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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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(CHATA-HATCHI, or Hatchi, is the largestriver which falls into St. Rose’s bay in W. Florida.It is also called Pea river, and runs from n. e. en-tering the bottom of the bay through severalmouths, but so shoal that only a small boat orcanoe can pass them. Mr. Hutchins ascended thisriver about 25 leagues, where there was a smallsettlement of Coussac Indians. The soil and tim-ber on the banks of the river resemble very muchthose of Escambia.)
(CHATAUCHE, or Chatahuthe, a river inGeorgia. The n. part of Apalachiola river bearsthis name. It is about SO rods wide, very rapid,and full of shoals. The lands on its banks are lightand sandy, and the clay of a bright red. Thelower creeks are settled in scattering clans and vil-lages from the head to the mouth of this river.Their huts and cabins, from the high colour of theclay, resemble clusters of new-burned brick kilns.The distance from this river to the Talapose river,is about 70 miles, by the war-path, which crossesat the falls, just above the town of the Tucka-batches.)
(CHATAUGHQUE Lake, in Ontario county.New York, is about 18 miles long, and three broad.Conewango river, which runs a s. s. e. course,connects it with Alleghany river. Tliis lake isconveniently situated fora communication betweenlake Erie and the Ohio ; there being water enoughfor boats from fort Franklin on the Alleghany tothe n. w. corner of this lake ; from thence there isa portage of nine miles to Cliatanghque harbour onlake Erie, over ground capable of being made agood waggon road. This communication was onceused by the French.)
niently for the fishery ; in which they have usuallyabout 40 vessels employed. It has 1140 inhabi-tants, and lies 95 miles s. e. of Boston. See CapeCod.)
(Chatham County, in Hillsborough district,N. Carolina, about the centre of the state. It con-tains 9221 inhabitants, of whom 1632 are slaves.Chief town, Pittsburg. The court-house is a fewmiles w. of Raleigh, on a branch of Cape Fearriver.)
(Chatham, a town of S. Carolina, in Cherawsdistrict ; situate in Chesterfield county, on the w.side of Great Pedee river. Its situation, in a highlycultivated and rich country, and at the head of anavigable river, bids fair to render it a place ofgreat importance. At present it has only about 30houses, lately built.)
(Chatham County, in the lower district ofGeorgia, lies in the n. e. corner of the state, havingthe Atlantic ocean e. and Savannah river n. e. Itcontains 10,769 inhabitants., including 8201 slaves.The chief toAvn is Savannah, tlie former capital ofthe state.)
(Chatham House, in the territory of the Hud-son bay company. Lat. 55° 28' n. Long. 97*32' w. from Greenwich.)
CHAUCHILLOS, a settlement of the province
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kingdom of Chile. It rises from one of the lakesof Avendafio, runs w. and then turning s. entersthe river Laxa. On its shore the Spaniards havea fort, called Yumbel, or Don Carlos de Austria,to restrain the Araucanos Indians.
[CLAVERACK, a post-town in Columbiacounty. New York, pleasantly situated on a largeplain, about two miles and a half e. of Hudsoncity, near a creek of its own name. It containsabout 60 houses, a Dutch church, a court-house,and a goal. The township, by the census of 1791,contained 3262 inhabitants, including 340 slaves.By the state census of 1796 tkere appears to be412 electors. It is 231 miles from Philadelphia. 1
[CLERK’S Isles lie s, w. from, and at theentrance of Behring’s straits, which separate Asiafrom America. They rather belong to Asia, beingvery near, and s. s. w. from the head-land whichlies between the straits and the gulf of Anadir inAsia. They have their name in honour of thatable navigator, Captain Clerk, the companion ofCaptain Cook. In other maps they are called St.Andrea isles.]
[CLERMONT, a post-town in Columbia coun-ty, New York, six miles from Red hook, 15from Hudson, 117 miles n. of New York, and212 from Philadelphia. The township contains867 inhabitants, inclusive of 113 slaves.]
[Clermont, a village 13 miles from Camden,S. Carolina. In the late war, here was ablock-house encompassed by an abbatis; it wastaken from Colonel Rugely of the British militia,in December 1781, by an ingenious stratagem ofLieutenant-colonel W ashington.]
