Search for Copiapó* Copiapo* COPIAPO*
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
CAPANA, a river of the province and countryof the Amazonas, in the part belonging to the Por-tuguese. It rises in the territory of the YaveisIndians, between the rivers Cuchivara and theMadera ; runs to the s. and turning to the s. s. e.enters into one of the lakes which forms the latterriver.
CAPANATOIAQUE, a small settlement of thehead settlement of Acantepec, and alcaldía mayorof Tlapa, in Nueva España. Its temperature iswarm, and it contains 90 families of Mexican In-dians, who employ themselves in the cultivatingand dressing of cotton.
Capanema, a river of the same province,which rises near the coast, runs e. and enters thesea in the bay.
CAPARRAPI, a small settlement of the ju-risdiction of the city of Palma, and corregimientoof Tunja, in the new kingdom of Granada. Itstemperature is warm ; the number of its inhabi-tants is much reduced ; they may, however, stillamount to 40 housekeepers : its only productionsare some maize, cotton, yucas, and plantains.
Capatarida, the river which rises near thecoast, runs n. and enters the sea.
(CAPATI. Within a very few years has beendiscovered in the gold mine of this place, on themountains of Copiapo, a new immalleable sort ofmetal, of a kind unknown to the miners ; but Mo-lina imagined it to be no other than platina.)
(Cape Blow-me-down, which is the s. side ofthe entrance from the bay of Fundy into the basinof Minas, is the easternmost termination of a rangeof mountains, extending about 80 or 90 miles tothe gut of Annapolis; bounded n. by the shores ofthe bay of Fundy, and s. by the shores of Anna-polis river.)
(Cape Cod, anciently called Mallebarre bythe French, is the s. e. point of the bay of Mas-sachusetts, opposite cape Ann. Lat. 42° 4' n.Long. 70° 14' w. from Greenwich. See Barn-staple County and Province Town.)
(Cape Elizabeth, a head-land and townshipin Cumberland county, district of Maine. Thecape lies in n. lat. 43° 33' e. by s. from the centreof the town nine miles, about 20 s. w. of Cape Smallpoint, and 12 n e. from the mouth of Saco river.The town has Portland on the n. e. and Scarboroughs. w. and contains 1355 inhabitants. It was incor-porated in 1765, and lies 126 miles n. e. ofBoston.)
(Cape Fear is the s. point of Smith’s island,which forms the mouth of Cape Fear river into twochannels, on the coast of N. Carolina, s. w. of capeLook-out, and remarkable for a dangerous shoalcalled the Frying-pan, from its form. Near thiscape is Johnson’s fort, in Brunswick county, anddistrict of Wilmington. Lat. 33° 57' n. Long.77° 56' w.)
(Cape Fear River, more properly Clarendon,affords the best navigation in N. Carolina. Itopens to the Atlantic ocean by two channels.'I'he s. w. and largest channel, between the s. w.end of Smith’s island, at Bald head, where thelight-house stands, and the e. end of Oakes islands. w. from fort Johnston. The new inlet is be-tween the sea-coast and the n. e. end of Smith’sisland. It will admit vessels drawing 10 or 11feet, and is about three miles wide at its entrance,having 18 feet water at full tides over the bar.It continues its breadth to the flats, and is navi-gable for large vessels 21 miles from its mouth, and14 from Wilmington ; to which town vessels drawl-ing 10 or 12 feet can reach without any risk. Asyou ascend this river you leave Brunswick on theleft and Wilmilgton on the right. A little aboveWilmington the river divides into n. e. and n. w.branches. The former is broader than the latter,but is neither so deep nor so long. The n. w.branch rises within a few miles of the Virginialine, and is formed by the junction of Haw andDeep rivers. Its general course is s. e. Sea ves-
(CHEGOMEGAN, a point of land about 60miles in length, on the s. side of lake Superior.About 100 miles w. of this cape, a considerableriver falls into the lake ; upon its banks abundanceof virgin copper is found.)
CHEGONOIS, a small river of the same pro-vince and colony as the former. It runs s. w, andenters the Basin des Mines.
(CHELMSFORD, a township in Middlesexcounty, Massachusetts ; situated on the s. side ofMerrimack river, 26 miles n. w. from Boston, andcontains 1144 inhabitants. There is an ingeniouslyconstructed bridge over the river at Pawtucketfalls, which connects this town with Dracut. Theroute of the Middlesex canal, designed to connectthe waters of Merrimack with those of Bostonharbour, will be s. through the e. part of Chelms-ford.)
(CHELSEA, called by the ancient natives Win-nisimet, a town in Suffolk county, Massachusetts,containing 472 inhabitants. Before its incorpora-tion, in 1738, it was award of the town of Boston,It is situated n. e. of the metropolis, and separatedfrom it by the ferry across the harbour, calledWinnisimet.)
(Chelsea, the name of a parish in the city ofNorwich, (Connecticut), called the Landing, situ-ated at the head of the river Thames, 14 miles n.of New London, on a point of land formed bythe junction ofShetucket and Norwich, or Littlerivers, w hose united waters constitute the Thames.It is a busy, commercial, thriving, romantic, andagreeable place, of about 150 houses, ascending
one above another in tiers, on artificial founda-tions, on the 5. point of a high rocky hill,)
(CHEMUNG is a township in Tioga county,New York. By the state census of 1796, 81 ofits inhabitants were electors. It has Newton w.and Oswego e. about 160 miles n. w. fiom NewYork city, measuring in a straight line. Betweenthis place and Newton, General Sullivan, in his vic-torious expedition against the Indians in 1779, hadadesperate engagement with the Six Nations, whomhe defeated. The Indians werestrongly entrenched,and it required the utmost exertions of the Ame-rican army, with field pieces, to dislodge them ;although the former, including 250 tories, amount-ed only to 800 men, while the Americans were5000 in number, ami well appointed in every re-spect.)
