christoval de, a settlementof the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme, andgovernment of Panama ; situate on the shore ofthe river Mamoni ; is of a kind temperature, fer-tile and agreeable, though little cultivated. Theair is however so pure that it is resorted to byinvalids, and seldom fails of affording a speedyrelief. It has a fort, which is an esfacada, or sur-rounded with palisades, having a ditch furnishedwith six small cannon, and being manned by adetachment from the garrison of Panama, for thepurpose of suppressing the encroachments of theinfidel Indians of Darien. This territory was dis-covered by Tello Guzman in 1515, who gave itthe name of Chepo, through its Cazique Chepauri,in 1679. It was invaded by the pirates Bartholo-mew Charps, John Guarlem, and Edward Bol-men, when the settlement Avas robbed and destroy-ed, and unheard-of prosecutions and tormentswere suffered by the inhabitants. Fourteen leaguesnearly due e. of Panama, [and six leaguesfrom the sea ; in lat. 9° 8' «.]
(CHEQUETAN, or Seguataneio, on thecoast of Mexico or New Spain, lies seven leaguesw. of of the rocks of Seguataneio. Between thisand Acapulco, to the e. is a beach of sand, of 18leagues extent, against which the sea breaks soviolently, that it is impossible for boats to land onany part of it ; but there is a good anchorage forshipping at a mile or two from the shore duringthe fair season. The harbour of Chequetan is veryhard to be traced, and of great importance tosuch vessels as cruise in these seas, being the mostsecure harbour to be met with in a vast extent ofcoast, yielding plenty of wood and water; andthe ground near it is able to be defended by a fewmen. When Lord Anson touched here, theplace was uninhabited.)
CHEQUIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Maúle in the kingdom of Chile,and in the valley or plain of Tango, near the riverColorado. In its vicinity, toAvards the s. is anestate called El Portrero del Key, at the source ofthe river Maipo.
CHERAKEE. See Cherokee.
CHERAKILICHI, or Apalachicola, a fortof the English , in the province and colony of Georgia,on the shore of the river Apalachicola, and at the con-flux, or where this river is entered by the Caillore.
CHERAN EL Grande, S. Francisco de, asettlement of the head settlement of Siguinan, andalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in Nueva Espana,contains 100 families of Curtidores Indians, and isa little more than half a league from its head set-tlement.
CHERAPA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiernto of Piura in Peru, on the confines ofthe province of Jaen de Bracamoros, upon the riverTambarapa, is of a hot and moist temperature,and consequently unhealthy ; and is situate in theroyal road which leads from Lpxa through Aya-baca and Guancabamba to Tomependa, a port ofthe river Maranon.
(CHERAWS, a district in the upper country ofSouth Carolina, having North Carolina on then. and n. e. Georgetown district on the s. e. andLynche’s creek on the s. w. which separates itfrom Camden district. Its length is about 83miles, and its breadth 63 ; and is subdivided intothe counties of Darlington, Chesterfield, and Marl-borough. By the census of 1791, there were10,706 inhabitants, of Avhich 7618 were white in-habitants, the rest slaves. It sends to the statelegislature six representatives and two senators ;and in conjunction Avith Georgetown district, onemember to congress. This district is watered byGreat Peter river and a number of smaller streams,on the banks of vdiich the land is thickly settledand Aveli cultivated. The chief towns are Green-ville and Chatham. The court-house in this dis-trict is 52 miles from Camden, as far from Lum-berton, and 90 from Georgetown. The mail stopsat this place.]
CHERIGUANES. See Chiriguanos.
CHERINOS, a river of the province and go-
raense advantage to the neighbouring states, parti-cularly to Virginia. Of that state it has been ob-served, with some little exaggeration, however,that “ every planter has a river at his door.”)
(CHESHIRE county, in New Hampshire, lies inthe s. w. part of the state, on the e. bank of Con-necticut river. It has the state of Massachusettson the s. Grafton county on the n. and Hillsbo-rough county e. It lias 34 townships, of whichCharlestown and Keene are the chief, and 28,772inhabitants, including 16 slaves.)
(Chester, a large, pleasant, and elegant town-ship in Rockingham county. New Hampshire.It is 21 miles in length ; and on the w. side is apretty large lake, which sends its waters to Merri-mack river. It was incorporated in 1722, andcontains 1902 inhabitants, who are chiefly farmers.It is situated on the e. side of Merrimack river,14 miles n. w. of Haverhill, as far w. of Exeter,35 tflTby s. of Portsmouth, six n. of Londonderry,and 306 from Philadelphia. From the compactpart of this town there is a gentle descent to thesea, which, in a clear day, may be seen fromthence. It is a post-town, and contains about 60
houses and a Congregational church. Rattlesnakehill, in this township, is a great curiosity; it ishalf a mile in diameter, of a circular form, and400 feet high. On the side, 10 yards from itsbase, is the entrance of a cave, called the Devil’sDen, which is a room 15 or 20 feet square, andfour feet high, floored and circled by a regularrock, from the upper part of which are depend-ent many excrescences, nearly in the form andsize of a pear, which, when approached by a torch,throw out a sparkling lustre of almost every hue;It is a cold, dreary place, of which many fright-ful stories are told by those who delight in themarvellous.)
(Chester, a borough and post-town in Penn-sylvania, and the capital of Delaware county;pleasantly situated on the w. side of Delaware ri-ver, near Marcus hook, and 13 miles n. e. of Wil-mington. It contains about 60 houses, built on aregular plan, a court-house, and a gaol. FromCliester to Philadelphia is 20 miles by water, and15 n. e. by land ; here the river is narrowed byislands of marsh, which are generally banked,and turned into rich and immensely valuable mea-dows. The first colonial assembly was convenedhere, the 4th of December 1682. The place af-fords genteel inns and good entertainment, and isthe resort of much company from the metropolisduringthe summer season. It was incorporated inDecember 1795, and is governed by two bur-gesses, a constable, a town-clerk, and three assist-ants ; whose power is limited to preserve the peaceand order of the place.)
(Chester County, in Pennsylvania, w. of Dela-ware county, and s. w. of Philadelphia ; about 45miles in length, and 30 in breadth. It contains33 townships, of which West Chester is the shiretown, and 27,937 inhabitants, of whom 145 areslaves. Iron ore is found in the n. parts, whichemploys six forges : these manufacture 'about1000 tons of bar-iron annually.)
(Chester River, a navigable water of thee. side of Maryland, which rises two miles withinthe line of Delaware state, by two sources, Cyprusand Andover creeks, which unite at Bridgetown ;runs nearly s. w. ; after passing Chester it runs s.nearly three miles, when it receives South-Easterncreek ; and 15 miles farther, in a s. w. direction, it
tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues tothe w. n. w. of Mexico.