[CLIE, Lake Le, in Upper Canada, about 38miles long and 30 broad; its waters communicatewith those of lake Huron,]
[CLINCH Mountain divides the waters ofHolston and Clinch rivers, in the state of Tennessee.In this mountain Burk’s Garden and MorrisesNob might be described as curiosities.]
[Clinch, or Peleson, a navigable branch ofTennessee river, which is equal in length to Hol-ston river, its chief branch, but less in width. Itrises in Virginia, and after it enters into the stateof Tennessee, it receives Powel’s and Poplar’screek, and Emery’s river, besides other streams.The course of the Clinch is s. w. and s. w. by w . ;its mouth, 150 yards wide, lies 35 miles belowKnoxville, and 60 above the mouth of the Hiwasse.It is beatable for upwards of 200 miles, andPowel’s river, nearly as large as the main river, isnavigable for boats 100 miles.]
[CLINTON, the most n. county of the state ofNew York, is bounded n. by Canada, e. by thedeepest waters of lake Champlain, which line se-parates it from Vermont, and s. by the county ofWashington. By the census of 1791, it contained16 14 inhabitants, including 17 slaves. It is di-vided into five townships, viz. Plattsburgh, thecapital. Crown Point, Willsborough, Champlain,and Peru. The length from n. to s. is about 96miles, and the breadth from e. to w. including theline upon the lake, is 36 miles. The number ofsouls was, in 1796, estimated to be 6000. By thestate census, in Jan. 1796, there were 624 personsentitled to be electors. A great proportion of thelands are of an excellent quality, and produce
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which is above 100 leagues distant, and thatthrough a desert country.]
COBITU, a river of the province and mis-sions of the Gran Paititi. It rises in themountains of the infidel Indians, which serveas a boundary to the province of Larecaja ;runs nearly due n. collecting the waters of manyothers, and enters theMarmore w ith the name of Mato.
[COBLESKILL, a new town in the county ofSchoharie, New York, incorporated March 1797.]
COBOS, a fortress of the province and govern-ment of Tucuman in Peru ; of the district and ju-risdiction of the city of Salta, from whence it isnine leagues distant ; having been founded in 1693at the foot of a declivity, to serve as an outworkor defence against the Indians of Chaco, it is atpresent destroyed and abandoned, and serves as acountry-house on the estate of an individual.
COBRE, Santa Clara de, a settlement ofthe alcald'ia mayor of Valladolid, in the provincennd bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 100 fa-milies of Spaniards, bO oi Mustees, 38 of Mulat-toes, and 135 of Indians ; some of whom speculatein working the mines of copper which are closeby, others in the cultivation of maize, and othersgain their livelihood as muleteers. Three leaguess. of the city of Pasquaro.
Same name, a mountain on the coast of the provinceand corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It derives its name from some very abun-dant copper mines. Great quantities of this metalare carried from hence to Spain for founding artil-lery, and for different purposes.
of the large river Napo, and at last becomes in-corporated with the same.
[COCALICO, a township in Lancaster county,Pennsylvania.]
COCAMA, a great lake in the midst of thethick woods which lie in the country of Las Amazonas, to the s. and w. of tlie river Ucayale. It is10 leagues long from n. to s. and six wide from e.to w. On the e. it flows out, through a littlecanal, into the river Ucayale, and on the w. itforms the river Cassavatay, which running n. andthen e. enters also the Ucayale. Its shores areconstantly covered with alligators and tortoises.
COCAMAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe country of Las Amazonas, who inhabit thew'oods to the s. of the river Maraiion, and in thevicinities of Ucayale. It takes its name from theformer lake, called La Gran Cocama. Theyare a barbarous and cruel race, wandering over theforests in quest of birds and wild beasts for meresustenance. Their arms are the macana, and theIndian cimeter, or club of chonia, a very strongebony.
COCATLAN, San Luis de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Coatlan, and alcadia mayorof Nexapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 160 fa-milies of Indians, employed in the trade in cochi-neal and cotton stuffs. It is four leagues to the n.of its head settlement.