(CHENENGO is a n. branch of Susquehan-nah river. Many of the military townships arewatered by the n. w. branch of this river. Thetowns of Fayette, Jerico, Greene, Clinton, andChenengo, in Tioga county, lie between this riverand the e. waters of Susquehannah.)
(Chenengo, a post town, and one of the chiefin Tioga county, New York. The settled partof the town lies about 40 miles w. e. from Tiogapoint, between Chenengo river and Susquehan-nah ; has the town of Jerico on the n. By thestate census of 1796, 169 of its inhabitants areelectors. It was taken off from Montgomerycounty, and in 1791 it had only 45 inhabitants.It is 375 miles n. n. w. of Philadelphia.)
(CHENESSEE or GENESSEE River rises in Penn-sylvania, near the spot, which is the highest groundin that state, where the eastern most water of Allegha-ny river, and Pine creek, a water of Susquehannah,and Tioga river, rise. Fifty miles from its sourcethere are falls of 40 feet, and five from its mouth of 75feet, and a little above that of 96 feet. These fallsfurnish excellent mill-seats, which arc improved bythe inhabitants. After a course of about 100 miles,mostly n, e. by n. it empties into lakeQntario, four
vernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito. It runs from 7i. to s, and enters tlieChinchipe on the n. side, somewhat lower thanwhere this latter is entered by the Naraballe, andnear a small settlement of Indians.
Cherokee, a large river of the above colonyand province, called also Hogohegee and Calla-maco. It rises in the county of Augusta, and takesits name from a numerous nation of Indians ; runsV). for many leagues, forming a curve, and entersthe Ohio near the fourches of the Mississippi. Nearto this river are some very large and fertile plains ;and according to the account rendered by the In-dians, there are, at the distance of 40 leagues fromthe Chicazas nation, four islands, called Tahogale,Kakick, Cochali, and Tali, inhabited by as manyother different nations of Indians. (Cherokee wasthe ancient name of Tennessee river. The name ofTennessee was formerly confined to the fourteenthbranch, which empties 15 mites above the mouth ofClinch river, and 18 below Knoxville.)
Cherokee, the country of the Indians of thenation of this name in North Carolina. It standsw. as far as the Mississippi, and w. as far as theconfines of the Six Nations. It was ceded to theEnglish by the treaty of Westminster, in 1729.(This celebrated Indian nation is now on the de-cline. They reside in the n. parts of Georgia,and the s. parts of the state of Tennessee ; havingthe Apalachian or Cherokee mountains on the e.which separate them from North and South Caro-lina, and Tennessee river on the n. and w. and theCreek Indians on the s. The present line betweenthem and the state of Tennessee is not yet settled.A line of experiment was drawn, in 1792, fromClinch river across Holston to Chilhove mountain ;but the Cherokee commissioners not appearing, itis called a line of experiment. The complexion ofthe Cherokees is brighter than that of the neigh-bouring Indians. They are robust and well made,and taller than many of their neighbours ; beinggenerally six feet high, a few are more, and someless. Their women are tall, slender, and delicate.The talents and morals of the Cherokees are heldin great esteem. They were formerly a powerfulnation ; but by continual wars, in which it has beentheir destiny lo be engaged with the n. In-dian tribes, and with the whites, they are now re-duced to about 1500 warriors ; and they are be-coming weak and pusillanimous. Some writersestimate their numbers at 2500 warriors. Theyhave 43 towns now inhabited.)
Cherokee, a settlement of Indians of this na-tion, in the same country as that in which the Eng-lish had a fort and establishment, at the source ofthe river Caillon ; which spot is at present aban-doned.
CHERREPE, a port of the coast of Peru, and ofthe S. sea, in the province and corregimienlo ofSaña, is open, unprotected, and shallow ; andconsequently frequented only by vessels driven toit through stress, and for the sake of convenience.It is in lat. 7° 70' s.
(CHERRY Valley, a post-town in Otsegocounty, New York, at the head of the creek of thesame name, about 12 miles >/. e. of Coopersfown,and 18 s. of Canajohary, 61 w. of Albany,and 336 from Philadelphia. It contains about 30houses, and a Presbyterian church. There is anacademy here, which contained, in 1796, 50 or 60scholars. It is a spacious buildit)g, 60 feet by 40.The township is very large, and lies along the e.side of Otsego lake, and its outlet to Adiqnatangiecreek. By the state census of 1796, it appearsthat 629 of its inhabitants are electors. This set-tlement sutlered severely from the Indians in thelate war.)
(CHESAPEAK is one of the largest and safestbays in the United States. Its entrance is nearlye. n. e. and s. s. between cape Charles, lat. 37°13' and cape Henry, lat. 37°, in Virginia, 12 mileswide, and it extends 70 miles to the ??. dividingVirginia and Maryland. It is from 7 to IS milesbroad, and generally as much as 9 fathoms deep ;affording many commodious harbours, and a saleand easy navigation. It has many fertile islands,and these are generally along the c. side of the bay,except a few solitary ones near the xo. shore. Anumber of navigable rivers and other streamsempty into if, the chief of which are Susque-hannab, Fatapsco, Patuxent, Pofowmack, Rap-pahannock, and A^ork, which are all large and na-vigable. Chesapeak bay'- afibrds many excellentfisheries of herring and shad. There are also ex-cellent crabs and oysters. It is the resort ofswans, but is more particularly remarkable for aspecies of wild duck, called camashac/c, whoseflesh is entirely free from any fishy taste, and isadmired by epicures for its richness and delicacy.In a coinnierciul point of view, this bay is of im--
tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues tothe w. n. w. of Mexico.