Chilchota, another settlement of the headsettlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cui-catlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountainwhich is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading incochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits.It is eight leagues from its head settlement.
Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory titleof San Pedro. It is of the head settlement ofQuimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de losLlanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 fami-lies of Indians.
CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlementand real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ix-miquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215families of Indians, and in the real are 27 ofSpaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. Itis of an extremely cold and moist temperature,and its commerce depends upon the working ofthe lead mines. Some silver mines were formerlyworked here, but these yielded so base a metal,and in such small quantities, that they were en-tirely abandoned for those of lead, which yieldedby far the greatest emolument. Five leagues tothe e. of its capital.
CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. Ame-rica, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by thestraits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on thee. by the provinces of Tucuman and BuenosAyres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, andon the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios.472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magal-lanicas from the straits and the plains or desertsof Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. TheInca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carriedhis conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, inlat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the firstSpaniard who discovered this country, in the year1335, and began its conquest, which was after-wards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pe-dro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, andafterwards met with a disgraceful death at thehands of the Indians, having been made prisonerby them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are themost valorous and warlike of all in America ) theyhave maintained, by a continual warfare, their inde-pendence of the Spaniards, from whom they areseparated by the river Biobio. This is the limitof the country possessed by them ; and thoughthe Spaniards have penetrated through differententrances into their territories, and there built va-rious towns and fortresses, yet have all these beenpulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-
fenders of their liberty and their country. Theyare most dexterous in the management of the lance,sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macanawood ; and although they are equally so in thepractice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom,saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” Theyare very agile and dexterous horsemen, and theirhorses are excellent, since those which run wild,and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have notdegenerated, or become at all inferior to the bestwhich that country produces. The part whichthe Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends itswhole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapoto the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond theisle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues,at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, asit were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera ofthe Andes ; from these descend infinite streams andrivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys,and forming a country altogether charming andluxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for theconvenience and enjoyment of life, producing, inregular season, all the most delicate fruits of Ame-rica and Europe. The summer here begins inSeptember, the estio (or hot summer) in December,the autumn in March, and the winter in June.The climate is similar to that of Spain, and thetemperature varies according to the elevation ofthe land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru,and which are very low, are of a warm tempera-ture, and lack rain, having no other moisture thanwhat they derive from some small rivers descend-ing from the cordillera^ and running, for the spaceof 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the otherprovinces it rains more frequently, in proportionas they lay more to the s. especially in the winter,from April to September ; for which reason theyare more fertile. These provinces are watered bymore than 40 rivers, which also descend from thecordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snowmelted in the summer, swelling them to a greatheight. They generally abound in fish of themost delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and manyothers. The sea-coast is of itself capable of main-taining a vast population by the shell-fish foundupon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the mostdelicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ;here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasya species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados,pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes,and tunnies, which come at their seasons onthe coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadra-bas of Andaluda. For some years past they saltdown cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a
[lized state.— ‘6 The metals.— 1 . Substitute forwriting.
Chap. II. Fi rst expedition of the Spaniards inChile.— Encounters with the natives., with varioussuccess, until the alliance formed between theSpaniards and Promaucians.
1. Almagvo marches against Chile. —2. Road fromPeru to Chile.-— o. Kindhj received at Copiapo.—4. First European blood shed.— 5. Battle withthe Promaucians.— Q. Expedition abandoned,and why.—l. Valdivia marches against Chile.—8. Province of St. Ja go describe'd.—'il. The ca-pital founded.— \0. Steady enmitnj of the Mapo-chinians.—l\. The mine of Quillota.— 12. The
compassionate ulmena. 13. Recruits fom
Peru, under Monroy.—-\t^. Stratagem of theQuillotanes.-—\5. Serena founded.— \Q. Pro-maucian cdlies.—ll . Valdivia sets sail for Peru,and returns with men and supplies.— \8. Con-cepcion founded.
Chap. III. Of the character and manners of theAraucanians .
1. Local situation.— 2. Character .-—3. Dress.—
4. Dwellings.— b. Division of the Araucanian
state.— 6. Its political form.-— 7. Civil institu-tions.— 8. Military system.— 3. Their arms,and mode of making av/r.— -10. Division of thespoil.— 1\. Sacrifice after the war. — \2. Con-gress of peace.— 13. System of religion.—!^.Funeral ceremonies.— \b. Division of time.—16. Astronomical ideas.— \7. Measures.— \8.Phetoric.— \9. Poetry . — 20. Medical skill.— -21. Commerce.— 22. National pride.— 23. Kind-ness towards each other.— 2^. Mode of saluta-tion. 25. Proper names.-— 20. Domestic em-
ployments. — 27. Food. -— 28. Music, and otherdiversions.
Chap. IV. The wars of the Araucanians with theSpaniards, and concomitant events.
1. The Toqui Aillavila.—2. The Toqui Lincoyan.—3. Imperial founded.---!^. Villariqa founded. —
5. The Cunches.—G. Valdivia founded.-— 7 . For-tresses of Fiiren, Tucapel, and Araiico built.—8. City of the Frontiers founded. -— 9. Threeprincipal military offices instituted at Concepcion.
— \Q. The Toqui Caupolican. 11. Valdivia
slain.— Lautaro appointed lieutenant-general,—12. The mountain Mariguenu. 13. The Go-
vernor Villa gr an. —1^. Conception destroyed.—15. The small-pox appears.-— \0. Decision ofthe audience of Lima 1 'especting the governors.-—17. Concepcion rebuilt, and destroyed by Lau-taro.— Lautaro arrives at Santiago.— 19.Death of Lautaro.— 20. Caupolican raises thesiege of Imperial.— 21. The Governor Don Gar-
cia Hurtado de Mendoza.— 22. Caupolican takenprisoner and impaled.— 23. Cahete founded.—24. The Cur.ches, their curious embassy and stra-tagem.— 25. Archipelago of Chiloe discovered.-—26. City of Osorno founded.— 27 . Caupolican theSecond.— 28. The Guarpes subjected.— 29. St.Juan and Mendoza founded,— 30. Villagran re-instated. — 31. The province of Tucuman re-stored, afterwards retaken. 32. Cahete de-stroyed.— 33. Pedro Villagran. ---34. The To-qui Pcdllataru,— 35. Archipelago of Chiloe sub-jected; description of the same ; its inhabitants,fc.-—36. The court of audience established.—
37. Suppression of the tribunal of audience.— -
38. Description of the Pehuenches .—39 . De-scription of the Chiquillanians . — 40. Landingand defeat of the English.— ^1. Nature oj thewar in anno 1589. — 42. Independence restored.--43. Expedition of the Dutch.-— All theSpanish settlements destroyed.— 1^5. Court of au-dience re-established.— i6. Ineffectual efforts ofPhilip III. to establish a lasting peace. — VI .Second expedition of the Dutch.— F8. Secondexpedition o f the English.— ^9. Peace at lengthconcluded.-— 50. Last expedition of the Dutch.— 51. Dreadful earthquake. — 52. Commercewith the French.— 53. How the Pehuenches be-came inimical to the Spaniards.— 51. Peace re-stored.
