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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ABANCAY, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded on the E by the large city of Cuzco, (its jurisdiction beginning at the parish of Santa Ana of that city), and on the W by the province of Andahuailas; N by that of Calcaylares, forming, in this part, an extended chain of snowcovered mountains ; S by the provinces of Cotabamba and Aimaraez; S W by Chilques and Masques. It extends 26 leagues from E to W and is 14 broad. Its most considerable river is the Apurimac, which is separated from it at the N W and bends its course, united with other streams, towards the mountains of the Andes. This river is crossed by a wooden bridge of 80 yards long and 3 broad, which is in the high road from Lima to Cuzco, and other provinces of the sierra. The toll collected here is four rials of silver for every load of goods of the produce of the country, and twelve for those of the produce of Europe. The temperature of this province is mild, and for the most part salubrious, with the exception of a few vallies, where, on account of the excessive heat and humidity, tertian agues are not uncommon. It produces wheat, maize, and other grain in great abundance, and its breed of horned cattle is by no means inconsiderable; but its principal production is sugar, which they refine so well, that it may challenge the finest European sugars for whiteness : this is carried for sale to Cuzco and other provinces, and is held in great estimation. It also produces hemp, cloth manufactures of the country ; and in its territories mines of silver are not wanting, especially in the mountain which they call Jalcanta, although the natives avail themselves not of the advantages so liberally held out to them. Its jurisdiction comprehends 17 settlements. The repartimento, quota of tribute, amounted to 108,750 dollars, and it rendered yearly 870 for the alcabala. The following are the 17 settlements : The capital, Limatambo, Huanicapa, Mollepata, Curahuasi, Pantipata, Cachora, Pibil, Antilla, Chonta, Anta, Pocquiura, Ibin, Surite, Chachaypucquio, Huaracondo. Sumata,
Abancay, the capital of the above province, founded in a spacious valley, which gives it its title: it is also so called from a river, over which has been thrown one of the largest bridges in the kingdom, being the first that was built there, and looked upon as a monument of skill. In the above valley the jurisdiction of this province, and that of Andahuailas, becomes divided. It is also memorable for the victories gained in its vicinity by the king's troops against Gonzalo Pizarro, in the years 1542 and 1548. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Dominic ; this order being the first of those which established themselves in Peru. 20 leagues distant from the city of Cuzco. Lat. 13° 31' 30" S Long. 72° 26' W.7
ABANES, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the plains of San Juan, to the N of the Orinoco. They inhabit the woods on the shores of this river, as well as other small woods ; and are bounded, E by the Salivas, and W by the Caberres and Andaquies. They are docile, of good dispositions, and are easily converted to the Catholic faith.
ABANGOUI, a large settlement of the province and government of Paraguay. It is composed of Indians of the Guarani nation, and situate on the shore of the river Taquani. It was discovered by Alvar Nuñez Cabezade Vaca, in 1541.
ABBEVILLE County, in Ninetysix district, S. Carolina, bounded on the N E by the Saluda, and on the SW by the Savannah, is 35 miles in length and 21 in breadth ; contains 9197 inhabitants, including 1665 slaves.
ABEICAS, a nation of Indians of New France, bounded on the N by the Alibamis, and E by the Cheraquis. They live at a distance from the large rivers, and the only produce of their territory is some canes, which are not thicker than a finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.
alcaldía mayor of Chiapa, in the kingdom of Guatemala. Lat. 16° 53' N Long. 93° 52' W. It is situate on the Tobasco river, near the city of Chiapa, and not far from a bay in the S. sea, called Teguantipac.
ACAPONETA, the alcaldía mayor of the kingdom of Galicia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara, in Nueva España. Its jurisdiction is reduced. It enjoys various hot and cold temperatures, and has therefore the crops peculiar to both climates; and the same are sown in its district, and produce abundantly. The capital is the town of the same name, situate between the two rivers St. Pedro and de Cartas ; the latter dividing Nueva España from the provinces of Rosario and Cinaloa, as also the bishoprics of Durango and Gaudalaxara, from whence it is distant 83 leagues, W. N. W. It has a convent of the order of St. Francisco. Long. 105° 40' 30". Lat. 22° 43' 30".
ACAPULCO, the capital city of the government of Nueva España, situate on the coast of the S. sea. Its inhabitants amount to nearly 400 families of Chinese, Mulattoes, and Negroes. It has a parish church, with two vicars, and two convents, one of the order of St. Francis, and the other of St. Hyppolite de la Casidad, which is a royal hospital ; an office of public accounts, with an accountant and treasurer for the managing and keeping the accounts of the duties produced by the goods brought in the China ships. The city is small, and the churches and houses are moderately ornamented. The greater part of the city is on the seashore. The air is of an extremely hot and moist temperature ; for, independent of its being in the torrid zone, it is entirely shut oxit from the N. winds, being surrounded by lofty serranias. These circumstances render it very unhealthy, especially in the wet season, on account of the damps and seawinds blowing from the S. E. to the great detriment of the inhabitants and merchants who come to trade here ; this being the principal cause why there are scarcely more than eight Spanish families who reside here. It is equally in want of every sort of provision, owing to the reduced and barren state of the land, and is forced to seek its necessary supplies from the Indian settlements within its jurisdiction. The only commerce which it can be said to have, is afair which is held on the arrival of the ships from China ; and when these depart, there are no other means for the people of maintaining a trade, and if the above resource should happen to fail for three or four years, the place must inevitably be abandoned. At the distance of a musketshot, and on a promontory running far into the sea, is situate the castle and royal fort of San Diego, mounted with 31 pieces of artillery, the greater part of them 24 pounders, for the defence of the entrance of the port, which is safe, and so spacious, that 500 ships can lay at anchor in it with ease. It is surrounded by lofty rising grounds. Its principal mouth is on the S. side, formed by an Island of an oblong figure, and somewhat inclining to the S. W. The same Island forms also Acatlan mouth, which they call chica, or little. The canals on either side of the Island are 25 fathoms deep. The governor of the castle has the rank of castellano, with the title of lieutenant general of the coasts of the S. sea ; and for the defence of these coasts, there are three companies of militia, composed of the the whole of the inhabitants, namely, one company of Chinese, Acatlan another of Mulattoes, and the third of Negroes, who run to arms whenever they hear the cannon fired three times at short intervals. In the settlements of its neighbourhood they grow cotton, maize, and other seeds, vegetables and fruits. They have cattle of the large and small kind, and some tobacco, all of which productions are sufficient for the use of the castle and the city, which is 80 leagues distant from Mexico. — [The famous cut in the mountain, (Abra de San Nicholas), near the bay de la Langosta, for the admission of the sea winds, was recently finished. The population of this miserable town, inhabited almost exclusively by people of colour, amounts to 9000 at the time of the arrival of the Manilla galleon (nao de China). Its habitual population is only 4000. The chief trade of Acapulco continues still to be its commerce with Manilla. The Manilla ship arrives once a year at Acapulco, with a cargo of Indian goods, valued at 12 or 1300,000 dollars, and carries back silver in exchange, with a very small quantity of American produce, and some European goods. Lat. according to Humboldt, 16° 50' 29". Long, by ditto, 99° 46'. Lat. according to the Spaniards, 16° 50' 30". Long, by ditto, 160°. Both longitudes being measured from the meridian of Greenwich.] ACARAGA, a river of the province and government of Paraguay. It rises in the province of the Parana, and running n. enters the Uruguay where is the city of Asuncion. It is navigable by canoes throughout, and abounds in fish.
ACARAI, a settlement of the province and government of Paraguay, founded near the river Paraná, and rather towards the W by the missionary Jesuits, in 1624, where they also built a fort to protect it against the incursions of the infidel Indians.