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venerated an image of Oar L idy, the most cele-brated for miracles of any in the whole kingdom.The wonderful things, indeed, that have beenwrought here, have caused it to be the object ofgreat devotion ; accordingly an handsome templehas been erected, and the riches and ornamentswhich adorn the same are exceedingly valuable.People conse here from all the distant provinces tooffer up their prayers, to implore the protection ofthe Holy Virgin, and to thank her for benefits re-ceived. The festival here celebrated is on the 8thof September, when the quantity of people as-sembled is so large as to give the place, for thespace of 12 days, t!ie‘ appearance of a fair.
COCHE, an island of the North sea, near the coastof Nueva Andalucia, and belonging to the islandof Margarita. It is nine miles in circumference,and its territory is low and barren. It was cele-brated for the pearl-fishery formerly carried onhere. It is four leagues to the e. of Cubagiia.
[COCHECHO, a n.w. branch of Piscataquariver in New Hampshire. It rises in the Bluehills in Strafford county, and its mouth is fivemiles above Hilton’s point. See Piscat.xqua.J
COCHEIRA, Cumplida, a river of the coun-try of Brazil. It rises to the n. of the gold minesof La Navidad, runs w. and enters the Tocantineson the e. side, between the Salto de Ties Leguasand the settlement of the Portal de San Luis.
COCHIMATLAN, a settlement of the headsettlement of Almololoyan, and alcald'ia mayor ofColima, in Nueva Espana. It contains 100 fami-lies of Indians, whose trade consists in the manu-facturing of salt, and the cultivation of their gar-dens, which produce various kinds of fruits. Twoleagues to the w. of its head settlement.
COCHINOCA, a settlement of the provinceand governmeist of Tucuman, in the jurisdictionof the city of Xnjui. It has an hermitage, withthe dedicatory title of Santa Barbara, which is achapel of ease, and three other chapels in the set-tlement of Casivindo. The Indians of this placemanufacture gunpowder equal to that of Europe,and in its district are some gold mines.
COCHOAPA, a settlement of the alcaldia mayorof Tlapa in Nueva Espana; situate upon a dryand barren plain. It contains 150 families of In-dians, who are busied in the cultivation of cotton,the only production of the place.
COCHUY, a province of the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, to the n. e. ; bounded by the provinceof Chita. It has now the name of Laches, fromhaving been inhabited by this nation of Indians.It is very thinly peopled, of a hot climate, andabounding in Avoods.
[COCKBCRNE, a township in the n. part ofNew Hampshire, Grafton county, on the e. bankof Connecticut river, s, of Colebrooke.]
[COCKERMOUTH, a town in Grafton county,New Hampshire, about 15 miles n. e. of Dart-mouth college. It was incorporated in 1766, andin 1775 contained 118 inhabitants ; and in 1790,373.]
[COCKSAKIE. See Coxakie.]
COCLE, a large river of the province and go-vernment of Panama in the kingdom of TierraFirmc. It is formed by the union of the Penomeand the Nata, which run to the right and left ofthe mountain of Toabre, becoming navigable fromthat part to their entrance into the sea. A contra-band trade was in former times constantly carriedon through this river into the S. sea ; for whichreason Don Dionisio de Alcedo (the father of theauthor of this Dictionary) built a fort which de-fended its entrance, as likewise a rvatch-tower orsignal-house, to give notice of any strange vesselswhich might enter the river for the above pur-poses. The English took this tower, and built an-other fort by it in 1746, having been assisted by acompany of at least 200 smugglers. These w eredislodged in their turn by the aforesaid president,who inflicted condign punishment upon the headsof all the offenders.
(lereent of Quecliollenan^o, and nkaldia mni/orof Chilapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 27families of Indians, and is three leagues from itshead settlement.
COLTA, a large lake of the province andforregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom ofQuito, near that city to the s. It is about twoleagues in length from n, to s. and is of an ovalfigure. Its banks are covered with very finerushes and eneax, or flags; but fish will not breedin it, owing to the coldness of the climate ; it hastwo very small streams, the one to the w. and pass-ing very near to Riobamba, and the other to thes. entering the n. side of the river Gamote.
(COLUMBIA, a township in Washingtoncounty, district of Maine, on Pleasant river, ad-joining Macliias on the 7i.e. and was formerlycalled Plantations No. 12 and 13. It was incor-porated in 1796. The town of Machias lies 15miles to the e. ; it is nine miles from Steuben.)