Chap. V. Present state of Chile.
1. Civil government.— 2. Military force.— -3. Ec-clesiastical government. 4. The cities anddwellings.— 5. Population.— 6. Chilian Creoles.—7. ^ate of arts and sciences.— 8. The pea-santry .—9. Dress, S;c.— 10. Diseases; small-pox, how cured.— 11 . Manners, moral and phy-sical. 12. Internal and external commerce,
mines, imports, and exports. — 13. Natural divi-sions.— U. Poliiiced divisions.— 15. Climate.— -16. Of rain. — 11 . Winds.— -IS. Meteors.— 19.Volcanoes. — 20. Earthquakes. —21. Some de-tail of productions.— 22. Present revolution.
Origin and language of the Chilians .—Conquestof the Peruvians, and state of Chile before thearrival of the Spaniards.-— What was then itspolitical establishments, government, and arts.Of the origin and huiguage of the Chilians, notraces are to be found further back than the middleof the 15th century, -which was the time when (hePeruvians first began (heir conquests in this de-lightful country. It is the general opinion thatAmerica was settled from the n. e. part of Asia,but the opinion entertained by the Chilians is, (hat '3 E 2
["points of the circle. The soldiers strip the fleshfrom the bones, and make of them flutes ; then,cutting off the head, carry it round upon a pike,amidst the acclamations of the niuUitude, while,stamping in measured pace, they thunder out theirdreadful war-song, accompanied by the mournfulsound of these horrid instruments. This barba-rous festival is terminated by applying to themangled body the head of a sheep, w hich is suc-ceeded by a scene of riot and intoxication, litheskull should not bo broken by the blows of theclub, they make of it a cup, called raHlonco, '.viilclithey use in their banquets in the manner of the an-cient Scythians and Goths.
12. Congress of peace. — On the termination of awar, a congress is assem.blcd, called by tiie Spa-niards parlamento. and the Araiicanians huinca-eoyag. This is usually held in a delightful plain,between the rivers Biobio and Dnqueco, on theconfines of both territories, whither the Spanishpresident and the Araucanian toqui repair with theattendants agreed upon in the preliminary articles.The four uthal-mapus send at the same time fourdeputiesfwho are usually the tetiarchs themselves,and whose mranimons consent is requisite for theestablishment and ratification of peace. In thecongress which was held after the war of 1723,were present 130 ulraenes, with their attendants,who amounted to the number of 2000 men. Thecamps of the negociating parties were separated byan interval of two miles. The conference is com-menced with many compliments on either side,and in token of future friendship, tlicy bind thestaves of the ulmencs with that of the Spanish pre-sident together, and place them in the midst of theassembly : an Araucanian orator then presents abranch of cinnamon, which is with them the tokenof peace, and placing his left hand upon the bundleof staves, makes, in the Chilian language, a perti-nent harangue on the causes which produced thewar, and the most eligible means of preserving har-mony between the two nations. He then proceedswith much eloquence to point out the losses andmiseries occasioned by war, and the advantageswhich arc derived from peace, to which he exhortsthe chiefs of either party in a pathetic peroration.An interpreter then explains the precise meaningof all that the Araucanian has said. The Spanishpresident replies in another speech adapted to thesubject, which is interpreted in the same manner.The articles of the treaty are then agreed iipon,and are ratified by a sacrifice of several chili-neques, or Chilian camels, which the Araucaniansimmolate for the happy continuance of the peace.After this the president dines at the same table w ith
the toqui and the principal ulmenes, to whom hemakes the customary presents in the name of hissovereign. This parliament is renewed as often asa new president is sent from Spain to Chile, andcannot possibly be dispensed with, as in that casethe Araucanians, imagining themselves despised,would without any other cause commence war.For this reason, there is always a considerable sumready in the royal treasury for the cxpcnces neces-sary on these occasions. On the arrival of a newpresident, an envoy, called the national commis-sary, is dispatched in his name to the four uthal-niapus, to invite the toquis and the other ulmenesto meet him at the place appointed, for the purposeof becoming acquainted Avith each other, and toconfirm the frienrlship contracted Avith his prede-cessors. In this convention nearly the same cere-monies are practised as are made use of on ratify-ing a treaty of peace. The ulmenes collect upontills occasion in great numbers, not only for thepurpose of becoming personally acquainted Aviththe new governor, but to form an opinion, from hismanners and countenance, of his pacific or Avarlikedisposition. A great number of merchants are at-tracted to the place where this meeting is held,and they form a kind of fair, which is mutuallyadvantageous to both nations.
13. System, of religion. — The religious systemof the Araucanians is simple, and Avell adapted totheir free manner of thinking and of living. TheyacknoAvledge a Supreme Being, the Author of allthings, whom they call Pillan, a Avord derivedfrom puUi or pilli, the soul, and signifies the Su-preme Essence ; they also call him Guenu-pillHn^the Spirit of HeaA'en ; Bnla-gen, the Great Being ;Thrticore, the Thunderer ; Vil'Ce?nvoe, the Creatorof all ; P'ilpepi/voe, the Omnipotent ; Alol/gelif,the Eternal ; Jonolu, the Infinite, Sec. The uni-versal government of the Pillan is a prototype ofthe A raucanian polity. He is 1 he trreat toqui of theinvisible Avorld, and as such, has his a]>o-ulmenes,and his ulmenes, to Avhoin he entrusts the adminis-tration of atfairs of less importance, in the firstclass of these subaltern divinitie.s i.sthe Epunanuin,or god of war ; the Meulen, a benevolent deity,the triend of the human race; and the Guecubu,a malignant being, the author of all evil, Avho ap-pears to be the same as the Algue. From henceit appears, that the doctrine of two adverse prin-ciples, called Manicheisin, is very extensive. TheGuecubu is the Mavari of the Oronoques, and theAhernian of the Persians. He is, according to thegeneral opinion of the Araucanians, the efficientcause of all the misfortimes that occur. If a horsetires, it is because tlie Guecubu has rode him. If]3 G
[ing that the comets, called by them cheruvoe^proceed from terrestrial exhalations, inflamed inthe upper regions of the air ; but they are notconsidered as the precursors of evil and disaster, asthey have been esteemed by almost all the nationsof the earth. An eclipse of the sun is called bythem layanlUy and that of the moon lacujcn^that is, the death of the sun or of the moon. Butthese expressions are merely metaphorical, as arethe correspondent ones in Latin, of defectus solismil lunoi. Their opinions as to the causes of tliesephenomena are not known, but it has been observ-ed that they evince no greater alarm upon these oc-casions than at the most common operations ofnature. Their language contains many wordssolely applicable to astronomical subjects, such asthoren, the late rising of the stars, and otherssimilar, which prove that their knowledge in thisrespect is much greater than what is generallysupposed.