Chilchota, another settlement of the headsettlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cui-catlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountainwhich is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading incochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits.It is eight leagues from its head settlement.
Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory titleof San Pedro. It is of the head settlement ofQuimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de losLlanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 fami-lies of Indians.
CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlementand real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ix-miquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215families of Indians, and in the real are 27 ofSpaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. Itis of an extremely cold and moist temperature,and its commerce depends upon the working ofthe lead mines. Some silver mines were formerlyworked here, but these yielded so base a metal,and in such small quantities, that they were en-tirely abandoned for those of lead, which yieldedby far the greatest emolument. Five leagues tothe e. of its capital.
CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. Ame-rica, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by thestraits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on thee. by the provinces of Tucuman and BuenosAyres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, andon the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios.472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magal-lanicas from the straits and the plains or desertsof Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. TheInca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carriedhis conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, inlat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the firstSpaniard who discovered this country, in the year1335, and began its conquest, which was after-wards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pe-dro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, andafterwards met with a disgraceful death at thehands of the Indians, having been made prisonerby them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are themost valorous and warlike of all in America ) theyhave maintained, by a continual warfare, their inde-pendence of the Spaniards, from whom they areseparated by the river Biobio. This is the limitof the country possessed by them ; and thoughthe Spaniards have penetrated through differententrances into their territories, and there built va-rious towns and fortresses, yet have all these beenpulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-
fenders of their liberty and their country. Theyare most dexterous in the management of the lance,sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macanawood ; and although they are equally so in thepractice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom,saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” Theyare very agile and dexterous horsemen, and theirhorses are excellent, since those which run wild,and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have notdegenerated, or become at all inferior to the bestwhich that country produces. The part whichthe Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends itswhole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapoto the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond theisle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues,at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, asit were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera ofthe Andes ; from these descend infinite streams andrivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys,and forming a country altogether charming andluxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for theconvenience and enjoyment of life, producing, inregular season, all the most delicate fruits of Ame-rica and Europe. The summer here begins inSeptember, the estio (or hot summer) in December,the autumn in March, and the winter in June.The climate is similar to that of Spain, and thetemperature varies according to the elevation ofthe land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru,and which are very low, are of a warm tempera-ture, and lack rain, having no other moisture thanwhat they derive from some small rivers descend-ing from the cordillera^ and running, for the spaceof 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the otherprovinces it rains more frequently, in proportionas they lay more to the s. especially in the winter,from April to September ; for which reason theyare more fertile. These provinces are watered bymore than 40 rivers, which also descend from thecordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snowmelted in the summer, swelling them to a greatheight. They generally abound in fish of themost delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and manyothers. The sea-coast is of itself capable of main-taining a vast population by the shell-fish foundupon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the mostdelicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ;here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasya species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados,pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes,and tunnies, which come at their seasons onthe coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadra-bas of Andaluda. For some years past they saltdown cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a
of declaring war is by sending from town to townan arrow clenched in a dead man’s hand,which they call comocatoria; and this they didin the year 1723, making terrible havoc andslaughter. This kingdom is evidently, fromwhat has been asserted, the most fertile, abun-dant, rich, and delightful region of all America ;to which Nature has granted, in profusion, allthat she has given to others, either with a sparinghand, or at too high a price. The people areliealthy and robust. The wind which generallyprevails is thes. w. and the Puelche, which comesfrom the cordillera, is somewhat troublesome. [ThePuelche wind takes its name from some Indians socalled, and from whose country it blows.] Chileis divided into two bishoprics, suffragan to thearchbishopric of Lima ; and these are of Santiagoand La Concepcion. It is governed by a president,governor, and captain-general, which title wasfirst possessed by Doii Melchor Bravo de Saravia,and its government is divided into 18 provincesor districts, which are,
l-a Serena or CoquimbiQuillota,
And the islands of Juatal is Santiago.
Catalogue of the barbarous Nations and principalPlaces in the kingdom of Chile.
Coquimbo or La Se-
San Juan de la Fron-tera,
San Luis de Loyola,Valdivia,
Nubbe or Nuble,Pereroa,
Estancia del Rey or
Fernandez. The capi-
Estancia de Rey, gold,Larapangui, silver,Ligua, vole.
Llaon, gold,Llupangui, gold,Notuco, vole.
Petorca, gold,Quillacoya, gold,Sinn, vole.
De la Sal,
Catalogue of the Presidents, Governors, and Cap-tains-general of the Kingdom of Chile.
1. The Adelantado Pedro de Valdivia, conquer-or of the kingdom; he served much, and withgreat valour, in the conquest of Peru, was a colo-nel of foot under Francis Pizarro, entered in theyear 1537, founded the first towns, and governeduntil the year 1551 ; he was made prisoner, fight-
[lized state.— ‘6 The metals.— 1 . Substitute forwriting.
Chap. II. Fi rst expedition of the Spaniards inChile.— Encounters with the natives., with varioussuccess, until the alliance formed between theSpaniards and Promaucians.