(Columbia County, in New York, is boundedn. by Rensselaer, s. by Dutchess, e. by the stateof Massachusetts, and w. by Hudson river, whichdivides it from Albany county. It is 32 miles inlength and 21 in breadth, and is divided into
eight towns, of which Hudson, Claverack, andKinderhook, are the chief. It contained in 179027,732 inhabitants, and in 1796, 3560 electors.)
(Columbia College. See New York City.)
(Columbia, Territory of. See Washington,or the Federal City.)
(Columbia, a post-town, the capital of Ker-shaw county, and the seat of government of S.Carolina. It is situated in Camden district, onthe e. side of the Congaree, just below the con-fluence of Saluda and Broad rivers ; the streets areregular, and the town contains upwards of 70houses. The public offices have, in some mea-sure, been divided, for the accomodation of theinhabitants of the lower counties, and a branchof each retained in Charlestown. It lies 115 miles«. n. u\ of Charlestown, .35 s. w. of Camden, 85from Augusta in Georgia, and 678 s. u\ of Phila-delphia. Jjat. 33° 58' n. Long. 8° 5' ay.)
(Columbia, a flourishing po.st-town in Gooch-land county, Virginia, on the «. side of Jamesriver, at the mouth of the Rivanna. It containsabout 40 houses, and a warehouse for the inspec-tion of tobacco. It lies 45 miles above Richmond,35 from Charlottesville, and 328 s. w. of Phila-delphia.)
(Columbia, a town on the «. w. territory, onthe «. bank of Ohio river, and on thezo. side of themouth of Little Miami river; about six miles s. e.by e. of fort W ashington, eight e. by s. of Cincin-nati, and 87 n. by w. of Lexington in Kentucky.Lat. 38° 44' ? 2 .)
COMACHUEN, Santa Maria de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of Siguinan, and akai-dia mayor of Valladolid, in the province andbishopric of Mechoacan, with 25 families of In-dians, whose only occupation is in making saddle-trees. Two leagues from its head settlement.
COMALA, a settlement of the head settlement
and government of Neyba in the kingdom of Gra-nada. It rises in the paramo or mountain desertofQuindiu, traverses and waters the valleys ofLas Lanzas, and unites itself witli that of SanJuan, taking the name of Coello, from a Spaniardof this name having been drowned in it. It thenenters the Magdalena.
COMBINCUMA, a spacious, and but littleknown country of the kingdom of Quito. It isfull of woods, in which there are many wild beastsand snakes of various kinds, and it is watered bymany rivers, all of which enter the s. side of theMaranon. Amongst the various nations whichinhabit it is that of the Tontones.
COMBITA, a settlement of the province andcorregirniento oi Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a cold temperature, and pro-duces the fruits corresponding with its climate.It contains 100 house-keepers, and as many otherIndians, and is two leagues to the n. zo. of itscapital.
(COMFORT Point is the s. easternmost partof Elizabeth City county in Virginia, formed byJames river at its mouth in Chesapeak bay. PointComfort lies 19 miles w. by n. of cape Henry.]Comfort Point, another point, which is also
of the same coast and province as the former, andwithin that bay, being one of the points which formthe entrance of the river York.
COMICHIGELES, Sierra de, in the pro-vince and government of Tucumán, and boundedby the sierra of Cuyo, in the kingdom of Chile. Itruns from 5. s. e. on the shore of the Concara, andin fact follows the course of that river.
COMO-LEWU, or Rio de los Sauces, call-ed also Gran Desaguadero. See Sauces.
COMONDU, San Joseph de, a settlementof the missions which were held by the regularsof the company of Jesuits in the province of Ca-lifornia ; situate near the sea-coast, between thesettlements of La Concepcion and San FranciscoXavier.
York, wliicli falls into a bay at the s. side of theisland. It lies two miles to tlies. of Rockonkamapond.)
CONNESTIGUCUNE, an establisliment oftlie English, in the county of Albany, inthew. partand to the e. of Chenectady, or of (he river Mo-hawk, where it gives a fall from above 70 feet inlieiglit. See Arm any.
CONNETABLE, anotlier small island of tire sameprovince, witli the addition of Petite, to distin-guish it from the former.