17. A/easwres.— -Their long measures are thepalm, nela; the span, duche ; the foot, namun ;the pace, thecan ; the ell, neveu ; and tlie league,tupu, which answers to the marine league, or theparasang of the Persians. Their greater distancesare computed by mornings, corresponding to theday’s journeys of Europe. Their liquid and drymeasures are less numerous: the gunmpar, aquart ; the can, a pint ; and the wencu, a mea-sure of a less quantity, serve for the first. Thedry measures are the chmigue, which containsabout six pints ; and the gliepu, which is doublethat quantity. With regard to the speculativesciences they have very little information. Theirgeometrical notions are, as might be expected froman uncultivated people, very rude and confined.They have not even proper words to denote theprincipal figures, as the point, the line, the angle,the triangle, the square, the circle, the sphere,the cube, the cone, &c. ; their language, however,is so flexible and copious, that it would be easyto form from it a vocabulary of technical words tofacilitate the acquisition of the sciences to theAraucanians.
18. iiVreiorfc.— Notwithstanding their generalignorance, they cultivate successfully the sciencesof rhetoric, poetry, and medicine, as far as theseare attainable by practice and observation ; forthey have no books among them, nor are there anyof them who know how to read or w rite. Neithercan they be induced to learn these arts, eitherfrom their aversion to every thing that is practisedby the Europeans, or from their being urged by asavage spirit to despise whatever does not belongto their country. Oratory is particularly held in
high estimation, and, as among the ancientRomans, is the high road to honour, and themanagement of public affairs. It is equally valuedamongst the North American Indians. The eldestson of an ulmenwho is deficient in this talent, isfor that sole reason excluded from the right ofsuccession, and one of his younger brothers, orthe nearest relation that he has, who is an ablespeaker, substituted in his place. Their parents,therefore, accustom them from their childhood lospeak in public, and carry them to their nationalassemblies, where the best orators of the countrydisplay their eloquence. From hence is derivedthe attention which they generally pay to speaktheir language correctly, and to jireserve it in itspurity, taking great care to avoid the introductionof any foreign word ; in which they are so parti-cular, that whenever a foreigner settles amongthem, they oblige him to relinquish his name, andtake another in the Chilian language. The mis-sionaries themselves are obligerl to conform to thissingular regulation, if they would obtain the pub-lic favour. These have much to endure fromtheir excessive fastidiousness, as even while theyare preaching, the audience will interrupt them,and with importunate rudeness correct the mis-takes in language or pronunciation which may es-cape them. Many of them are well acquaintedwith the Spanish language, from their frequentcommunication with the neighbouring Spaniards.They, however, make but little use of it, none ofthem ever attempting to speak in Spanish in anyof the assemblies or congresses that have been heldbetween the two nations; on which occasions theyhad much rather submit to the inconvenience oflistening to some tiresome interpreter, than, byhearing another language, to suffer their nativetongue to be degraded. The speeches of theirorators resemble those of the Asiatics, or moreproperly those of all barbarous nations. The styleis highly figurative, allegorical, elevated, and re-plete with peculiar phrases and expressions, thatare employed only in similar compositions ; fromwhence it is called coi/agtucan, the style of parlia-mentary harangues. They abound with parablesand apologues, which sometimes furnish the wdiolesubstance of the discourse. Their orations, not-withstanding, contain all the essential parts re-quired by the rules of rhetoric; which need notexcite our surprise, since the same principle ofnature which led the Greeks to reduce eloquenceto an art, has taught the use of it to these people.They are deficient neither in a suitable exordium, aclear narrative,a well-founded argument, or a pathe-tic peroration : they commonly divide their subject]
C H I
mines have as yet been discovered here. Theseislands have some ports, but such as are small, in-secure, and without any defence, with the excep-tion of that of Chacao. The inhabitants shouldamount to 22,000 souls, and these are dividedinto 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed bythe reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis,and consisting at the present day, for the mostpart, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is thecity of Santiago de Castro, in the large island ofChiloe. [For further account, see index to addi-tional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]
CHILON, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ;situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile,and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leaguesfrom the settlement of Samaypata.
CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded by the provinceof Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ;s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that ofAbancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperatureis various, the proportion of heat and cold beingregulated by its different degrees of elevation ; sothat in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm,and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered bythree rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passingthrough the valley of this name, the Velille, andthe Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extendedseven bridges, which form a communication withthe other provinces. It has likewise eight smalllakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl.The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; inwheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stockedwith some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer.Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the coun-try ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, bymeans of chorillos, or running streams, as theyhave no mills for fulling, since a royal licence isnecessary for the making use of the same. Al-though the appearance of mines has in manyplaces been discovered amongst the mountains,yet no mines have as yet been worked, and twoonly have been known to have been opened informer times. This province has suffered muchfrom earthquakes ; and the greatest of these hap-pened in 1707, when many settlements were madedesolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, andthese contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital isParuro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimientoused to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamlaThe other settlements are.
to 676 dollars per ann.Colcha,
CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its tem-perature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdic-tion. It is situate in the middle of a plain, ex-tending over the top of a hill, on two sides ofwhich are large chasms, so immensely deep, thatit is really astonishing to observe how the Indianscontrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges.It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto thes. of its head settlement.
CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,in the government and corregimiento of Chirnboor Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asan-coto. It is entirely covered with woods and withstreams, which flow down from the heights intothe plains of Babahoyo. The river named De laChima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol.A way has been opened through this mountainwhich leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it ispassable in the summer only. There is also an-other pass equally difficult and dangerous, calledAngas. The cold is great at the top of the moun-tain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.sin lat. 44' s.
3 L 2
C O A
it has a large proportion of families of Spaniards,Mustees^ and Mulalloes ; besides which, it con-tains 387 of Indians, and a convent of monks ofSt. Francis. Seven leagues to the n. n. w. ofMexico, although the distance is commonly count-ed at only six. Long. 274° 12'. Lat. 19° 50'.