1. Almagvo marches against Chile. —2. Road fromPeru to Chile.-— o. Kindhj received at Copiapo.—4. First European blood shed.— 5. Battle withthe Promaucians.— Q. Expedition abandoned,and why.—l. Valdivia marches against Chile.—8. Province of St. Ja go describe'd.—'il. The ca-pital founded.— \0. Steady enmitnj of the Mapo-chinians.—l\. The mine of Quillota.— 12. The
compassionate ulmena. 13. Recruits fom
Peru, under Monroy.—-\t^. Stratagem of theQuillotanes.-—\5. Serena founded.— \Q. Pro-maucian cdlies.—ll . Valdivia sets sail for Peru,and returns with men and supplies.— \8. Con-cepcion founded.
Chap. III. Of the character and manners of theAraucanians .
1. Local situation.— 2. Character .-—3. Dress.—
4. Dwellings.— b. Division of the Araucanian
state.— 6. Its political form.-— 7. Civil institu-tions.— 8. Military system.— 3. Their arms,and mode of making av/r.— -10. Division of thespoil.— 1\. Sacrifice after the war. — \2. Con-gress of peace.— 13. System of religion.—!^.Funeral ceremonies.— \b. Division of time.—16. Astronomical ideas.— \7. Measures.— \8.Phetoric.— \9. Poetry . — 20. Medical skill.— -21. Commerce.— 22. National pride.— 23. Kind-ness towards each other.— 2^. Mode of saluta-tion. 25. Proper names.-— 20. Domestic em-
ployments. — 27. Food. -— 28. Music, and otherdiversions.
Chap. IV. The wars of the Araucanians with theSpaniards, and concomitant events.
1. The Toqui Aillavila.—2. The Toqui Lincoyan.—3. Imperial founded.---!^. Villariqa founded. —
5. The Cunches.—G. Valdivia founded.-— 7 . For-tresses of Fiiren, Tucapel, and Araiico built.—8. City of the Frontiers founded. -— 9. Threeprincipal military offices instituted at Concepcion.
— \Q. The Toqui Caupolican. 11. Valdivia
slain.— Lautaro appointed lieutenant-general,—12. The mountain Mariguenu. 13. The Go-
vernor Villa gr an. —1^. Conception destroyed.—15. The small-pox appears.-— \0. Decision ofthe audience of Lima 1 'especting the governors.-—17. Concepcion rebuilt, and destroyed by Lau-taro.— Lautaro arrives at Santiago.— 19.Death of Lautaro.— 20. Caupolican raises thesiege of Imperial.— 21. The Governor Don Gar-
cia Hurtado de Mendoza.— 22. Caupolican takenprisoner and impaled.— 23. Cahete founded.—24. The Cur.ches, their curious embassy and stra-tagem.— 25. Archipelago of Chiloe discovered.-—26. City of Osorno founded.— 27 . Caupolican theSecond.— 28. The Guarpes subjected.— 29. St.Juan and Mendoza founded,— 30. Villagran re-instated. — 31. The province of Tucuman re-stored, afterwards retaken. 32. Cahete de-stroyed.— 33. Pedro Villagran. ---34. The To-qui Pcdllataru,— 35. Archipelago of Chiloe sub-jected; description of the same ; its inhabitants,fc.-—36. The court of audience established.—
37. Suppression of the tribunal of audience.— -
38. Description of the Pehuenches .—39 . De-scription of the Chiquillanians . — 40. Landingand defeat of the English.— ^1. Nature oj thewar in anno 1589. — 42. Independence restored.--43. Expedition of the Dutch.-— All theSpanish settlements destroyed.— 1^5. Court of au-dience re-established.— i6. Ineffectual efforts ofPhilip III. to establish a lasting peace. — VI .Second expedition of the Dutch.— F8. Secondexpedition o f the English.— ^9. Peace at lengthconcluded.-— 50. Last expedition of the Dutch.— 51. Dreadful earthquake. — 52. Commercewith the French.— 53. How the Pehuenches be-came inimical to the Spaniards.— 51. Peace re-stored.
Chap. V. Present state of Chile.
1. Civil government.— 2. Military force.— -3. Ec-clesiastical government. 4. The cities anddwellings.— 5. Population.— 6. Chilian Creoles.—7. ^ate of arts and sciences.— 8. The pea-santry .—9. Dress, S;c.— 10. Diseases; small-pox, how cured.— 11 . Manners, moral and phy-sical. 12. Internal and external commerce,
mines, imports, and exports. — 13. Natural divi-sions.— U. Poliiiced divisions.— 15. Climate.— -16. Of rain. — 11 . Winds.— -IS. Meteors.— 19.Volcanoes. — 20. Earthquakes. —21. Some de-tail of productions.— 22. Present revolution.
Origin and language of the Chilians .—Conquestof the Peruvians, and state of Chile before thearrival of the Spaniards.-— What was then itspolitical establishments, government, and arts.Of the origin and huiguage of the Chilians, notraces are to be found further back than the middleof the 15th century, -which was the time when (hePeruvians first began (heir conquests in this de-lightful country. It is the general opinion thatAmerica was settled from the n. e. part of Asia,but the opinion entertained by the Chilians is, (hat '3 E 2
[archers of Copiapo, commanded by Cotco, anofficer of the ulinen of that province. Of the wholeband none escaped with life but the two officers,Monroy and Miranda, who Avere brought coveredwith wounds before the ulmen.