ACARI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Camaná, in Perú, situate in a beautiful and extensive valley, in which there is a very lofty mountain, which they call Sahuacario, composed of misshapen stones and sand, in which, at certain times of the year, especially in the months of December and January, is heard a loud and continued murmuring, which excites universal astonishment, and which, no doubt, is to be attributed to the air in some of its cavities. On its skirts are two fortresses, which were built in the time of the gentilism of the Indians. There is a port halfway between the town of St. Juan and the city of Arequipa, which is 8 leagues distant from the latter, and 11 from the former. It is very convenient, and has an excellent bottom, but is frequented only by small vessels. It is in lat. 15° 15'. S Long. 75° 8' 30" W
another river, of the province and capitainship of Pará in the kingdom of Brasil. It is small, runs N afterwards inclines to the N N W and enters the river of Las Amazonas, just where this empties itself into the sea.
[ACASATHULA, a sea-port, situated on a point of land, in the province of Guatemala Proper, in Mexico, on a bay of the S. sea, about four leagues from Trinidad. It receives the greatest part of the treasures from Perú and Mexico. In its neighbourhood are three volcanoes.]
ACATEPEC, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Thehuacan, where there is a convent or vicarage of the order of St. Francis. It contains 860 Indian families (including those of the wards of its district) in a spacious valley, which begins at the end of the settlement and extends itself above a league. In this valley are 12 cultivated estates, on which live 40 Indian families. It is four leagues S S W of its capital.
another settlement in the head settlement and district of Chinantla, of the alcaldía mayor of Cozamaloapan. It is situate in a very pleasant plain, and surrounded by three lofty mountains. The number of its inhabitants is reduced. A very rapid and broad river passes near this settlement; and as this is the direct way to the city of Oaxaca and other jurisdictions, and as the travellers, who come here in great numbers, must necessarily cross the river in barks or canoes, the Indians, who are very expert in this sort of navigation, contrive by these means to procure themselves a decent livelihood. 10 leagues W of its head settlement.
Tlacolula, from whence it is distant a league ant a half to the N.
ACATEPEQUE, S. Franciso de, a settlement of the head settlement of St. Andres de Cholula, and alcaldía mayor of this name. It contains 140 Indian families, and is half a league to the S of its capital.
ACATLAN, a settlement and capital of the alcaldía mayor of this name. It is of a mild temperature, and its situation is at the entrance of the Misteca Baxa. It contains 850 families of Indians, and 20 of Spaniards and Mustees. In its vicinity are some excellent saltgrounds, in which its commerce chiefly consists. The jurisdiction of this alcaldía, which contains four other head settlements of the district, is fertile and pleasant, abounding in flowers, fruits, all kinds of pulse and seeds, and is well watered. They have here large breeds of goats, which they slaughter chiefly for the skin and the fat, salting down the flesh, and sending it to La Puebla and other parts to be sold. In its district are many cultivated lands. It is 55 leagues leagues to the E S E of Mexico. Long. 275° 10' W Lat. 19° 4' N.
another settlement of the same name, with the dedicatory title of S. Andres, in the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Xalapa, in the same kingdom, situate on a clayey spot of ground, of a cold moist temperature, rendered fertile by an abundance of streams, which in a very regular manner water the lands; although,it being void of mountains and exposed to the N winds, the fruits within its neighourhood do not come to maturity. It contains 180 Indian families, including those of the new settlement, which was established at a league's distance to the S of its head settlement, and which is called San Miguel de las Aguastelas. Acatlan is a league and a half distant from its head settlement.
another settlement, having the dedicatory title of San Pedro, belonging to the head settlement of Malacatepec and alcaldía mayor of Nexapa, in the same kingdom. It contains 80 Indian families, who trade in wool and in the fish called bobo, quantities of which are found in a large river which runs close by the settlement, and which are a great source of emolument to them. It is four leagues N of its capital.
another settlement of the head settlement of Atotonilco, and alcaldía mayor of Tulanzingo in the same kingdom. It contains 115 Indian families, and a convent of the religious order of St. Augustin. — Two leagues N of its head settlement.
ACATLAZINGO, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement of Xicula, and alcaldía mayor of Nexapa, situate in a plain that is surrounded on all sides by mountains. It contains 67 Indian families, who employ themselves in the culture of the cochineal plant.
ACAXEE, a nation of Indians of the province of Topia. It is well peopled, and was converted to the Catholic faith by the father Hernando de Santaren, and others of the abolished society of the Jesuits, in 1602. They are docile, of good dispositions and abilities. In the time of their idolatry, they used to bend the heads of their dead with their bodies and knees together, and in this posture inter them in a cave, or under a rock, giving them provisions for the journey which they fancied them about to make ; also laying by them a bow and arrows for their defence. Should an Indian woman happen to have died in childbed, the infant was put to death ; for they used to say, it was the cause of her death. These Indians were once induced by a sorcerer to make an insurrection, but it was quelled by the governor of the province, Don Francisco de Ordinola, in the year 1612.
ACAXETE, Santa María de, the head, settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tepcaca, situate on the slope of the noted sierra of Tlascala. It is of a cold and dry temperature, contains seven Spanish families, 10 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 176 of Mexican Indians. In its vicinity is a reservoir, formed of hewn stone, which serves at once to catch the waters as they come down from the sierra, and to conduct them to Tepcaca, three leagues N N W of its capital.
ACAXUCHITLAN the head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tulazingo, to the N E. It contains 406 Indian families, and is a curacy of the bishopric of La Puebla de los Angeles. Distant four leagues to the E of its capital.
ACAYUCA, the alcaldía mayor of Nueva España, and of the province of Goazacoalco. Its jurisdiction is very extended, and consists, for the most part, of places of a hot and moist temperature, but so fertile is it that it gives annually four crops of maize; and as there is no demand for this production in the other provinces, it follows, of course, that the Indians here are little given to industry. Indeed the ground never requires the plough, and the whole of their labours during the seedtime consist merely in smoothing the surface of the mountains, and in scratching up the ground with a pointed stick. It is at times infested by locusts, which destroy the plants and crops ; and having never been able to find a remedy against this evil, the inhabitants had recourse to the protection of the virgin of La Conception, which is revered in the head settlement of the district of the Chichimecas ; and it is said that, owing to her mediatory influence, the plague has been thought to diminish. This province is watered by the abundant river of the Goazacoalco. The settlements of this alcaldía are, Xocoteapa, Macayapa, Menzapa, Molocan, Theimanquillo, Tinantitlan, Chinameca, Zoconusco, Olutla, Otcapa, Pochutla, Ostitan, Cozolcaque, Ixhuatla, Macatepeque.
another, the capital of the above, situate on the coast of the N. sea. Its inhabitants are composed of 30 families of Spaniards, 296 of Indians, and 70 of Mustees and Mulattoes. It lies a little more than 100 leagues S E of Mexico. Lat. 17° 53' N Long. 94° 46' 30" W.
Acacingo, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tepcaca, situate in a plain of a mild temperature, and watered by two streams which run close to all the houses of the settlement, to the great comfort of the inhabitants. In the middle of the above plain there is a beautiful fountain, a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, a very ancient building, and some other buildings, which have been erected since the conquest of the country. The parish church is a piece of the most ancient architecture. The inhabitants are composed of 150 families of Spaniards, 104 of Mustees, 31 of Mulattoes, and 700 of Indians; 3 1/4 leagues E to the NE of its capital.
ACAZUTLA, a port of the S sea, on the coast of the province of the alcaldía mayor of Zuchitepec, in the kingdom of Guatemala, between the point of Los Remedios, and the settlement of Guapaca. [Lat. 14° 42' N Long. 90° 3'.]