CONOCOTO, a settlement of the kingdom ofQuito, in the corregimimto of the district of theCinco Leguasde la Ciudad, in the district of whichis a rising ground called A Halo, and upon theskirts of this are many warm-water mineral streams,much frequented as baths for the curing of in-firmities.
CONOMA, a lake of the province and countryof the Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions.It is formed from some waste water of the riverMadera, very near its shore, and at a small distancefrom the river of Las Amazonas.
CONSOLACION, Nuestra Senora de, aset-tlement of the government of Neiba in the NuevoReyno de Granada ; annexed to the curacy of thetown of La Purificacion. It is situate on theshore of the river Pardo, is of a hot temperature,abounding in the vegetable productions of a similar
climate, and in troublesome and venomous in-sects. It contains more than 200 house-keepers.
CONSOLACION, a point or long strip of landcalled Possession, on the n. coast of the straits ofMagellan ; one of those which form Possessionbay, and where are to be seen the ruins of the fortnamed Jesus, which was founded by the AdmiralPedro de Sarin iento.
CONSTANTINO Perez, an island of theriver Valdivia, in tlie kingdom of Chile, oppositethe same city, with two other small islands, theone before, the other behind it, and which, together,form the celebrated port of this name. The pas-sage on both sides is navigable, but the channel onthe s. side being the most wide, is the course uni-formly taken by large ships and vessels, and in thesame manner the n. channel is mostly, as it isnarrower, entered by frigates and small craft.
CORIXAS, a river of the kingdom of Brazil,It rises in the sierra Bermeja, runs n. forming acurve, and eaters the Tocantines near that of LosMonges, according to tl>e account given by thePortuguese.
CORIXAS, some sierras of the same kingdom,which run s. s. e. and are a continuation of thesierra Bermeja ; they then run e. forming acurve, as far as the river Tocantines, and ex-tend their course on as far as the shore of theAraguaya.
(CORNISH, a township in Cheshire county,New Hampshire, on the e. bank of Connecticutriver, between Claremont and Plainfield, about 15miles n. of Charlestown, and 16 s. of Dartmouthcollege. It was incorporated in 1763. In1775 it contained 309, and in 1790, 982 in-habitants.
CORO, Santa Ana de, a city of the provinceand government of Venezuela, thus named in thetime of the Indians, after the district called Coriana.It was founded by Juan de Ampues in 1529.The Weltzers, under the orders of Nicholas Fe-derman, were the first Avho peopled it, giving it thename of Cordoba, to distinguish it from the othercity of the same name which had been founded byGonzalo de Ocampo in the province of Cumana,This name it afterwards lost, and took that ofCoro, which it preserves to this day, from a smallsettlement of Indians thus named. It is of a dryand hot temperature, but so healthy that physiciansare said here to be of no use. The territory, al-though sandy and lack of water, produces everykind of vegetable production ; so that it may besaid to abound in every thing that luxury or con^venience may require. Here are large breeds ofcow-cattle and goats, and a considerable numberof good mules. Its articles of merchandize, suchas cheese, tanned hides, and cacao, meet with aready sale in Cartagena, Caracas, and the island ofSt. Domingo. It has a reduced convent of the re-ligious order of St. Francis, and an hermitagededicated to St. Nicholas. The town is very rich.It was plundered, by the English in 1567. Itschurch was a cathedral, and the head of thebishopric, from the time that it was erected in1532 until 1636, when this title was transferred toSantiago of Caracas. It is two leagues distantfrom the sea, where there is a port insecure, butmuch frequented by trading vessels.
(From the time that the governor began to re-side at Caracas, in 1576, there remained no con-spicuous authority at Coro but the bishop andchapter, and they did all they could to follow th«governor; and indeed, not being able to leaveCoro by legal measures, they put tlieir wishesinto effect by flight, in 1636. At three leaguesfrom the city are lands where they cultivate withsuccess, if not with abundance, all the usual pro-duce of the country. The inhabitants, who aremuch addicted to indolence, glory that they aredescended from the first conquerors of the country ;and there is here, generally speaking, more rankthan wealth, and more idleness than industry. Thelittle trade that is carried on here consists in mules,goats, hides, sheep-skins, cheeses, &c. which comein a great measure from the interior, and thelarger part fromCarora; shipments of these ar-ticles are made for the islands. The most commonintercourse is with Cura 9 oa, from whence they2
COROICO, a settlement of the province andeorregimiento of Cicasica in Peru ; situate on theshore of the river of its name, where there is aport for small vessels. This river rises in the cor-dillera of Ancuma, to the s. of the settlement ofPalca, and to the e. of the city of La Paz. It runsin a very rapid course to the e. and forming acurve turns n. and enters the w. side of the Beni,in lat. 16° 50' s.