12. The compassionate ulmena.—^^ hilst thatprince, Avho had resoU’cd to put them to death, asenemies of the country, Avas deliberating on themode, the v.hnena, or princess, hisAvife, moved withcompassion for their situation, interceded Avith herhusband for tin ir lives; atid having obtained herrequest, uisbound them Avitli lier own hands, ten-derly dressed! +h -ir Avounds, and treated them likebrothers. When they Avere fully recovered, shedesired ihenr to teach her son the art of riding, asseveral of the horses had been taken alive in tliedefeat. 'I'he tAVo Spaniards readily cojisented toher request, hoping to avail themselves of this op-portunity to recover their liberty. lJut the meansthey took to effect this, Avere marked Avith an actof ingratitude to tlu'ir benefactress, of so much thedeeper dye, as, from their not being strictly guard-ed, such an e.vpedicnt Avas unnecessary. As theyountr prince Avas one day riding between tliem,escorted by his arcl!crs, and preceded by an officerarmed Avith a lance, Monroy suddenly attackedhim with a poniard Avhich he carried about him,and bro!ight him to the ground Avith tAvo or threemortal Avounds ; Miranda at the same time wrest-ing tlie lance from the officer, they forced theirAvay through their guards, Avho Avere throAvn intoconfusion by such an unexpected event. As theywere Avell-mounted, they easily escaped pursuit,and taking their Avay through the deserts of Peru,arrived at Cuzco, the residence at that time ofVascade Castro, Avho had succeededed to the go-vernment upon the death of Pizarro, cruelly as-sassinated by the partizans of Airaagro.
IS. Ilecruits from Perti under Monro7/.-—Oi\being informed of the critical situation of Chile,Castro immediately dispatclied a considerablenumber of recruits by land, under the commandof Monroy, who had the good fortune to con-ceal his march from the Cppiapins, and at thesame time gave directions to Juan Bautista Pas-tene, a noble Genoese, to proceed thither by seaAvith a still greater number. Valdivia, on receiv-ing these two reinforcements, Avhich arrived nearlyatthe same time, began to carry his great designs intoexecution. As he had been solicitous from the firstto have a complete knowledge of the sea-coast, heordered Pastene to explore it, and note the situa-tion of the most important parts and places, as faras the straits of Magellan. On his return fromthis expedition, he .sent him back to Peru for new
recruits, as since the alfair of Copiapo, the nativesbecame daily more bold and enterprising.
14. Stratagem of the Quillotanes. -~-Amon^others the Qiullotanes had, a little time before,massacred all the soldiers employed in the mines.To this end they made use of the folloAving strata-gem : One of the neighbouring Indians broughtto the commander, Gonzalo Rios, a pot biil ofgold, telling him that he had found a groat quaii-titv of it in a certain district of the country ; uponth is information, all were impatient to proceedthither to particip'ate in ti)c imagined treasure.As they arrived tumultuously at the place de-scribed, they easily became victims to an ambus-cade Avhich had been formed for them, not one ofthem escaping except the imprudent commanderand a Negro, Avho saved themselves by the supe-rior excellence of their horses. The frigate, Avhichwasthen finished, Avas also destroyed, being burnedtogether with the arsenal.
15. Serena founded.- — VixWivhx, on receivingadvice of this disaster, hastened thither with histroops, and having revenged as far as in his poAverthe death of his soldiers, built a fort to protect theminers. Being afteiAvards reinforced Avith SOOmen from Peru, under the command of FrancisViliagrau and Christopher Escobar, he becamesensible of the necessity of establishing a settle-ment ill the n. part of the kingdom, that mightserve as a place of arms, and a protection for theconvoys that should come that Avay. For this pur-pose he made choice of a beautiful plain at themouth of the river Coquimbo, Avhich forms a goedharbour, Avherc, in 1564, he founded a city calledby him Serena, in honour of the place of his birth ;it is not, however, knoAAn at present by this ap-pellation, except in geographical treatises, thecountry name having prevailed, as is the case Avithall the other European settlements in Chile.
16. Promoucian u///es.-— luthe ensuing year hebegan to think of extending his conquests, andfor that purpose proceeded into the country of thePromaucians. Contemponiry Avriters have notmade mention of any battle that Avas fought uponthis occasion; but it is not to be supposed thatthis valiant people, Avho had with so muchglory repulsed the armies of the Inca and ofAlmagro, would have alloAved him, Avithout oppo-sition, to violate their territory. It is, hoAvever,highly probable that Valdivia, in the frequent in^cursions Avhich he made upon their frontiers, haddiscovered the art to persuade them to unite withhim against the other Chilians by seducing pro-mises. In fact, the Spanish armies have eversince that period been strengthened by Promaucian’]
[their masters, tliat the greatest punishment inflictedon them would be to sell them to others. Mastersnevertheless exercise the rights of fathers of fami-lies over their slaves, in correcting them for theirfaults.
12. Internal and external commerce, mines,imports, and exports. — The internal commerce ofChile has been hitherto of very little importance,notwithstanding the advantages that the countryoffers for its encouragement. Its principal source,industry, or more properly speaking, necessity, iswanting. An extensive commerce is correlativewith a great population, and in proportion as thelatter increases, the former will also be augmented.Hitherto it may be said, that of the two branchesthat in general give birth to commerce, agricultureand industry, the first is that alone which animatesthe internal: commerce of Chile, and even thatpart of the external which is carried on with Peru.The working of mines also occupies the attentionof many in the provinces of Copiapo, Coquimbo,and Quillota ; but the industry is so trifling thatit does not deserve the name. Notwithstanding theabundance of its fruits and materials of manufacture,as flax, wool, hemp, skins and metals, which mightproduce a flourishing commerce, it is conductedbut languidly. The’inhabitants employ themselvesonly in making ponchos, stockings, socks, carpets,blankets, skin-coats, saddles, hats, and other smallarticles chiefly made use of by the common orpoorer class of people, since those of the middlerank employ those of European manufacture.These, but more particularly the sale of hides andtanned leather, which they have in great plenty,with that of grain and wine, form the whole of theinternal commerce of the kingdom. The external,which is carried on with all the ports of Peru, par-ticularly Callao, arises from the exportation offruits ; this amounts to 700,000 dollars annually,according to the statements given in the periodicalpublications at Lima. The commerce betweenChile and Buenos Ayres is quite otherwise, sincefor the herb of Paraguaj/ dXone, it is obliged to ad-vance 300,000 dollars annually in cash ; theother articles received from thence are probablypaid for by those sent thither. In the trade withSpain, the fruits received from Chile go but a littleway in payment of more than a million of dollars,which are received from thence annually in Euro-pean goods, either directly, or by the way ofBuenos Ayres, and sometimes from Lima. Gold,silver, and copper, are the articles which formnearly the whole of this commerce, since the hidesand vicuna wool are in such small quantities as torender them of little importance.