ACCHA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chilques and Masques in Peru, situate on the skirt of a mountain, which has a prominence, seeming as though it were about to fall upon the settlement. This mountain is constantly dwindling away without any assignable cause. Lat. 13° 19 s. Long. 71° 13' W
[ACCOCESAWS. The ancient town and principal place of residence of these Indians is on the W side of Colorado of Rio Rouge, about 200 miles S W of Nacogdoches, but they often change their place of residence for a season : being near the bay, they make great use of fish, oysters &c.; kill a great many deer, which are the largest and fattest in the province ; and their country is universally said to be inferior to no part of the province in soil, growth of timber, goodness of water, and beauty of surface; they have a language peculiar to themselves, but have a mode of communication by dumb signs, which they all understand: number about 80 men. Thirty or forty years ago, the Spaniards had a mission here, but broke it up, or moved it to Nacogdoches. They talk of resettling it, and speak in the highest terms,of the country.]
out various ways, and watering, from the place in which it rises, the extensive vallies of Curimon, Aconcagua, Quillota, and Concon; in which are cultivated large crops of wheat, flax and hemp; and it, moreover, enters the sea in as large a stream as if it had never undergone the like ramifications: its mouth is in 33° lat.
ACONQUIJA, the most lofty mountain of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district of the city of Catamarca, and very near it. It is perpetually covered with snow, and abounds with minerals of gold. Its jurisdiction is disputed by the province of Atacama.
ACOTITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Autlan. It contains 15 Indian families, who employ themselves in breeding the larger sort of cattle, in making sugar and honey, in dressing seeds, and extracting oil of cacao, which abounds greatly, from the number of trees yielding this fruit. It is annexed to the curacy of Tecolotlan, from whence it is two leagues to the S W.
ACTOPAN, the district and alcaldía mayor of Nueva España, commonly called Octupan. Its productions and commerce are as follows: They consist in seeds, rigging, saltpetre, and the feeding of goats and sheep, chiefly prized on account of their skins and their fat. It is of a mild temperature; but the ground is infested with prickly plants, thorns, and teasels. There are some estates here of about eight or ten labouring families each. In this district, and in its environs, are many singing birds, which, in the Mexican language, are called zenzontla; and among otlicrs is the nightingale. The capital bears the same name, and in it there are no less than 2750 families of Othomies Indians, divided into two parties, and separated by the church, which is a convent of the order of St. Augustin, and a very ancient piece of architecture. It also contains 50 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees. 23 leagues N N E of Mexico. Long. 98° 49' W. Lat. 20° 19'30" N.
ACUIAPAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zultcpec in Nueva Espana, situate between two craggy steeps, and annexed to the curacy of Temascaltepec. It contains 38 Indian families, who carry on a commerce by the dressing of hides of large and small cattle. Six leagues n. of its capital.
ACUILPA, a settlement of the head settlement of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot and moist temperature, abounding in grain, chia, (a white medicinal earth), seeds, and other productions, with which its inhabitants carry on a trade* These consist of 92 Indian families. It is a little more than three leagues from its head settlement.
ACUIO, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Cinaqua in Nueva Espana; of a hot temperature, and inhabited only by nine Indian families, whose commerce consists in collecting salt and wild wax. It belongs to the curacy of Tauricato, and in its district are 11 sugar mills, and seven pastures fit for the larger cattle, and which are so extensive and considerable as to employ in them 50 families of Spaniards, and 235 of Mustees, Mulattoes, and Negroes. 30 leagues towards the s. of its capital.
ACULA, San Pedro de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, situate upon a high hill, and bounded by a large lake of salubrious water, called by the Indians Puetla; which lake empties itself into the sea by the sand bank of Alvarado, and the waters of which, in the winter time, overflow to such a degree as nearly to inundate the country. It contains 305 Indian families, and is four leagues to the e. of its capital.
ACULEO, a lake of the kingdom of Chile, which empties itself into the river Maipo, famous for good fish, highly prized in the city of Santiago. It is three leagues in length, and in some parts one in breadth. It is in the district of the settlement of Maipo, of the province and corregimiento of Rancagua.
ACURAGU, Angoras, or Camosin, a river of the province and captainship of Seara in Brazil, which rises in the province of Pernambuco, runs n. for many leagues, and enters the sea between the points of Tortuga and Palmeras.
ACUTITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Tepuxilco, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva Espana. It contains 45 Indian families, who trade in sugar, honey, and maize, and many other of its natural productions. It is five leagues n. e. of its head settlement, and a quarter of a league from Acamuchitlan.
ACUTZIO, a settlement of the head settlement of Tiripitio, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 136 families of Indians, and 11 of Spaniards and Mustees. There are six large cultivated estates in its district, which produce abundance of wheat, maize, and other seeds; and these estates keep in employ eight families of Spaniards, 60 of Mulattoes, and 102 of Indians, who have also under their care many herds of large and small cattle, which breed here. It is one league and a half s. of its head settlement.
ADAES, Nuestra Senora del Pilar de Los, a town and garrison of the province of Los Texas, or Nuevas Felipinas, and the last of these settlements, being upon the confines of the French colonies. It is of a mild temperature, very fertile,. and abounding in seeds and fruits, which the earth produces without any cultivation ; such as chesnuts, grapes, and walnuts. The garrison consisis of a captain and 57 men, for the defence of the Indian settlements lately converted by the missions belonging to the religious order of St, Francis. It is 215 leagues from its capital, and 576 from Mexico. Long. 93° 35'. Lat, 32° 9'.
ADAES, a lake of the above province, about five leagues broad, and 10 in circumference, forming a gulph, in which large ships can sail with ease. It is more than 180 fathoms deep, as was once proved, when it was found that aline of that length did not reach the bottom. It abounds in a variety offish, which are caught in vast quantities without nets ;
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AHUACAZALCA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of San Luis de la Costa,and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espaiia.It contains 56 families of Indians, -whose com-merce consists in rice and cotton. Three leaguesn. e. of its liead settlement.
AHUACAZINGO, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Atengo, and alcaldiamayor of Chilapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains46 families of Indians, and is ten leagues e. of itshead settlement.
AHUALICAN, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Tixtlan in Nueva Espana ; of a benignand salutary temperature, as it is fanned by then,breezes. It lies three leagues n. of its head settle-ment, which is Oapan ; and contains 36 familiesof Indians.
AHUATELCO, a settlement of the head set-tlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofIzucai in Nueva Espana, situate on the skirt of thevolcano of the same name. In its district areeight settlements, inhabited by 289 families of In-dians, and 11 of Musiees and Mulattoes, wholive in some temporary habitations for labourers.It is situate on a cold, rough, and barren soil, butis nevertheless fertile in wheat, and abounds inwater and cattle. Eight leagues n. w. of its capital.
AHUATLAN, San Pedko de, a settlementof the head settlement of the district of San Juandel Rio, and alcaldia mayor of Queretaro, in NuevaEspana ; annexed to the curacy of the formerplace, and lying ten leagues n. w, of the latter.
AHUEZITLA, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapain Nueva Espana. It contains 36 families of In-dians, and abounds in chia, (a white medicinalearth), grain, and earthen-ware. It is nine leaguesw, n. w. of its capital.
AHWAHHAWAY, a race of Indians, whodiffer but very little in any particular from theMandans, their neighbours, except in the unjustwar which they, as well as the Minetares, prosecuteagainst the defenceless Snake Indians. They claimto have once been a part of the Crow Indians, whom
they still acknowledge as relations. They haveresided on the Missouri as long as their traditionwill enable them to inform.
AIAHUALTEMPA, a settlement of the head set-tlement of the district of Zitlala, and alcaldia mayorof Chilapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 36 fa-milies of Indians, and is three leagues to the s. ofits head settlement.