COAUTLA, a province and alcaldia mayor oiNueva España ; bounded s. by the corregimientoof Mexico. It is also called. Of Amilpas. Itsjurisdiction extends 25 leagues ; it is of a warmand moist temperature, but is fertile, and aboundsin wheat, maize, French beans, lentils, barley,and tares, as also in other productions, which serveas a commerce to its natives. Great quantities ofsugar are also manufactured in various mills andmachines for the purpose. This province is water-ed by two rivers, the one very large, called theAmazinaquc, which runs e. and the other, some-what less, to the e . ; in both of them are caughtmany bagres and trout, which, being much es-teemed in the neighbouring provinces, afford alsoanother considerable branch of commerce. It hassilver mines which produce tolerably well, andfrom one, which is vulgarly called La Peregrina,much riches were formerly extracted. The juris-diction consists of the following settlements ;
The capital of the sarne Xamiltepec,
The capital forms three streets, of regular pro-portion and symmetry in the buildings, with twoelegant edifices, one of the monks of St. Domingo,'and the other of the barefooted monks, or Descal-zos, of St. Francis. It contains 36 families of Spa-niards, 70 of 40 of Mulattoes, and 200
of Indians ; the part of the city inhabited by thelatter is never visited by the Spaniards but as awalk, or place of recreation, and the Indians neverattempt to encroach upon the part not appropriatedto them. Twenty-five leagues 5. of Mexico. Long.274° 10'. Lat. 19° 5'.
Same name, another settlement and real of thesilver mines of this province, in which are twosugar mills, and some engines for grinding metal.It contains 56 families of Spaniards, Mustees, andMulattoes, and lies 12 leagues to the s. w. of itscapital.
[COBBESECONTE, or Copsecook, whichin the Indian language signifies the land where stur-geons are taken, is a small river which rises fromponds in the town of Winthorp, in the district ofMaine, and falls into the Kennebeck within threemiles of Nahunkeag island, and 15 from Mooseisland.]
[Cobequit or Colchester River, in NovaScotia, rises within 20 miles of Tatamogouche, onthe n. e. coast of Nova Scotia ; from thence it runss. ; then s. w. and w. info the e. end of the basinof Minas. At its mouth there is a short bank, butthere is a good channel on each side, which vesselsof 60 tons burden may pass, and go 40 miles .upthe river. There are some scattered settlements onits banks.]
[COBESEY, in the district of Maine. See
[COBHAM, a small town in Virginia, on thes. bank of James river, opposite James town ; 20miles n. w. of Suffolk, and eight or nine 5. w. ofWilliamsburg.]
[Cobh AM Isle, mentioned by Captain Mid-dleton, in the journal of his voyage for finding a71, e. passage. Its two extremities bear n. by e.and e. by n. in lat. 63° «. long. 3° 50' fromChurchill, which he takes to be the Brook Cob-ham of Fox.]
COBIJA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Atacama in Peru, and archbishopricof Charcas; annexed to the curacy of Chinchin.It is founded on the sea-shore, has a good port,where the inhabitants are busied in the fishing forcongers ; and these being called charqnecillos, orsalted, are carried in abundance for sale to theneighbouring provinces, to the sierra, and otherparts. In lat. 23° 20' s. according to Don CosmeBueno ; and according to the ex-jesuit Coleti,in lat. 22° 25' s.
[COBEZA. See Cobija. This obscure portand village is inhabited by about 50 Indianfamilies, and is the most barren spot on thecoast. This is, however, the nearest port to Lipei^where there are silver mines, and also to Potosi,2
C O H
or country of Labrador. It runs s. e, and entersthe St. Lawrence.
CODEGO. See Tierra Bomba.
[CODORUS, a township in York county,Pennsylvania.]
[COEYMANS, a township in Albany county.New York, 12 miles below Albany. By the statecensus of 1796, S89 of its inhabitants are electors.]
COFANES, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe kingdom of Quito, Avhich began to be con-verted to the Catholic religion in 1602, throughthe labour and zeal of the Father Rafael Ferrer,of the extinguished company of the Jesuits, andwho was killed by the same Indians. The princi-pal settlement, founded by this martyr, with thededicatory title of San Pedro, is now almost de-stroyed, though some few inhabitants still remain.The same is situate between the river of its nasneto the n. and that of Azuela to the s. The aboveriver is large and rapid, anti takes its name fromthese Indians. It rises in the sierra Nevada, orSnowy, runs from u. to c. and enters the Azuela,in lat. 13° n.
COGUA, a settlement of the corregimiento ofZipaguira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Itis of a very cold temperature, and abounds in theproductions peculiar to its climate, particularlyin fire-wood, with which it supplies, for the ma-nufacturing of salt, the settlements of Nemoconand Zipaquira. To this last settlement it is verycontiguous ; and it lies nine leagues n, of SantaFe. Its population is reduced to 70 housekeepers,and as many other Indians.
[CoHANZY, or Casaria, a small river,which rises in Salem county. New Jersey, andrunning through Cumberland county, empties intoDelaware river, opposite the upper end of Bombayhook. It is about SO miles in length, and is na-vigable for vessels of 100 tons to Bridgetown, 20miles from its mouth.]
[COHASSET, a township in Norfolk county,Massachusetts, which was incorporated in 1770,and contains 817 inhabitants. It has a Congrega-tional church, and 126 houses, scattered on dif-ferent farms. Cohasset rocks, which have been sofatal to many vessels, lie oft' this town, about aleague from the shore. It lies 25 miles s. e. ofBoston, but in a straight line not above half thedistance.]
[COHGNAWAGA, a parish in the townshipof Johnstown, Montgomery county. New York,on the ay. side of Mohawk river, 26 miles w. ofSchenectady. This place, which had been settlednear SO years, and which was the seat of Sir Wil-liam Johnson, was mostly destroyed by the Bri-tish and Indians, under the command of Sir Wil-liam in the year 1780; in this action Johnsonevinced a want of feeling which would have dis-graced a savage. The people destroyed in thisex[)cdition were his old neighbours, with whomhe had formerly lived in the habits of friendship ;his estate was among them, and the inhabitantshad always considered him as their friend andneighbour. These unfortunate people, after see-ing their houses and property consumed to ashes,were hurried, such as could walk, into cruel cap-tivity ; those who could not Avalk fell victims tothe toraaliawk and scalping knife. See Caghna-w aga.]
[COllOEZ, or the Falls, in Mohawk river, be-tween two and three miles from its mouth, and 10miles n. of Albany, are a very great natural curio-sity. The river above the falls is about 300 yardswide, and approaches them from the n. w. in a
(lereent of Quecliollenan^o, and nkaldia mni/orof Chilapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 27families of Indians, and is three leagues from itshead settlement.
COLTA, a large lake of the province andforregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom ofQuito, near that city to the s. It is about twoleagues in length from n, to s. and is of an ovalfigure. Its banks are covered with very finerushes and eneax, or flags; but fish will not breedin it, owing to the coldness of the climate ; it hastwo very small streams, the one to the w. and pass-ing very near to Riobamba, and the other to thes. entering the n. side of the river Gamote.
(COLUMBIA, a township in Washingtoncounty, district of Maine, on Pleasant river, ad-joining Macliias on the 7i.e. and was formerlycalled Plantations No. 12 and 13. It was incor-porated in 1796. The town of Machias lies 15miles to the e. ; it is nine miles from Steuben.)