Notwithstanding theworkingofthe mines in Chilehas in a great measure been relinquished from theex-pence,and from the impediments offered by the war-like spirit of the Araucanians, there are more than athousand now in work between the cities of Co-quimbo and Copiapo, besides those of the provinceof Aconcagua ; and it is a matter of fact that theproduce of its mines has been increasing eversince that the passage into the S. sea by cape Hornwas frequented by the Spanish merchants. Thegold coined in the capital was lately regulated at5200 marks annually ; but the present yearly pro-duce of the mines, as calculated from the amountsof the royal duties, and therefore considerablyunder the truth, amounts to 10,000 Spanish marksof pure gold, and 29,700 do. of pure silver. Thevalue in dollars of both is 1,737,380; the goldbeing estimated at 145i*#^ dollars, and the silverat 9 t'V dollars the Spanish mark. Besides^ this, wemust add for contraband 322,620 dollars ; andthe total produce will then be 2,060,000. Accord-ing to liumboldt, the dollars imported into Chileand Peru in 1803 amounted to 11,500,000, andthe exports consisted of produce to the value of4,000,000 dollars, besides 8,000,000 dollars inspecie. The receipts of Chile, Guatemala, and Ca-racas, are consumed within the country. The re-mittances of gold and silver to Spain are usuallymade from Buenos Ayres ; the first being lessbulky, is carried by the monthly packets insums of 2 or 3000 ounces ; as to the second,it has, till within a very late period, been sent intwo convoy ships in the summer, by which con-veyances gold is also remitted. The copper whichis extracted from the mines is estimated from 8to 10,000 quintals. From these data it will notbe difficult to form a general estimate of all thatChile produces annually. A communication bywater, which greatly facilitates the progress ofcommerce, has been already commenced. In se-veral of the ports, barks are employed in the trans-portation of merchandize, which was before carriedby land upon mules. Several large ships havealso been built in the harbour of Concepcion andthe mouth of the river Maule. The external com-merce is carried on with Peru and Spain. In thefirst, 23 or 24 ships, of 5 or 600 tons each, are em-ployed, which are partly Chilian and partly Peru-vian. These usually make three voyages in ayear; they carry from Chile wheat, wine, pulse,almonds, nuts, cocoa-nuts, conserves, dried meat,tallow, lard, cheese, sole-leather, timber for build-ing, copper, and a variety of other articles, andbring back in return silver, sugar, rice and cotton.The Spanish ships receive in exchange for Euro-1
]^pean merchandise gold, silver, copper, vicugnawool, and hides. A trade with the East Indieswould be more profitable to the Chilians'than anyother, as tlieir most valuable articles have eitherbecome scarce, or are not produced in that wealthypart of Asia ; and the passage, in consequence ofthe prevalence of the s. winds in the Pacific, wouldbe easy and expeditious. No money is coined orhas currency in Chile except gold and silver, acircumstance very embarrassing to the internaltraffic. Their smallest silver coin is one sixteenthof a dollar, and their weights and measures are thesame that are used in Madrid.
13. Natural divisions. — Chile, properly called,or that part which is situated between the Andes andthe sea, and within lat. 24° and 45° s. is at least 120miles in breadth. It is commonly divided intotwo equal parts, that is, the maritime country, andthe midland country ; the maritime country is in-tersected by three chains of mountains, runningparallel to the Andes, between which are numerousvalleys watered by delightful rivers. The midlandcountry is almost flat ; a few insulated hills only areto be seen, which diversify and render the appear-ance of it more pleasing. The Andes, which areconsidered as the loftiest mountains in the world,cross the whole continent of America, in a directionfrom s. to n. for we cannot consider the mountainsin North America in any other light than as a con-tinuation of the cordilleras. The part appertainingto Chile may be 120 miles in breadth ; it consistsof a great number of mountains, all of tliernofaprodigious height, which appear to be chained toeach other, and where nature displays all thebeauties and all the horrors of the most picturesquesituations. Although it abounds witli frightfulprecipices, many agreeable valleys and fertile pas-tures are to be found there; and the rivers, whichderive their sources from the mountains, often ex-hibit the most pleasing as well as the most terrify-ing features. That portion of the cordilleras whichis situated between lat. 24° and 33° is wholly de-sert ; but the remainder, as far as the 45°, is in-habited by some colonies of Chilians, who areCcallcd Chiquillanes, Pehuenches, Puelches, andHuilliches, but are more generally known by thename of Patagonians. The surface of Chile isestimated at 378,000 square miles. There areabout eight or nine roads which cross its cordillera ;of which that leading from the province of Acon-cagua to Cuyo, although dangerous, as being nar-row, and having on either side lofty and perpendi-cular mountains, is the most travelled. Mules areoften precijiitated from these roads into the riversbeneath.