AIAHUALULCO, a settlement of the head set-tlement of the district of Ixlahuacan, and alcaldiamayor of Xalapa, in Nueva Espana, which, in theMexican language, signifies a small river. Itabounds in the best fruits of its jurisdiction, suchas pears and other sorts of fruit highly esteemed atVera Cruz. It contains only three families of Spa-niards, 22 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 70 of In-dians. In its district are several temporary habi.tations for labourers, and pastures for breeding cat-tle, which reach as far as the district of Tepcaca,in the lofty eminence of Xamiltepec, 16 leaguesdistant from Xalapa. It includes also within itsadministration the cultivated estates extending asfar as the place called Puertezuelo, where this juris-diction approximates to that of San Juan de losLlanos on the w. s.w. side ; and in the culture ofthe above estates many Spaniards, 3Iustees, andMulattoes, are employed. One league s. w. of itshead settlement.
Aiahualulco, another settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Zitlala, and alcaldiamayor of Chilapa, in the kingdom of Xalapa, andannexed to the curacy of this place, from which itis three leagues distant, being nine to the s. of itshead settlement. It contains 42 families of Indians,including another small settlement incorporatedwith it.
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which the inhabitants trade. These are composed of34 Indian families. It is a little more than threeleagues from its head settlement,
AIOZINGO, a settlement of the alcaldía mayorof Chaleo in Nueva España, situate on the shoreof the lake of Mexico, with a good port, at whichare embarked the fruits of many provinces for thesupply of that capital, (Chaleo), which is withineight or ten hours sail from hence. It has a goodconvent of S. Augustin, where a most beauti-ful image of the virgin is reverenced, and sup-posed to be wonder-working. Its inhabitants con-sist of 120 Indian families and some Spanish. Itis distant one league s, s. e. from its capital.
AIRICOS, a nation of Indians who inhabit theplains of Cazanare and Meta, of the new kingdomof Granada, to the c. of the mountains of Bogota,on the borders of the river Ele. It is numerous,and feared by all its neighbours, on account of itsvalour and dexterity in the use of arms.
Airicos, with the dedicatory title of SanFrancisco Xavier, a settlement which belongedto the Jesuits, and founded in 1662 by father An-tonio de Monteverde, and composed of some ofthose Indians who were thus reduced to the Catho-lic faith.
AIRIHUANCA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cotabamba in Peru.
AIRS, a small city of the province and colonyof New Jersey, in the county of Burlington.
AIUDA, Nuestra Senora be la, a villageand settlement of the Portuguese, in the provinceand captainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situateupon the sea-coast, and on the shore of the riverS. Miguel.
Aiuda, another settlement in the province andcaptainship of Puerto Seguro, situate upon thecoast on the shore of the port.
AIUILA, a river of the province and alcaldiamayor of Soconusco, in the kingdom of Guate-mala: It runs into the S. sea between the settle-ment of Suchitepec and the river Coatlan.
AIUINOS, a nation of Indians of the provinceand government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana,converted to the faith by father Francisco Olinano,of the abolished society of the Jesuits, in 1624.They live towards the n. of the above province,and in the times of their heathenism they dwelt inthe lofty mountains, in order that they might de-fend themselves from the other nations with whomthey were at war. They are docile, well-inclined,and of good habits.
AIUN, or luMERi, a river of the province and
viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres. It runs s. and entersthe Rio Negro.
AIUNCHA, Pago BE, a settlement of the pro-vince and government of Tucuman, in the districtand jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero,from whence it is 22 leagues distant. It is situateon the shore of the river Dulce.
AIUTLA, the head settlement of the district ofthe alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana.It is of a cold temperature, containing 187 Indianfamilies, and a convent of the religious order of S.Domingo ; distant 13 leagues to the e. of its capi-tal.
Aiutla, another settlement in the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Autlanof the same kingdom, with 23 Indian families, whohave large stores of pulse and fruit, so rich and fer-tile is their country. It is annexed to the curacy ofTenamaztlani, from whence it lies one league s,
AlUA, a small town of the island of St. Domin-go, situate in the line which divides the Spanishterritory from the French. It was the inhabitantsof this town who chiefly contributed to ensure thevictory which was gained against the Spaniards inthe plain of Puerto Real, by the president DonFrancisco de Segura y Sandoval, in 1691.
AIX, Palmar be, a large beach on the coastof Florida, within the channel of Bahama, nearthe point of Canaveral ; memorable for the ship-wreck of 22 vessels, composing the fleet of NuevaEspana, which took place in 1715, being under thecommand of Don Antonio de Ubila ; memorablealso for the loss of two galleons from Tierra Firme,commanded by Don Antonio de Echevers ; theloss of the one and the other amounting to nearly20 million dollars.
Aix, a river of the same province, which runsinto the sea very near the Palmar.
AJOIANI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Carabaya in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Coaza.
[AJOS, a parish situate on the foot of the moun-tains which separate the rivers Paraguay and Pa-rana, about 24 leagues e. of Asuncion. Lat. 23°26' 34" s. Long. 56° 30' w.~\
AJOUES, a settlement of Indians of the pro-vince and government of Louisiana, in which theFrench held a garrison and fort for its defence, onthe shore of a lake near the Missouri.
A joues, another settlement of the same provinceand government, situate on the shore of the riverMissouri.
AKANCEAS, a nation of savage Indians of N.America, who live at the conflux of the riversMississippi, and another abundant stream of its
nardo. On the shore at its mouth the French,under Robert la Sale, made their first establish-ment in the year 1683.
CANELOS, a large province of the kingdomof Quito, discovered by Gonzalo Pizarro in theyear 1540, who gave it this name on account ofthe quantity of cinnamon trees found in it, whichgrow very strong, shedding an odour somethinglike camphor, and very pungent. This cinnamon,which is called raspado, is carried to Quito, andsold at six reals a pound, being made use of in-stead of the fine cinnamon. A small viper is fre-quently met with in it of the same colour as thecinnamon, and extremely venomous. This pro-vince is uncultivated, full of impenetrable forestsand rivers, and contains only one settlement of thesame name, on the n. shore of the river Bobonaza,in which is the port of Canoas, and the residenceof a religious Dominican, who is the curate ofthose few miserable Indians. In lat. 1° 32' 20" s.
CANES AND Canches, a province and cor-regiminto of Peru, bounded on the e. by Cara-baya, towards the town of Mauclani, on the s. e.by Lampa in the cordillera of Villacanota, onthe s. by Cailloma, s. e. by a part of the provinceof Condesuios of Arequipa, w. by Chumbivilca,being divided by the river Apurimac, and n. w.by Quispicanchi. It is in length from n. to s.30 leagues, and 15 in width : Its climate is, forthe greater part, extremely cold, on account ofits being nearly covered with mountains of snow ;nevertheless they cultivate here barley, maize,potatoes, cavi, and quinoa; and in the warm parts,which consist of uneven and broken grounds nearthe rivers, some kinds of fruit, though in no abun-dance. Here also are great quantities of animalswhich breed upon the mountains from the luxu-riance of the pastures ; and of these are the vigog-nes, huanacos, and viscachas, which latter are aspecies of hare or rabbit ; deer also, and par-tridges, abound here. In the rivers are foundbagres a foot in length. The principal riverswhich water this province, are the Vilcamayo,which runs from the province of Quispicanchi,into which runs another flowing down from thesnowy sierras on the e. part called Combapata.