(Columbia County, in New York, is boundedn. by Rensselaer, s. by Dutchess, e. by the stateof Massachusetts, and w. by Hudson river, whichdivides it from Albany county. It is 32 miles inlength and 21 in breadth, and is divided into
eight towns, of which Hudson, Claverack, andKinderhook, are the chief. It contained in 179027,732 inhabitants, and in 1796, 3560 electors.)
(Columbia College. See New York City.)
(Columbia, Territory of. See Washington,or the Federal City.)
(Columbia, a post-town, the capital of Ker-shaw county, and the seat of government of S.Carolina. It is situated in Camden district, onthe e. side of the Congaree, just below the con-fluence of Saluda and Broad rivers ; the streets areregular, and the town contains upwards of 70houses. The public offices have, in some mea-sure, been divided, for the accomodation of theinhabitants of the lower counties, and a branchof each retained in Charlestown. It lies 115 miles«. n. u\ of Charlestown, .35 s. w. of Camden, 85from Augusta in Georgia, and 678 s. u\ of Phila-delphia. Jjat. 33° 58' n. Long. 8° 5' ay.)
(Columbia, a flourishing po.st-town in Gooch-land county, Virginia, on the «. side of Jamesriver, at the mouth of the Rivanna. It containsabout 40 houses, and a warehouse for the inspec-tion of tobacco. It lies 45 miles above Richmond,35 from Charlottesville, and 328 s. w. of Phila-delphia.)
(Columbia, a town on the «. w. territory, onthe «. bank of Ohio river, and on thezo. side of themouth of Little Miami river; about six miles s. e.by e. of fort W ashington, eight e. by s. of Cincin-nati, and 87 n. by w. of Lexington in Kentucky.Lat. 38° 44' ? 2 .)
COMACHUEN, Santa Maria de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of Siguinan, and akai-dia mayor of Valladolid, in the province andbishopric of Mechoacan, with 25 families of In-dians, whose only occupation is in making saddle-trees. Two leagues from its head settlement.
COMALA, a settlement of the head settlement
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on the banks of the river of its name, near wherethis river joins that of Florido. It is garrisonedby a captain, a lieutenant, a serjeant, and 33 sol-diers, to guard against the irruptions of the infidelIndians. In its vicinity are the estates of La Ci-enega, Sapian, and El Pilar. Fifty-eight leaguesto the n.n.e. of the city of Guadalaxara.
CONCHUCOS, a province and corresimientoof Peru ; bounded n. by the province of Huama-chucos, n. e. by that of Pataz, and separated fromthence by the river Marafion, e. and s. e. by theprovince of Huraalies, and s. by that of Caxa-tambo. It is 52 leagues in length, and in someparts 20 in width. It is of a very irregular figure,and of various temperature, according to the dif-ferent situation of its territories ; cold in all theparts bordering upon the cordil/era, mild in someparts, and in others excessively hot. It is 'V-erypleasant, and it has all kinds of fruits, which itproduces in abundance, and in the same mannerwheat, barley, and pot herbs. On its skirts arefound numerous herds of cattle of every species,and from the wools of some of these are made thecloth manufactures of the country, which meetwith a ready demand in the other provinces. Theprincipal rivers by which it is watered are three ;and these are formed by various streams : the oneof them enters that of Santa to the zo. and theother two the Marafion. The most s. is called DeMiraflores, and the other, which is very large,keeps the name of the province. Here are somemines of silver, which were formerly very rich ;as also some lavaderos, or washing places of gold,of the purest quality, the standard weight of itbeing 23 carats. Also in the curacy of Llamelinare some mines of brimstone, and a fountain orstream, the waters of which, falling down into adeep slough, become condensed and converted intoa stone called Catachi, in the form of columns muchresembling wax-candles, of a very white colour.The same substance is used as a remedy againstthe bloody flux, and it is said, that being madeinto powders, and mixed Avith the white of an egg,it forms a salve which accelerates in a Avonderfulmanner the knitting of fractured bones. It com-prehends 15 curacies, Avithout the annexed settle-ments, all of Avhich, the former and the latter, are
as folloAVS :
Huari del Rey, the ca-pital,
San Luis de Huari,
CONCHUCOS, a river of the province and cor-regimiento of the same name in Peru, Avhich risesin the cordillera. It runs s. and enters the Ma-ranon near the settlement of Uchos in the provinceof Andahuailas.
(CONCORD, a post-toAvn of New Hampshire,very flourishing, and pleasantly situated on thew. bank of Merrimack river, in Rockinghamcounty, eight miles above Hookset falls. Thelegislature, of late, have commonly held their ses-sions here ; and from its central situation, and athriving back country, it will probably become thepermanent seat of government. Much of the tradeof the upper country centres here. A liandsoraetall bridge across the Merrimack connects thistown Avith Pembroke. It has 1747 inhabitants,and Avas incorporated in 1765. The Indian nameAvas Penacook. It was granted by Massachusetts,and called Rumford. Tlie compact part of thetown contains about 170 houses, a Congregationalchurcli, and an academy, which was incorporatedin 1790. It is 54 miles w. n. w. of Portsmouth,58 s. w. of Dartmouth college, and 70 n. fromBoston. Lat. 43” 12' n. Long. 71° 31' a?.)
(Concord, in Massachusetts, a post-town, oneof the most considerable towns in Middlesexcounty ; situated on Concord river, in a healthyand pleasant spot, nearly in the centre of thecounty, and 18 miles n. w. of Boston, and 17 e.of Lancaster. Its Indian name Avas Musquetequid;and it owes its present name to the peaceable man-ner in which it was obtained from the natives.The first settlers, among whom Avere the Rev.Messrs. Buckley and Jones, having settled- the
CONGO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra N ueva ;situate on the shore of a river, which gives itits name, and of the coast of the S. sea, withinthe gulf of S. Miguel.
CONGURIPO, Santiago de, a- settlement ofthe head settlement of Puruandiro, and alcaldtamayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopricof Mechoacan ; situate on a plain or shore of theRio Grande. It is of a hot temperature, and con-tains 12 families of Spaniards and Mustees^ and 57of Indians. Twenty-six leagues from the captitalPasquaro.
CONICARI, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana ; situateon the shore and at the source of the river Mayo.It is a reduccion of the missions which were heldby the regulars of the company of Jesuits.
CONIMA, a settlement of the province and cor-
regimiento of Paucarcolla in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Moxo.