14. Political divisions . — The political divisionsof Chile consist of the part occupied by the Spa-niards, and that which is inhabited by the Indians.The Spanish part is situated between lat. 24° and37° s. and is divided into 13 provinces, viz.Copiapo, Coquimbo, Quillota, Aconcagua, Meli-pilla, and St. Jago, (which contains the capital cityof the country of the same name), Rancagua, Cal-diagua, Maule, Ytata, Chilian, Puchacay, andIluilquelemu. The Indian country is situated be-tween the river Biobio and the Archipelago ofChiloe, or lat. 36° and 41°. It is inhabited by threedifferent nations, the Araucanians, the Cunches,and the Huilliches. The Araucanians do not, asMr. De Paun pretends, inhabit the barren rocks ofChile, but, on the contrary, the finest plains in thewhole country, situate between the rivers Biobioand Valdivia.
15. Climate . — Chile is ono of the best countries
in America. The beauties of its sky, the constantmildness of its climate, and its abundant fertility,render it, as a place of residence, extremely agree-able ; and with respect to its natural productions,it may be said, without exaggeration, not to be in-ferior to any portion of the globe. The seasons suc-ceed each other regularly, and are sufficientlymarked, aithougli the transition from cold to heatis very moderate. The spring in Chile commences,as in all the countries of the s. hemisphere, the 22dSeptember, the summer in December, the autumnin March, and the winter in June. The followingaccount is from Robertson s History of America^vol. IV. c. 7. “ That part of Chile which may
properly be deemed a Spanish province, is a narrowdistrict, extending along the coast from the desertof Atacamas to the island of Chiloe, above 900miles. Its climate is the most delicious of thenew world, and is hardly equalled by that of anyregion on the face of the earth. Though border-ing on the torrid zone, it never feels the extremityof heat, being screened on the e. by the Andes, andrefreshed from the w. by cooling sea-breezes. Thetemperature of the air is so mild and equable, thatthe Spaniards give it the preference of that of the
provinces in their native country. The fertiliU’of the soil corresponds with the benignity of theclimate, and is wonderfully accommodated toEuropean productions. The most valuable ofthese, corn, wine, and oil, abound in Chile, as ifthey had been native in the country. Ail the fruitsimported from Europe attain to full maturity there.The animals of our hemisphere not only multiply,but improve in this delightful region. The hornedcattle are of larger size than those of Spain. Itsbreed of horses surpasses, both in beauty and in]
[spirit, the famous Andalucian race, from whichthey sprang. Nor has Nature exhausted herbounty on the surface of the earth ; she has storedits bowels with riches ; valuable mines of gold, ofsilver, of copper, and of lead, have been discoveredin various parts of it. A country distinguishedby so many blessings, we may be apt to conclude,would early become a favourite station of theSpaniards, and must have been cultivated withpeculiar predilection and care ; instead of this, agreat part of it remains unoccupied. In all thisextent of country there are not above 80,000 whiteinhabitants, and about three times that number ofNegroes and people of a mixed race. The mostfertile soil in America lies uncultivated, and someof its most promising mines remain unwrought.”16. Of rain . — From the beginning of springuntil autumn, there is throughout Chile a con-stant succession of fine weather, particularly be-tween tlie 24° and 36° of latitude ; but in the islands,which for the most part are covered with woods,the rains are very frequent, even in summer. Tlierainy season on the continent usually commencesin April, and continues until the end of August.In the n. provinces of Coquimbo and Copiapo itvery rarely rains ; in the central ones it usuallyrains three or four days in succession, and thepleasant weather continues 15 or 20 days ; in thes. the rains are much more frequent, and oftencontinue for nine or ten days without cessation.These rains are never accompanied with stormsor hail, and thunder is scarcely known in thecountry, particularly in places at a distance fromthe Andes, where, even in summer, it is seldomever heard. Lightning- is wliolly unknown in theprovince of Chile; and although, in the above-mentioned mountains, and near the sea, stormsoccasionally arise, yet they, according to the di-rection of the wind, pass over, and take theircourse to the n. or s. In the maritime provincessnow is never seen. In those nearer the Andes itfalls about once in five years ; sometimes not sooften, and the quantity very trifling; it usuallymelts while falling, and it is very uncommon tohave it remain on the ground for a day. In theAndes, however, it falls in such quantities fromApril to November, that it not only lies there con-stantly during that time, but even renders themwholly impassable during the greater part of theyear. The highest summits of these mountains,which are constantly covered with snow, are dis-tinguishable at a great distance l)y their whiteness,and form a very singular and pleasing appear-ance. Those of the inhabitants who are not suf-ficiently wealthy to have ice-houses, procure
snow from the mountains, which they transportupon mules. The consumption of this article isvery considerable, as a general use is made of itin summer to cool their liquors. The maritimecountries being at a distance from the Andes, donot enjoy this advantage, but they feel the priva-tion of it less, as the heat is much more moderateupon the coast than in the interior. In the mid-land provinces is sometimes seen, in the month ofAugust, a white frost, accompanied by a slight de-gree of cold, which is the greatest that is expe-rienced in those districts. This coldness continuestwo or throe hours after sun-rise; from which timethe weather is like that of a fine day in spring.The dews are abundant throughout Chile in thespring, summer, and autumual nigids, and in agreat measure supply the want of rain duringthose seasons. Although the atmosphere is thenloaded with humidity, its salubrity is not injuredthereby, for both husbandmen and travellerssleep in the open air with perfect security. Fogsarc common on the coast, especially in the au-tumn ; they cordinue but a few hours in the morn-ing, and as they consist only of watery particles,are not prejudicial either to the health of the inha-bitants, or to the vegetation.