This river has a stone bridge, and descends fromthe heights of Cailloma. This province has manylakes, which are filled with water-fowl, such asducks, widgeons, and others ; these birds arefound more particularly in lake Lanchug, which isthree leagues long and one and a half broad, andin it there is also found the load-stone. Linencloth is fabricated here. In the district of SanPedro de Cacha, in a place called Rache, there isan ancient and grand edifice with nine gates, halfof the walls of which, as high as the first stories,are made of carved stone ; the rest of the edificebeing of earth upon five galleries of stone, formingas it were so many other walls. This building issaid to have served as a temple in Viracocha in thetime of the gentilism of the Indians. At a smalldistance there is an artificial lake with aqueductswhich keep it always at a proper height ; thislake is situate upon a black mountain, which maybe about two leagues in circumference ; also inthe same vicinity are vestiges of a considerablepopulation, and here is found a mineral earthfrom which they fabricate jars, large pitchers, and other vessels, which are carried to be sold in theneighbouring provinces. In this province aremany mines of silver, but they are not worked, onaccount of their being some of them filled withwater, and some of them broken in, with the ex-ception, however, of those of Condoroma, which,although they have experienced the former ca-lamity, do not fail to render yearly many marksof gold, a pretty good testimony of their riches.Great indeed have been the labour and expence inthe attempts to empty them of the water, but inthis they have not as yet succeeded. Here are alsofour good sugar-mills ; and in the jurisdiction ofthe town of Yauri, are two mines of copper, whichare worked : Some gold mines also are not wanting,although they be of little note. In the establish-ment of Condoroma it is not unusual to expe-rience, in the tempests of thunder and lightning,a sort of prickly sensation on the hands and feetand other parts of the body, which they call mos-cas, or flies, without, however, being able todiscover any of these insects ; and it should seemthat the effect is to be attributed to the state of theatmosphere, since the heads' of canes, buckles,and silver or gold galloons, though during suchtimes highly affected by the electric matter, ceaseto be so on the cessation of the tempest. The in-habitants of this province amount to 18,000 souls, dwelling in 24 settlements, which are,
San Pablo, Yanacoa,
America, having an excellent port, three leaguesin length, and in which there are many othersmall islands. On the adjoining mainland thereis a river called De Salmones, (salmon), on ac-count of its abounding with these fish, of whichindeed great quantities are taken, as they are es-teemed the finest species of fish of any in that partof the world .
Canseau, a small settlement of the sameisland, which was burnt by the French in the warof 1744.
Canseau, a cape of the same island, at the en-trance of the straits, and also a sand-bank at themouth of them.
CANTA, a province and government of Peru,bounded on the n. e. and e. by Tarma, on the w.by Chancay, partly by the corregimiento of Cer-cado, and on the s. by Huarochiri. It is 24leagues in length n. to s. and 35 in width e. to w.Its territory is generally uneven, being in the cor-dillera. It has some deep pits or canals, on thesides of which, and in small spots, they sow andcultivate vegetables, fruits, and potatoes. Thebreed of cattle is by no means inconsiderable here,and there are to be found most of the wild animalswhich are natives of the sierra, namely, vicuñas,(wild goats), and sheep peculiar to these countries,and differing from those of Europe. In this pro-vince as well as in nearly all those of the sierra,there is scarcely any wood for the purposes ofcooking, and this want is supplied by the use ofturf, which makes a lively fire, but which is veryapt to smoke. Those parts which are called que-bradas, or rugged and uneven, are very sickly,and are subject to two species of maladies com-mon to other cold climates in this country ; theone is that of warts, which not budding in duetime, often become exceedingly troublesome, andeven dangerous ; the other of corrosive sores,shewing themselves particularly upon the face,and are difficult to be cured, and which are attri-buted to the sting of an insect called uta. Somemines of silver were formerly worked here, whichwere so abundant, that they used to render 200marks each cajon, (an excavation of 20 feet square,more or less), but these, from not being regularlyworked, are filled with water. Here are also twohills of loadstone, as also some minerals of alum,copper, and red lead. The following rivers taketheir rise in this province : The Carabaya from thelakes Tacaimbaba and Lorococha, which emptythemselves into the sea on the n. of Lima ; andthe Pasamayo, which runs to the s. of Chancay,first receiving the waters of some hot medicitialsprings. Its corregidor used to receive a repar-
timiento of 125,000 dollars, and it paid yearly1000 for alcavala.
The capital is a town of the same name, in lat.11° 10' s. and its jurisdiction comprehends 62others, which are,
Santa Cruz, Baños,
Santa Catarina, Carae,
Chauca, San Agustin,
Culli, San Buenaventura,
Atabillos Altos, San Lorenzo,
Huanoquin, Atabillos Baxos,
San Juan, San Joseph,
San Miguel, Quizú.
CANTANABALO, a river of the province andgovernment of San Juan de los Llanos in thenew kingdom of Granada. It rises between theCaviusari and the Sinaruco, and running nearlyparallel with them, enters into the Orinoco.
CANTERBURY, a fort of the province ofHampshire, one of the four composing the colonyof New England. It is built on the shore of theriver Pennycook, and at the mouth of the water-course formed by the lake Winnipisiokee.
[1803 amounted to 5,500,000, and the exports con-sisted of produce to the value of 4,000,000 dollars.He also states the population in 1808 at 900,000souls. The receipts of Caracas, Guatemala, andChile, are consumed within the country. Thepopulation of some of the chief cities is thus stated ;Caracas 40,000, La Guaira 6000, Puerto Cabello7600, Coro 10,000. The harbour, or La Vela deCoro, as it is commonly called, and its environs, aresupposed to contain not less than 2000. In 1797three state prisoners were sent from Spain to Ca-racas, on account of their revolutionary propensi-ties. Being treated with great indulgence by theofficers and soldiers to whose care they were com-mitted, they formed the project of a conspiracyagainst the government. They engaged a numberof persons, some of them of consequence, in theirparty. After gaining their first converts, the spiritdid not spread. The coldness and apathy of thepeople did not admit of the effervescene they de-sired. After the plot had been kept a secret formany months it was disclosed to the government.Some of the ringleaders escaped, and others weretaken. It was found that seventy-two had enteredinto the conspiracy; six were executed. Therest either escaped, or were sent to the galleys orbanished from the country. For an account of therecent revolution in Caracas, see Venezuela.]
Caracas, some islands of the N. sea near thecoast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the pro-vince and government of Cumana. They are sixin number, all small and desert, serving as placesof shelter to the Dutch traders, who carry on anillicit commerce on that coast.
CARACHIS, San Carlos de a settlement ofthe province and country of the Amazonas ; a re-duccion of the missions which belonged to the abo-lished order of the Jesuits. It is at the mouth ofthe river Huerari, where this enters the Maranon.
CARAIMILLA, a settlement on the coast ofthe province and corregimiento aforementioned,between point Caraima Alta, and the isle of Obispo.
CARAMANTA, a city of the province and go-vernment of Antioquia in the new kingdom ofGratiada ; founded by Sebastian de Benalcazar in1543, near the river Cauca. Its temperature ishot and unhealthy, but it is fertile in maize, vege-tables, grain, and abounds with herds of swine : nearit are many small rivers which enter the Cauca,and some salt pits of the whitest salt. On themountains within its jurisdiction, are some settle-ments of barbarian Indians very little known. Thiscity is indifferently peopled, and is 65 leagues dis-tant to the n. e. of Popayan, and 50 from Antio-quia. Long. 75° 33' w. Lat. 5° 58' «.
Of Guadalupe, between the Three Rive*‘s and theAgujero del Ferro.
CARCAI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Soras. It has a hot spring of water ofvery medicinal properties, and its heat is so greatthat an egg may be boiled in it in an instant.
CARCARANAL, a river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It rises in the pro-vince of Tucuman, in the mountains of the cityof Cordoba, runs nearly from e. torw. with thename of Tercero, and changing it into Carcara-iial, after it becomes united Avith the Saladillo, joinsthe Plata, and enters the Salado and the Tres Hec-manas.
CARCAZI, a settlement of the government andJurisdiction of Pamplona in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, situate betAveen two mountains, whichcause its temperature to be very moderate. It pro-duces much Avheatand maize ; in its cold parts suchfruits as are peculiar to that climate, and in themilder parts sugar-cane. Its neighbourhoodabounds Avith flocks of goats ; and the number ofinhabitants may amount to about 200 Spaniardsand 30 Indians. It is situate on the confines Avhichdivide the jurisdictions of Tunja and Pamplona.
(CARDIGAN, about 20 miles e. of Dartmouthcollege, New Hampshire. The township ofOrange once bore this name, which see.)
CARDINALES, Sombreros de. See articlePitangoas.