CORONA-REAL, a city of the province ofGuayana, and government of Curaana, foundedon the shores of the river Orinoco in 1759, by theRear-Admiral Don Joseph de Iturriaga, for whichpurpose he assembled together some wanderingpeople of the provinces of Caracas and Barcelona.At present, however, it is as it were desert andabandoned, since its inhabitants have returned totheir former savage state of life, having been con-stantly pursued and harassed by the CharibesIndians, against whom they could no longer main-tain their ground, after that the king’s garrisonhad been withdrawn, and since, owing to the dis-tance at which they were situate from the capital,it was in vain for them to look for any succourfrom that quarter.
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dians, and to its district belong nine other settle-ments. It lies one league to the n. of its capital.
COROPA, a spacious country of the provinceand government of Guayana, which extends itselfbetween the river Coropatuba to the s. w. the Ma-ranon to the s. the Avari to the e. the mountainsof Oyacop of the Charibes Indians to the n. andthe mountains of Dorado or Manoa to the n.w.The whole of its territory is, as it were, unknown.The Portuguese possess the shores of the Maranonand the sea-coast as far as the bay of Vicente Pin-zon ; the Dutch of the colony of Surinam, by theriver Esequevo or Esquivo, called also Rupununi,have penetrated as far as the Maranon, by the riverParanapitinga. The mountains, which some haverepresented as being full of gold, silver, and pre-cious stones, sparkling in the rays of the sun, aremerely fables, which, at the beginning of the con-quests, deceived many who had gone in search ofthese rich treasures, and fell a sacrifice to thefatigues and labours which they experienced inthese dry and mountainous countries. The Por-tuguese have constructed here two forts, called Paruand Macapa. Mr. De la Martiniere, with hisusual want of accuracy, says that the Portuguesehave a settlement called Coropa, at the mouth ofthe river Coropatuba, where it enters the Maranon ;the Coropatuba joins the Maranon on the n. side,in the country of Coropa, and at the settlement ofthis name ; this settlement being nothing more thana small fort, and lying in the province of Topayos,on the s. shore of the Maranon, and being knownby the name ofCurupa, in the chart published in1744, and in that of the Father Juan Magnin, in1749.
COROPATUBA. See Curupatuba.
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into tlie Banos, and which, after the great cas-cade, is known by the name of Pastaza. To then. rises the Padregal, afterwards called Pita, as itpasses through the llanura of Chillo ; and at theskirt of the mountain of Guangopolo, where theplain terminates, it unites itself with the Ama-g^uaiia, and then turning w. takes the names ofTumbaco and Huallabamba, to enter the Esmeral-das, which disembogues itself into the S. sea. Atthe skirt of this great mountain are the estates ofSinipu, Pongo, Pucaguaita, and Papaurca, It isdistant from the settlement of Mula-halo half aleague, and five leagues from its capital. In lat.40° IPs. (The height of this volcano was dis-covered, in 1802, to be only 260 feet lower thanthe crater of Antisana, which is 19,130 feet abovethe level of the sea.)
COTOPAXI. See Cotopacsi.