17. Winds . — The n. and n. w. winds usuallybring rain, and the s. and s. e. a clear sky ; theseserve as infallible indications to the inhabitants,who are observant of them, and furnish themselveswith a kindofbarometer to determine previously thestate of the weather. The same winds producedirectly contrary effects in the s. and in the n.hemisplieres. The n. and northerly winds, be-fore they arrive at Chile, cross the torrid zone,and there becoming loaded with vapours, bringwith them heat and rain; this heat is, however,very moderate, and it would seem that these winds,in crossing the Andes, which are constantlycovered with snow, become qualified, and losemuch of their heat and unhealthy properties. InTucuman and Cujo, where they are known bythe name of sonda^ they are much more incom-modious, and are more suffocating than even thesiroc in Italy. The s. winds coming immediatelyfrom the antarctic pole, are cold and dry ; theseare usually from the s. w. and prevail in Chileduring the time that the sun is in the hemis-phere ; thej' blow constantly towards the equator,the atmosphere at that period being highly rare-fied, and no adverse current of air opposing itselfto their course : as they disperse the vapodrs,and drive them towards the Andes, it rains butseldom during their continuance. The cloudscollected upon these mountains, uniting with those]
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ipleasant forests : a great number of rivers derive*heir sources from it, and its perpetual verdureturnishes a proof that its eruptions have never beenvery violent.
20. Earthquakes . — The quantity of inflammablesubstances with which the soil of Chile abounds,rendered active by the electric fluid, may be con-sidered as one of the principal causes of earth-quakes, the only scourge that afflicts this favouredcotintry. Another, however, not less capable ofproducing this terrible phenomenon, is the elas-ticity of the air contained in the bowels of theearth, in consequence of the water which, insinuat-ing itself by subterranean passages from the sea,becomes changed into vapour. This hypothesiswill explain why the provinces to the e. of theAndes, at a distance from the sea, are so little in-commoded by earthquakes. Two, however, Co-piapo and Coquimbo, although near the sea, andas rich in minerals as the others, have never suf-fered from earthquakes ; and whilst the otherparts of the country have been violently shaken,these have not experienced the least shock, orbeen but slightly agitated. It is a general opinionthat the earth in these provinces is intersected bylarge caverns. The noises heard in many places,and which appear to indicate the passage of waters,or subterraneous winds, seem to confirm this opinion,and it is highly probable that by affording a freevent to the inflamed substances, these caverns mayserve to counteract the progress of those convul-sions to which the neighbouring country is subject.The inhabitants usually calculate three or fourearthquakes at Chile annually, but they are veryslight, and little attention is paid to them. Thegreat earthquakes happen but rarely, and of thesenot more than five have occurred in a period of244 years, from the arrival of the Spaniards to thepresent period, J8I2. From a course of accurateobservations it has been ascertained, that earth-quakes never occur unexpectedly in this country,but are always announced by a hollow sound pro-ceeding from a vibration of the air; and as theshocks do not succeed each other rapidly, the in-habitants have sufficient time to provide for theirsafety. They have, however, in order to securethemselves at all events, built their cities in avery judicious manner ; the streets are left so broadthat the inhabitants would be safe in the middle ofthem, should even the bouses fall upon both sides.In addition to this, all the houses have spaciouscourts and gardens, which would serve as places ofrefuge ; those who are wealthy have usually intheir gardens several i^eat wooden barracks,where they pass the night whenever they are
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threatened wdth an earthquake. Under these cir-cumstances the Chilians live without apprehension,especially as the earthquakes have never beenhitherto attended with any considerable sinking ofthe earth, or falling of buildings ; this is probablyowing to subterranean passages coramunicatino-with the volcanoes of the Andes, w Inch are so manyvent-holes for the inflamed substances, and serveto counteract tlieir effects. Were it not for thenumber of these volcanoes, Chile would, in allprobability, be rendered uninhabitable. Somepretend that they can foretel an earthquake fromcertain changes in the atmosphere : although tinsdoes not appear to be impossible, it is altogetlierdiscredited by many of the best writers on Chile :these observe that they will occur both in therainy and dry seasons, during a storm as well as acalm.
21. Some detail of productions . — Chile pro-duces none of those dangerous or venomous ani-mals which are so much dreaded in hot countries ;and it has but one species of small serpent, whichis perfectly harmless, as the French academiciansascertained when they went to Peru, in 1736, tomeasure a degree of the meridian. IJIIoa also, inhis Voyage, part II. vol. 111. observes, “ Thiscountry is not infested by any kind of insect ex-cept the chiguas, or pricker, or any poisonousreptile ; and although in the w oods and fields somesnakes are to be found, their bite is by no meansdangerous ; nor does any savage or ferociousbeast excite terror in its plains. The puma, orAmerican lion, which is sometimes met w'ith in thethickest and least frequented forests, is distinguish-ed from the African lion, both by its being with-out a mane and its timidity ; there is no instanceof its ever having attacked a man, and a personmay not only travel, but lie down to sleep withperfect security, in any part of the plain, andeven in the thickest forests of the mountains. Nei-ther tigers, wolves, nor many other ferociousbeasts that infest the neighbouring countries, areknown there. Probably the great ridge of theAndes, which is every where extremely steep,and covered with snow, serves as a barrier to theirpassage. The mildness of the climate may alsobe unfavourable to them, as the greater part ofthese animals are natives of the hottest countries.Horses, asses, cattle, sheep, goats, many kindsof dogs, cats, and even mice, have been broughthither by the Spaniards. All these animals havemultiplied exceedingly, and increased in size.The price of the best horses is from 100 to 500crowns ; the asses are strong and stately, thoughhunted chiefly for their skins; and the mules are]