CARDOSO, Real de, a settlement and realof gold mines in the province and captainship ofTodos Santos in Brazil; situate on the shore ofthe large river of San Francisco, to the n. of thevillage of Tapuyas.
CAREN, a valley or meadow-land of the king-dom of Chile, renowned for its pleasantness, beauty,and extent, being five leagues in length; also fora fountain of very delicate and salutary water,which, penetrating to the soil in these parts, ren-ders them so exceedingly porous, that a person tread-ing somewhat heavily seems to shake the groundunder him. There is an herb found here that keepsgreen all the year round: it is small, resemblingtrefoil, and the natives call it caren: it is of a veryagreeable taste, and gives its name to the valley.
CARENERO, a bay of the coast of the king-dom of Tierra Firme in the province and govern-ment of Venezuela. It is extremely convenientfor careening and repairing ships, and from thiscircumstance it takes its name. It lies behind capeCodera towards the e.
CARET, Anse be, a bay of the island of St.Christopher, one of the Antilles, on the n. e. coast,and in the part possessed by the French beforethey ceded the island to the Englissh. It is be-tween the bays of Fontaine and Morne, or Fuenteand Morro.
CARGUAIRASO, a lofty mountain and vol-cano of the province and corregimiento of Rio-bamba in the kingdom of Quito. It is in the dis-trict of the asiento of Ambato, covered with snowthe whole year round. Its skirts are covered withfine crops of excellent barley. In 1698 this pro-vince was visited by a terrible earthquake, whichopened the mountain and let in a river of mud,formed by the snows which were melted by thefire of the volcano, and by the ashes it threw up.So dreadful were the effects of this revolution thatthe whole of the crops were completely spoiled ;and it was in vain that the cattle endeavoured to-
hind the cape of La Vela, which is at presentdestroyed.
CARTAGENA, a province and governmentof the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the jurisdictionof the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, bounded n. bythe sea, s. by the province of Antioquia, e. bythe province and government of Santa Marta, fromwhich it is divided by the Rio Grande de la Mag-dalena, and w. by the province of Darien, beingseparated by the river San J uan ; it is 100 leagueslong, running nearly from n. e. to s. w. and 80wide, e. w. It was discovered by Rodrigo Bas-tidas in 1520, and subdued by the addantado orgovernor Pedro de Heredia, at the expence ofmany battles, owing to the valour and warlike dis-position of the natives. This country is of a veryhot and moist temperature, full of mountains andwoods, and towards the n. part swampy, sandy,and full of pools of sea-water, from the lowness ofthe territory ; but it is at the same time fertile, andabounds in maize, pulse, and fruits, as also incattle, of the hides and fat of which this provincemakes a great traffic. Its mountains produce ex-cellent woods, and the famous dyeing wood, equalto that of Campeche, with an abundance of excel-lent gums, medicinal balsams, and herbs. Hereare many kinds of rare birds, animals, and snakesof different species ; amongst the former the mostremarkable are the penco, of the figure of a cat,and so heavy that it takes a full hour to moveitself 20 paces ; the mapurito^ of the size of a smalllap-dog, whose arms and means of defending him-self from other animals and his pursuers consistsimply in discharging some wind with such forceand noise as to stupify his enemies, whilst hequietly makes his retreat to some neighbouringthicket. This province produces also indigo,tortoise-shell, and cotton, and some cacao of anexcellent quality in the Rio de la Magdalena. Itwas well peopled with Indians in the time of itsgentilism, but its inhabitants are now reduced toa very trifling number. It is watered by variousrivers, but those of the most consideration are ElGrande de la Magdalena, and thatof San Juan, orAtracto, both of which are navigable and wellstocked with alligators, tortoises, and a multitudeof fishes. Its district contains 83 setttleraents, of
which there are two cities, seven towns, and 96settlements or villages, inhabited by 59,233 whites,13,993 Indians, and 7770 Negro and Mulattoslaves, according to the numeration of the fiscal ofthe royal audience of Santa Fe, Don FranciscoMoreno y Escandon, in the year 1770. The ca-pital has the same name, and the other settlementsare.
Nuestra Senora del
S. Benito Abad,
San Augustin de
San Francisco de
Palmar de la Can-
San Juan de Saha-
Sto. Tomas Cantu-
Cerro de S. Anto-
Real de la Cruz,
S. Antonio Abad,
San Juan Nepomu-
he was at length persuaded to accept it by the ac-clamations and remonstrances of all parties, andespecially of the vicar-general of his order; hebegan to preside without being consecrated ; butbeing yet full of scruples, he renounced the office,and without permission returned to Spain ; h^ thenwent to Koine, but being desired by his holiness toreturn to his diocese, he was said to have been somuch affected as not to have been able to prevailupon himself to enter the city : he returned, there-fore, immediately to the coast, and embarked forFlorida, with a view of converting some of theinfidels ; and with this object he again set off forSpain, in order to obtain his renunciation ; whenbeing at length tired with his wanderings, andAvorn out Avith age, he died in his convent of To-ledo in 1562.
5. Don Juan de Simancas, native of Cordova,collegian of San Clemente de Bolonia ; he enteredin 1560, went to be consecrated at Santa Fe, andupon his return, had the mortification to find thatthe suburbs of Xiximani had been sacked by someFrench pirates ; which disaster was again repeatedin the following year, 1561. This bishop, afterhaving governed his church for the space of 10years, and suffering much from the influence of ahot climate, left the see without a licence, andreturned to his country, where he died in1570.
6. Don Ft. Luis Zapata de Cardenas, of theorder of St. Francis, native of Llerena in Estre-madura, third commissary-general of the Indies ;elected bishop in 1570, promoted to the archbi-shopric of Santa Fe before he left Spain, and in hisplace was chosen,
7. Don Fr. Juan de Vivero, a monk of the or-der of St. Augustin, native of Valladolid ; hepassed over into America, was prior of the conventof Lima, founder of the convent of Cuzco, electedbishop, which he renounced ; nor would he ac-cept the archbishopric of Chacas, to which he waspromoted : he died in Toledo.
8. Don Fr. Dionisio de los Santos, of the orderof Santiago, prior of the convent of Granada, andprovincial of the province of Andalucia ; electedin 1573 : he died in 1578.
9. Don Fr. Juan de Montalvo, of the same orderof St. Domingo, native of Arevalo ; elected bishop,he entered Cartagena in 1579, passed over to SantaFe to the synod celebrated there by the archbishop ;and in 1583 had the mortification of seeing hiscity sacked, plundered, and destroyed by SirFrancis Drake; Avhich calamity had such a greateffect upon him, and well knowing noAV that hehad no means of relieving the necessities of the
poor, who were dependent upon him, he fell sickand died the same year.
10. Don Fr. Diego Osorio, of the same orderof St. Domingo ; he went over as a monk to Car-tagena, from thence to Lima and Nueva Espana,received the presentation to this bishopric in 1587,which he would not accept, and died in 1579, inMexico.
11. Don Fr. Antonio de Hervias, also a Domi-nican monk, collegian of San Gregorio de Valla-dolid, his native place, where he had studiedarts ; he passed over to Peru, and was the firstmorning-lecturer in the university of Lima, ma-nager of the studies, qualificator of the inquisition,vicar-general of the province of Quito, and after-wards presented to the bishopric of Arequipa,then to that of Verapaz, and lastly to that of Car-tagena, where he died in 1590.
12. Don Fr. Pedro de Arevalo, monk of the or-der of St. Gerome ; he was consecrated in Spain,and renounced the bishopric before he came totake possession of it.