CONNECTICUT, a county of the provinceand colony of New England in N. America. It isbounded w. by New York and the river Hudson ;is separated from the large island by an arm of thesea to the s. ; has to the e. Rhode island, with partof the colony of Massachusetts, and the other partof the same colony to the n. It is traversed by ariver of the same name, which is the largest of thewhole province, and navigable by large vessels for40 miles. This province abounds in wood, tur-pentine, and resins ; in the collecting of whichnumbers of the inhabitants are occupied, althoughthe greater part of them are employed in fishing,and in hewing timber for the building of vesselsand other useful purposes. The merchants of theprovince once sent to King Charles II. some tim-ber or trees, of so fine a growth as to serve formasts of ships of the largest burthen. The greattrade of woods and timbers carried on by meansof the river has much increased its navigation.This territory is not without its mines of metal,such as lead, iron, and copper: the first of thesehave yielded some emolument, but the othershave never yet produced any thing considerable,notwithstanding the repeated attempts which havebeen made to work them. This county is wellpeopled and flourishing, since it numbers upwardsof 40,000 souls, notwithstanding the devastationsthat it has suftered through the French, the In-dians, and the pirates, in the reign of Queen Anne,when all the fishing vessels were destroyed.When this colony was first founded, many greatprivileges were given it, which have always beenmaintained by the English governor, throughthe fidelity which it manifested in not joiningthe insurrection of the province of Massachusetts,until, in the last war, it was separated from themetropolis, as is seen in the article U n ited StatesOF America.
(Connecticut, one of the United States ofNorth America, called by the ancient nativesQunnihticut, is situated between lat. 41° and 42°2' n. and between long. 71° 20' and 7.3° 15' w. Itsgreatest breadth is 72 miles, its length 100 miles;bounded «. by Massachusetts ; e. by Rhode island ;s. by the sound which divides it from Long island ;and w. by the state of New York. This statecontains about 4674 square miles; equal to about2,640,000 acres. It is divided into eight counties,viz. Fairfield, New Haven, Middlesex, and NewLondon, which extend along the sound from w. toc. : Litchfield, Hartford, Tolland, and Windham,extend in the same direction on the border of the]3 T 2
(which, with that degree of industry that is neces-sary to happiness, produces the necessaries andconveniences of life in great plenty. The inhabi-tants are almost entirely of English descent. Thereare no Dutch, Phench, or Germans, and very fewScotch or Irish people, in any part of the state.The original stock from which have sprung all thepresent inhabitants of Connecticut, and the nume-rous emigrants from the state to every j)art of tlieUnited States, consisted of 3000 souls, who settledin the towns of Hartford, New Haven, Windsor,Guilford, Milford, and Weathersfield, about theyears 1635 and 1636. In 1756, the population ofthe state amounted to 130,611 souls ; in 1774, to197,856; in 1782, to 202,877 whites, and 6273Indians and Negroes; in 1790, to 237,946 per-sons, of whom 2764 w'ere slaves ; and by the cen-sus of 1810, to 261,942 souls. The people ofConnecticut are remarkably fond of having alltheir disputes, even those of the most trivial kind,settled according to law. The prevalence of thislitigious spirit affords employment and support fora numerous body of lawyers. That party spirit,however, which is the bane of political happiness,has not raged with such violence in this state as inMassachusetts and Rhode Island. Public pro-ceedings have been conducted generally with 'nuclicalmness and candour. The people are well in-informed in regard to their rights, and judicious inthe methods they adopt to secure them. Tiiestate enjoys an uncommon share of political tran-quillity and unanimity.
All religions, that are consistent with the peaceof society, are tolerated in Connecticut : and aspirit of liberality and forbearance is increasing.There are very few religious sects in this state.The bulk of the people are Congregationalists.Besides these, there are Episcopalians andBaptists.
The damage sustained b}’- this state in the latewar was estimated at 461,235/. I6s. Id. To com-pensate the sufferers, the general court, in May1792, granted them 500,000 acres of the w. part ofthe reserved lands of Connecticut, which lie w.of Pennsylvania. There are a great number ofvery pleasant towns, both maritime and inland, inConnecticut. It contains five cities, incorporatedwith extensive jurisdiction in civil causes. Twoof these, Hartford and New Haven, are capitals ofthe state. The general assembly is holden at theformer in May, and at the latter in October, an-nually. The other cities are New London, Nor-wich, and Middleton. Weathersfield, Windsor,Farmington, Litchfield, Milford, Stratford, Fair-field, Guilford, Stamford, Windham, Suffieid, and
Enfield, are all considerable and very pleasanttowns. In no part of the world is the educationof all ranks of people more attended to than inConnecticut. Almost every town in the state isdivided into districts, and each district has a pub-lic school kept in it a greater or less part ofevery year. Somewhat more than one-third of themoneys arising from a tax on the polls and rateableestate of the inhabitants is appropriated to the sup-port of schools in the several towns, for the educa-tion of children and youth. The law directs thata grammar-school shall be kept in every countytown throughout the state. Yale college is aneminent seminary of learning, and was foundedin the year 1700. See Yace College. Acade-mics have been established at Greenfield, Plain-field, Norwich, Windham, and Pomfret, some ofwhich are flourishing.
The constitution of Connecticut is founded ontheir charter, which was granted by Charles II. in1662, and on a law of the state. Contented withthis form of government, the people have not beendisposed to run the hazard of framing a new consti-tution since the declaration of independence.Agreeable to this charter, the supreme legislativeauthority of the state is vested in a governor, de-])iity-governor, twelve assistants, or counsellors,and the representatives of the people, styled thegeneral assembly. The governor, deputy-gover-nor, and assistants, are annually chosen by thefreemen in the month of May. The representa-tives (their number not to exceed two from eachtown) arc chosen by the freemen twice a-year, toattend the two annual sessions, on the secondTuesdays of May and October. The general as-sembly is divided into two branches, called the up-per and lower houses. The upper house is com-posed of the governor, deputy-governor, and as-sistants ; the lower house of the representativesof the people. No law can pass without the con-currence of both houses.
Connecticut has ever made rapid advances inpopulation. There have been more emigrationsfrom this than from any of the other states, andyet it is at present full of inhabitants. This in-crease may be ascribed to several causes. Thebulk of the inhabitants are industrious, sagacioushusbandmen. Their farms furnish them with allthe necessaries, most of the conveniences, and butfew of the luxuries of life. They, of course, mustbe generally temperate, and if they choose, cansubsist with as much independence as is consistentwith happiness. The subsistence of the farmer issubstantial, and does not depend on incidentalcircumstances, like that of most other professions.)
of a hot and moist temperature, and inhabited by107 families of Indians ; being 15 leagues n.e. ofits capital.
COPANDARO, Santiago de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Tuzantla, and alcaldia mayorof Maravatio, in Nueva Espaha. It contains 34families of Indians, and is 10 leagues to the s. ofits head settlement. In it is a convent of the reli-gious order of St. Augustin, Avhicli is one of thebest convents in the kingdom.
COPENAME, a river of the province and go-vernment of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions orcolony of Surinam. It runs n. and unites itselfwith the Sarameca at its mouth, to form anothermouth, and enter into the sea.