COTUI, a town of St. Domingo ; founded, in1504, by Rodrigo Mexia deTruxillo, by the orderof the cometidador mayor of Alca.ntara, Nicolasde Obando, 16 leagues to the n. of the capital, St.Domingo, on the skirt of some mountains whichare 12 leagues in height, and at the distance oftwo leagues from the river Yauna. It is a smalland poor town. Its commerce depends upon thesalting of meats, and in preparing tallow and hidesto carry to St. Domingo, and in the chase of wildgoats, which are sold to the French. In its moun-tains is a copper mine, two leagues to the s. e. ofthe town. The Bucaniers, a French people of theisland of Tortuga, commanded by Mr. Pouancy,their governor, took and sacked it in 1676. (In
1505, the gold mines were worked here. Thecopper mine above alluded to is in the mountain ofMeymon, whence comes the river of the samename, and is so rich, that the metal, when refined,will produce eight per cent, of gold. Here are alsofound excellent lapis lazuli, a streaked chalk, thatsome painters prefer to bole for gilding, load-stone, emeralds, and iron. The iron is of the bestquality, and might be conveyed from the chain ofSevico by means of the river Yuna. The soilhere is excellent, and the plantains produced hereare of such superior quality, that this manna of the
Antilles is called, at St. Domingo, Sunday plan-tains. The people cultivate tobacco, but arechiefly employed in breeding swine. The inhabi-tants are called clownish, and of an unsociablecharacter. The town is situated half a leaguefrom the s. w. bank of the Yuna, which becomesunnavigable near this place, about 13 leagues fromits mouth, in the bay of Samana. It contains 160scattered houses, in the middle of a little savana,and surrounded Avith woods, SO leagues n. of St.Domingo, and 15 s.e. of St. Yago.)
CORUCO. Sec Cabo.
COUPEE, a point of the coast and shore of theMississippi in Canada, [it is also called CutPoint, and is a short turn in the river Mississippi,about 35 miles above Mantchac fort, at the gut ofIbberville, and 259 from the mouth of the river.Charlevoix relates that the river formerly made agreat turn here, and some Canadians, by deepen-ing the channel of a small brook, diverted thewaters of the river into if, in the year 1722. Theimpetuosity of the stream was such, and the soilof so rich and loose a quality, that in a short timethe point was entirely cut through, and the oldchannel left dry, except in inundations ; by whichtravellers save 14 feagues of their voyage. Thenew channel has been sounded Avith a line of SOfathoms, without finding bottom. The Spanishsettlements of Point Coupee extend 20 miles on thew. side of the Mississippi, and there are some plan-tations back on the side of La Fause Riviere,through Avhich the Mississippi passed about 70years ago. The fort at Point Coupee is a square
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Oaxaca. It contains only 20 families of Indians,wbo live by the cultivation of the cochineal plantand seeds.
COZOCOZONQUE, a settlement of the headsettlement of Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor ofViUalta, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot tem-perature, contains 85 families of Indians, and is29 leagues to the e. of its capital.
COZUMEL, an island of the N. sea, oppositethe e. coast of Yucatan, to the province and go-vernment of which it belongs. It is 10 leagueslong n. w.f s. w. and from four to five wide. It isfertile, and abounds in fruit and cattle, and iscovered with shady trees. The Indians call it Cu-zamel, which in their language signifies the islandof swallows. Here was the most renowned sanc-tuary of any belonging to the Indians in this pro-vince, and a noted pilgrimage, and the remains ofsome causeways over which the pilgrims used topass. It was discovered by the Captain Juan deGrijalba in 1518, and the Spaniards gave it thename of Santa Cruz, from a cross that was de-posited in it by Hernan Cortes, when he demolishedthe idols, and when at the same time the first massever said in this kingdom of Nueva Espana, wascelebrated by the Fray Bartolome de Olrnedo, ofthe order of La Merced, At present it is inhabitedby Indians only. It is three leagues distant fromthe coast of Tierra Firme.
CRABS, or Boriquen, an island of the N. sea ;situate on the s. side of the island of St. Domingo,first called so by the Bucaniers, from the abundanceof crabs found upon its coast. It is large andbeautiful, and its mountains and plains arc covered
with trees. The English established themselveshere in 1718, but they were attacked and drivenout by the Spaniards of St. Domingo in 17^0, whocould not suffer a colony of strangers to settle sonear them. The women and children were, how-ever, taken prisoners, and carried to the capital andPortobelo. See Boriquen.
(CRANBERRY, a thriving town in Middlesexcounty. New Jersey, nine miles e. of Princeton,and 16 s. s. w. of Brunswick. It contains a hand-some Presbyterian church, and a variety of manu-factures are carried on by its industrious in-habitants. The stage from New York to Phila-delphia passes through Amboy, this town, andthence to Bordentown.)