13. Don Fr. Juan de Ladrada, a Dominicanmonk, native of Granada ; he A^'as curate and re-ligious instructor in the Indies, in the settlements ofSuesca and Bogota, vicar-general of his religionin the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, lecturer on thesacred scriptures and on theology in Santa Fe,'was consecrated bishop of Cartagena in 1596 : herebuilt the cathedral, established a choir of boysand chaplains, and made a present of a canopy tobe carried by the priests over the blessed sacra-ment when in procession ; he assisted at the foun-dation of the college of the regulars of the societyof Jesuits, and of that of the fathers called thebarefooted Augustins, on the mountain of LaPopa ; he had the satisfaction of having for hisprovisor the celebrated Don Bernardino de Al-mansa, a wise and virtuous man, who was after-Avards archbishop of Santa Fe ; he frequentlyvisited his bishopric, and after having governed17 years, died in 1613.
14. Don Fr. Pedro de Vega, a monk of thesame order of St. Domingo, native of Bubiercain the kingdom of Aragon, professor of theologyand of the sacred AA'ritings in the universities ofLerida and Zaragoza ; he entered Cartagena asbishop in 1614, and his short duration disappintedthe hopes he had so universally excited, for hedied in 1616.
15. Don Diego Ramirez de Zepeda, friar of theorder of Santiago, native of Lima, a renownedpreacher, and consummate theologist ; being atMadrid, he was elected, and died before he couldreach the bishopric.
also De Piedras ; at its top is, according to the ac-count of Don J nan de la Cruz, the Bugio delGato, which serves as a watch-tower, which othersmaintain is situate upon the point Canoa, just byits side.
CARUPANO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Cumaná in the kingdom of TierraFirme, on the sea-shore, at the cape of Tres Pun-tas i there are in its district 25 small estates ofcacao, 35 of sugar-cane, a few of yucas and otherfruits ; some of them belonging to its inhabitants,and others to tlie inhabitants of Margareta andCumana.
CARUPARABAS, a nation of Indians but littleknown, who inhabit the woods and shores of therivers which run into the Negro.
(CARVEL OF St. Thomas, a rock between theVirgin isles e. and Porto Rico on the w. at a smalldistance it appears like a sail, as it is white andlias two points. Between it and St. Thomas, passesSir Francis Drake’s channel.)
(CARVEL, a township in Plymouth county,Massachussetts. Here is a pond with such plentyof iron ore, that 500 tons have been dragged out ofthe clear water in a year. They have a furnaceupon a stream which runs from the pond ; and theiron made of this ore is better than that made outof bog ore, and some is almost as good as refinediron.)
CASABLANCA, San Gabriel de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of Teutitlan, andalcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan, in Nueva Espana:it contains 34 families of Indians, who live by thecommerce of salt from some saMnes which they havein their district, at about a league’s distance fromthis settlement ; here are also some crops of maize :it is of a hot temperature, and lies two leagues fromits head settlement.
Casablanca, also with the dedicatory title ofSanta Barbara, a town of the province and cor-regimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile,situate on the coast : it formerly belonged to thejurisdiction of Valparaiso, from which it was se-parated.
CASANARE, a large river of the province andgovernment of San Juan de los Llanos in the NuevoReyno de Granada ; on the shores of which arevarious settlements of the missions, which underthis name were held at the expence of the regularsof the society of Jesuits, and which are at presentunder the care of the monks of St. Domingo : itrises in the paramos or mountain-deserts of Chita,of the district of the city of Pamplona, and afterrunning many leagues, divides itself into twobranches : the one, named the Uruhi, enters theMeta ; and the other, named the Sirapuco, entersthe Orinoco, first receiving those of Purare andTacoragua. To the w. of this river are the reduc-ciones of the Pantos Indians, and to the n. those ofthe Pautes ; to the e. and upon a plain, is the riverSan Salvador, aftbrding an handy port for commu-nication with the Meta and the Orinoco : it is after-wards entered by the river Tame, which pours intoit in a large stream from the same sierras, and hasupon its banks the two numerous nations, the reduc-ciones of the Giraras and Botoyes Indians.
Casanare, a settlement of Indians, of the reduc-ciones which were made by the regulars of thesociety of Jesuits, in the same province and govern-ment as the former river : it consists of the AchaguasIndians, being situate on the shore of that river,with a good and well-frequented port : it is fertile^and abounds in maize, yucas, and above all incattle : its natives, who are very numerous, employthemselves in making little trunks of cane neatlypainted of various colours, and mats and sieves^which they call manares : here are also some whiteinhabitants, and the reduccion is now under the careof the religion of St. Domingo.
CASAPA, a settlement of the missions which
Presurapscot river. It has a good harbour at itsmouth for small vessels, and has several mills uponit ; two miles higher a fall obstructs the navigation.Between it and Kennebeck there are no rivers ;some creeks and harbours of Casco bay throw them-selves into the main land, affording harbours forsmall vessels, and intersecting the country in variousforms.)
CASIBANI, a river of the province and countryof the Amazonas : it rises in the cordillera of theMochovos and Pichambios Indians, runs in a ser-pentine course to the n. then inclining for manyleagues to the s. e. enters the Maranon or Amazonas,near the settlement of N uestra Seilora de Guada-lupe.
CASIDI, a river of the province and governmentof Guayana : it enters the Orinoco, according toBeilin, but which is afterwards contradicted by hisown map, since it is^there represented as having itssource to the e. of the city of Pamplona, and asrunning into the river Apure.
CASIMENA, a settlement of the jurisdiction ofthe city of Santiago de los Atalayas, in the govern-ment of San Juan de los Llanos, of the NuevoReyno de Granada : it is of a very hot temperature,and abounds in fruits of a similar climate. Its na-tives, who are numerous and consist of the NeolitosIndians, are very industrious, docile, and of gooddispositions, having been reduced to the faith bythe missionaries of the extinguished society of Je-suits. The settlement is at present in the charge ofthe barefooted order of St. Francis, and lies threeleagues from the settlement of Surimena, on theshore of the large river Meta.
CASIPA, a large lake of the province of NuevaAndalucía Austral or South, to the w. ofthe Vaca-ronis Indians : it is 30 leagues in length from n. to s.and 24 in width from e. to w. Four large riversflow from it, the principal of which areArous or Aroiand Caroa, the which enter the Orinoco on its e.side. Its woods are inhabited by some barbarous
nations of Caribes Indians, such as are the Canuristo the n. the Bsparagois to the e. the Aravis to thes. and the Chaguas and Lasipagotes to thezw. Inthis lake tortoises and alligators abound ; its watersare hurtful, and the climate here is unhealthy;hurricanes are frequent here, from the winds whichblow from the neighbouring mountains.
Casipoure, a cape or point of the coast oppositethe side of cape Orange.
CASIRI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Parinacocha in Peru ; annexed to the.curacy of its capital : in its vicinity is an elevatedmountain, in which great Indian wealth is said tobe secreted.
CASIRIAQUI, Cano de, a large and copiousarm of the river Negro, by which this communi-cates with the Orinoco, and through that with theMaranon or Las Amazonas ; which communication,however, has been frequently doubted and con-troverted since the short time of its having beendiscovered.
CASIRRUENTI, a large and copious riverabounding in fine fish, of the province and govern-ment of San Juan de los Llanos : it passes throughthe llanuras of Cazanare and Meta, and, near thesettlement of San Joaquin de Atanari, enters theMeta.
CASIUINDO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of thecity of Xuxuy ; annexed to the curacy of Cochino-ca ; it has two hermitages, which serve as chapelsof ease, with the dedicatory title of Rinconada andRio de San Juan. The natives fabricate powderof excellent quality, and in its district are goldmines, which are not worked.