COPER, a small settlement of the Nuevo Reynode Granada, in the road which leads from SantaFe to Muzo ; situate upon an height, near themountain Apari, where, upon the descent whichis called Cuesta de Macanazos, and at its skirt,runs the river Villaraisar. Near it has been founda mine of earth, esteemed an excellent antidoteagainst poisons.
COPERE, a settlement of the province and ju-risdiction of Muzo, in the corregimiento of Tunja,of the N uevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a be-nign temperature, produces maize, cotton, yucas^plantains, and the other fruits of its climate. Inthe territory of this curacy rises the river calledVillamisar, memorable for the battle fought thereby the Indians and Captain Luis Lanchero, inwhich the former were routed. It contains 150housekeepers, and 30 Indians.
COPIA, one of the ancient provinces whichwere formed by that of Popayan in the time of theIndians ; and bounded by the province of Car-tama. At present its limits are not known, sincethe Spaniards have changed both the divisions andnames.
COPIAPO, a province and corregimienlo of thekingdom of Chile ; bounded n. by the province ofAtacama, of the archbishopric of Charcas, andkingdom of Peru ; e. by the territory of the city ofRioja, of the province of Tucuman, the cordillerarunning between ; s. by the province of Coquitnbo,and w, by the Pacific ocean. Its extent is 60leagues n. s. and from 20 to three e. w. It very sel-dom rains here ; cattle is therefore scarce, althoughit nevertheless produces every sort of grain, of ex-cellent quality, and fruits of various kinds. Thetemperature is very benign throughout the year.
it has many mines of copper, most pure and richsulphur, loadstone, lapis lazuli, and gold ; some ofwliicJi are worked ; and it is not many years agothat some silver mines also were discovered. Itproduces a kind of small frees, which are plantedand cultivated upon the banks of the streams andaqueducts, called jonM/o hobo, and which distil aliquor, which, being prepared over the fire, servesinstead of pitch for lining the vessels in which thewine in that kingdom is kept. The conger eelabounds upon the coast, and there is a particulartribe of Indians, called Changes, who are devotedto this kind of fishery, living the whole year uponthe coasts, and carrying about their wives and chil-dren upon rafts, until they find out a creek likelyto afford them what they are in search of: thesefish are then bought by the natives, and carried tobe sold at the capital of the kingdom, Santiago.Here is also a trade of sulphur, since it is so finethat it needs never to be purified, and is conse-quently worth three dollars the canlaro [a cantarois about four gallons]. It abounds no less in nitre,on which account all the waters here are brackish,and there is little indeed that is sweet. This pro-vince is very thinly peopled, since it has no otherpopulation than such as is found in the capital,which is called, San Francisco de la Selva. Its in-habitants, which should amount to 5000, of allsexes and ages, are dispersed about in countryfarms. (The province of Copiapo owes its name,according to the Indian tradition, to the greatquantity of turquoises found in its mountains.Though these stones ought, with propriety, to beclassed amongst the concretions, as they arc onlythe petrified teeth or bones of animals, colouredby metallic vapours, we may place them amongstthe precious stones. The turquoises of Copiapoare usually of a greenish blue ; some, however,are found of a deep blue, which are very hard,and known by the name of the turquoises of theold rock. The amazing fertility of the soil of thisprovince has given rise to assertions, which, onthe first blush, might appear fabulous. Mr. San-son, of Abbeville, in his Geography, asserts thatits valleys frequently yield 300 for one. SeeChile.)
Copiapo, a settlement of the same.
Copiapo, a mountain, in which there is a vol-cano, which at different times has occasionedmuch mischief, and is in lat. 26°. (This moun-tain consists entirely of a marble, striped withbands of various colours, which have a very beau-3 u 2
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Oaxaca. It contains only 20 families of Indians,wbo live by the cultivation of the cochineal plantand seeds.
COZOCOZONQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor ofViUalta, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot tem-perature, contains 85 families of Indians, and is29 leagues to the e. of its capital.
COZUMEL, an island of the N. sea, oppositethe e. coast of Yucatan, to the province and go-vernment of which it belongs. It is 10 leagueslong n. w.f s. w. and from four to five wide. It isfertile, and abounds in fruit and cattle, and iscovered with shady trees. The Indians call it Cu-zamel, which in their language signifies the islandof swallows. Here was the most renowned sanc-tuary of any belonging to the Indians in this pro-vince, and a noted pilgrimage, and the remains ofsome causeways over which the pilgrims used topass. It was discovered by the Captain Juan deGrijalba in 1518, and the Spaniards gave it thename of Santa Cruz, from a cross that was de-posited in it by Hernan Cortes, when he demolishedthe idols, and when at the same time the first massever said in this kingdom of Nueva Espana, wascelebrated by the Fray Bartolome de Olrnedo, ofthe order of La Merced, At present it is inhabitedby Indians only. It is three leagues distant fromthe coast of Tierra Firme.
CRABS, or Boriquen, an island of the N. sea ;situate on the s. side of the island of St. Domingo,first called so by the Bucaniers, from the abundanceof crabs found upon its coast. It is large andbeautiful, and its mountains and plains arc covered
with trees. The English established themselveshere in 1718, but they were attacked and drivenout by the Spaniards of St. Domingo in 17^0, whocould not suffer a colony of strangers to settle sonear them. The women and children were, how-ever, taken prisoners, and carried to the capital andPortobelo. See Boriquen.
(CRANBERRY, a thriving town in Middlesexcounty. New Jersey, nine miles e. of Princeton,and 16 s. s. w. of Brunswick. It contains a hand-some Presbyterian church, and a variety of manu-factures are carried on by its industrious in-habitants. The stage from New York to Phila-delphia passes through Amboy, this town, andthence to Bordentown.)
(CRANSTON is the s. easternmost townshipof Providence county, Rhode Island, situated onthe w. bank of Providence river, five miles s. ofthe town of Providence. The corajiact part of thetown contains 50 or 60 houses, a Baptist meetinghouse, handsome school-house, a distillery, and anumber of saw and grist mills^and is called Paw-tuxet, from the river, on both sides of whose mouthit stands, and over which is a bridge connectingthe two parts of the town. It makes a pretty ap-pearance as you pass it on the river. The wholetownship contains 1877 inhabitants.)
CRAVEN, a county of the province and colonyof Carolina in N. America, situate on the shore ofthe river Congaree, which divides the provinceinto South and North. It is filled with English andF'rench protestants. The latter of these disem-barked here to establish themselves in 1706, butwere routed, and the greater part put to death bythe hands of the former. The river Sewee watersthis county, and its first establishment was owingto some families wlio had come hither from NewEngland. It has no large city nor any considerabletown, but has two forts upon the river Saute, theone called Sheuinirigh fort, which is 45 miles fromtlie entrance or mouth of the river, and the othercalled Congaree, 65 miles from the other. [It con-tains 10,469 inhabitants, of whom S658are slaves.}