(CRANSTON is the s. easternmost townshipof Providence county, Rhode Island, situated onthe w. bank of Providence river, five miles s. ofthe town of Providence. The corajiact part of thetown contains 50 or 60 houses, a Baptist meetinghouse, handsome school-house, a distillery, and anumber of saw and grist mills^and is called Paw-tuxet, from the river, on both sides of whose mouthit stands, and over which is a bridge connectingthe two parts of the town. It makes a pretty ap-pearance as you pass it on the river. The wholetownship contains 1877 inhabitants.)
CRAVEN, a county of the province and colonyof Carolina in N. America, situate on the shore ofthe river Congaree, which divides the provinceinto South and North. It is filled with English andF'rench protestants. The latter of these disem-barked here to establish themselves in 1706, butwere routed, and the greater part put to death bythe hands of the former. The river Sewee watersthis county, and its first establishment was owingto some families wlio had come hither from NewEngland. It has no large city nor any considerabletown, but has two forts upon the river Saute, theone called Sheuinirigh fort, which is 45 miles fromtlie entrance or mouth of the river, and the othercalled Congaree, 65 miles from the other. [It con-tains 10,469 inhabitants, of whom S658are slaves.}
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datorj parties against the settlements in their vici-nity. The Creeks are very badly armed, havingfew rifles, and are mostly armed with muskets.For near 40 years past, the Creek Indians havehad little intercourse with any other foreigners butthose of the English nation. Their prejudice infavour of every thing English, has been carefullykept alive by tories and others to this day. Mostof their towns have now in their possession Britishdrums, with the arms of the nation and other em-blems painted on them, and some of their squawspreserve the remnants of British flags. They stillbelieve that “ the great king over the water” isable to keep the whole world in subjection. Theland of the country is a common stock ; and anyindividual may remove from one part of it to an-other, and occupy vacant ground where he canfind it. The country is naturally divided intothree districts, viz. the Upper Creeks, Lower andMiddle Creeks, and Seminoles. The upper dis-trict includes all the waters of the Tallapoosee,Coosahatchee, and Alabama rivers, and is calledthe Abbacoes. The lower or middle district in-cludes all the waters of the Chattahoosee and Flintrivers, down to their junction ; and although oc-cupied by a great number of different tribes, thewhole are called Cowetaulgas or Coweta people,from the Cowetan town and tribe, the most warlikeand ancient of any in the whole nation. Thelower or s. district takes in the river Appala-chicola, and extends to the point of E. Florida,and is called the Country of the Seminoles. Agri-culture is as far advanced with the Indians as itcan well be, without the proper implements of hus-bandry. A very large majority of the nationbeing devoted to hunting in the winter, and to waror idleness in summer, cultivate but small parcelsof ground, barely sufficient for subsistence. Butmany individuals, (particularly on Flint river,among the Chehaws, who possess numbers of Ne-groes) have fenced fields, tolerably well cultivated.Having no ploughs, they break up the groundwith hoes, and scatter the seed promiscuously overthe ground in hills, but not in rows. Theyraise horses, cattle, fowls, and hogs. The onlyarticles they manufacture are eartlien pots andpans, baskets, horse-ropes or halters, smokedleather, black marble pipes, wooden spoons, andoil from acorns, hickery nuts, and chesnuts.)
(Creeks, confederated nations of Indians. SeeMuscogulge.)
(CREGER’S Town, in Frederick county,Maryland, lies on the w. side of Monococy river,between Owing’s and Hunting creeks, which fallinto that river ; nine miles s. of Ermmtsburg, nearthe Pennsylvania line, and about 11 n. of Frede-rick town.)
CRISTO. See Manta.
(CROCHE, a lake of N. America, in New SouthWales, terminated by the portage La Loche, 400paces long, and derives its name from the appear-ance of the water falling over a rock of upwardsof 30 feet. It is about 12 miles long. Lat. 36°40'. Long, 109° 25' w.)
CROIX, or Cross, a river of the province andgovernment of Louisiana, the same as that which,with the name of the Ovadeba, incorporates itselfwith the Ynsovavudela, and takes this name, till itenters the Mississippi.
(Croix, St. See Cruz, Santa.)