CATAMARCA, S. Fernando de, a city ofthe province and government of Tucumán, found-ed by Juan Gomez Zurita, in 1538, in the fertileand extensive valley of Conando. It has a fort torepress the encroachments of the Indians. Thename of Canete was given it in honour to the vice-roy who then commanded in Peru ; this was after-wards changed to London, in honour to the queenof England, wife of Philip II. king of Spain. Theinquietudes caused amongst the inhabitants by theinfidel Indians induced Don Geronimo Luis deCabrera, son of a governor of that province, in1663, to remove it to another not less fertile val-ley, and to give it the name of San J uan de la Ri-vero ; and lastly, by the permission of the king,in 1683, it was transferred to a spot in the valleyof Catamarca ; where it still remains, under thesame title, at 80 leagues distance from its first sta-tion. It has, besides the parish church, a conventof the Recoletos monks of St. Francis, with thededicatory title of San Pedro de Alcantara ; anhospital of Merced ; aud a house of residence,which formerly belonged to the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits. On the w. side of the val-ley is a mountain in which there are gold mines ;and on the w. also from n. to s. runs a serrama^ theskirts of which are for many leagues covered withestates and cultivated grounds, and filled, fromthe abundance of fine pastures, with lage and smallcattle and with mules. A tolerably large riverruns through the valley in the rainy season, andterminates in some lakes M’hich are formed by itabout 30 leagues s. of the city. The commerce ofthis city is very small, so that there is no coin cur-rent ; and even the payments of the royal dutiesare paid in effects, and in the productions of thecountry, such as cotton, linens, pepper, brandy,and wheat. Lat. 27° s.
Catamarca, a settlement of the same provinceand government ; situate in the district of thiscity.
Mapoyes, runs w. and enters the Orinoco close tothe torrent of Los Atures.
CATARAQUA, or Catarakui, a copiousriver of the province and country of the IroqueesIndians. It rises from the lake Ontario, runs n. e.and continues its course as far as Quebec, fromwhence it takes the name of St. Lawrence, andthen enters the sea.
CATARUBEN, a settlement of the missions ofSan Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; one of the seven which were held bythe regulars of the company of Jesuits, and be-longing to the nation of the Salivas Indians. TheCaribes burnt and destroyed it in 1684.
(CATAWESSY, a township in Northumberlandcounty, Pennsylvania ; situate on the s. e. bankof the e. branch of Susquehannah river, oppositethe mouth of Fishing creek, and about 20 milesn. e. of Sunbury.)
(CATHERINE’S Isle, St, a small island inthe captainship of St. Vincent’s in Brazil, be-longing to the Portuguese, 47 leagues s. of Cana-nea island. It is about 23 miles from n. to s. in-habited by Indians, wiio assist the Portugueseagainst their enemies, the natives of Brazil. Lak27° 10' s. Long. 47° 15' w.)
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from six to 20 feet diameter, worn almost perfectlysmooth, into the solid body of a rock.]
CAXAMARCA, a province and corregimientoof Peru, in the bishopric of Truxillo ; boundeds. e. by the province of Caxamarquilla, e. by thatof Chachapoyas, n.w. by that of Luya and Chil-Igos : all these three being situate at that part oft^e Maranon which serves as a limit to this pro-vince of Caxamarca. It is bounded ». by the pro-vince of Jaen, n. w. by that of Piura, w. by thatof Saha and by a part of Truxillo, and s. by thatof Huamachuco. It is in length 40 leagues froms. e. ion. w. ; and in breadth, or across, 36 leagues.To enter it through the province of Truxillo, whichis the grand road, it is necessary to pass the cordil-lera, which is not here so lofty as in the s. pro-vinces. This province, however, abounds witheminences which are branches of the cordillera;and on account of the height and situation ofthese, a great variety of temperature is experienced,some parts being subject to an intense heat, andothers to , a severe cold. Thus it partakes of thenature of the sierra, and its uneven figure no lesscorresponds with it : but it is for the most part of agood temperature, particularly in the capital. Theprovince abounds greatly in all kinds of fruits andcattle : in it are fabricated cloths, baizes, blankets,canvas for sails of ships, and cotton garments of aVery fine and excellent quality. Formerly its prin-cipal commerce was in swine ; at present it is not,though these animals still abound in some parts.It is watered by many rivers, of which those risingon the w. side of the cordillera, as the Sana, Lam-bay eque, and those passing through the provinceof Truxillo, all enter the S. sea. The others,amongst which that of the Criznejas is the largest,incoporate themselves with the Maranon. On itsshores are lavaderos, or washing-places of gold;and its rivers in general abound in very good andwholesome fish. Besides the fruits and the pro-ductions of every kind found in this province, ithas to boast many gold and silver mines, some ofwhich are worked. There a e also some of copper,
very fine lead, brimstone, and alcaparrosa. To-wards the n. part, where it touches the province ofJaen, are found some bark-trees, the production ofwhich, although not equal to the trees of Loxa, isof the colour of heated copper, and possesses allthe virtues of the common bark. Here are alsomany medicinal herbs, and amongst them the cele-brated calagimla. In the time of the Indians, andbefore the conquest, it was so well peopled that itsnatives formed upwards of 500 settlements. Atpresent they amount to 46,000, being divided into46 settlements. The capital bears the same title,and the repartimiento of the corregidor used toamount to 80,000 dollars, and it paid an alcavalaof 640 dollars per annum.
The settlements are.
Caxamarca, the ca-pital,
Trinidad de Chetu,S. Francisco doCay an,
Santa Catalina deChugod,
San Pablo de Cha-lique,
S. Luis de Tuniba-din,
S. Bernardino de
S. Juan de Llallan,Nepos,
San Miguel de Pal-laques,
San Juan de Huam-bos,
Todos Santos deChota,Tacabamba,Yauyucan.
its figure is
The capital is large and handsomeirregular, and it is situate upon a level plainT Thehouses are of clay, and the streets are wide andstraight. The parish church, Avhich has threenaves, is of finely worked stone, and the buildingexpences of it Avere defrayed by King Charles II.in the time of the viceroy the Duke of La Palata,in 1682. It has a parish of Spaniards, calledSanta Catalina ; two of Indians, which are SanPedro and San Joseph ; two convents of the orderof St. Francis, one of the Observers, and anotherof the Recoletans ; an hospital and a convent ofBethlemites, a monastery of nuns of La Concepcion,an house of entertainment of Nuestra Senora de
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Las Mercedes, and an hospital for women. Itcontains more than 2000 inhabitants, and amongstthese many illustrious families, descended from thefirst conquerors. The Indians here are accountedthe most industrious of any in the kingdom. Theleinperaturc is mild, and it abounds in fruits andpastures : here arc also mines of various metals. Hereit was that Atahualpa was put to death by theSpanish, being the last Inca and Emperor ofPeru ; and there is still to be seen a stone, of ayard and an half long and two-thirds wide, whichserves as the foundation to the altar of the chapelwhere he met his fate. Of this palace, which wasfor the most part built of mud, but which was verylarge, and was afterwards converted into the prison,the chapel, and house of the corregidor, called DeCahildo, nothing has been left save a piece of wallof about 12 yards long and eight wide. It hasnot long been forgotten to what point the Emperorwaved Ins hand,' to signify where his pursuersmight find the treasure which might secure to himhisliberty. At a league’s distance, to the e. of thecity, arc seen the termas, or baths, as they arecalled, of the Inca ; the waters of which are notso plentiful as they were formerly, although so hotas to boil an egg ; but the egg, although it ap-pears completely done, will, if put on a commonfire to boil, take just as much time as an egg whichis perfectly cold ; if kept a day or more it breaks,and the smell and flavour of h, when eaten, is likemud ; but if it be not eaten until it be cold, thenits flavour is similar to that of any other egg* Onthe banks of the stream from whence these watersflow, and in the pools formed by them, there isfound a multitude of animalcule, which looked atthrough a microscope appear like shrimps. Lat.6° 54' 5.
CAXAMARQUILLA y Collaos, a pro-vince and corregimiento of Peru, called also Pa-táz ; bounded e. by the mountains of the infidelIndians, n.e. and n. by the province of Cha-chapoyas, ti.zo. by that of Caxarnarca, the riverMarailon flowing between the two, w. by part ofthe province of Conchucos, and s. by that of Iluai-malies. It is 26 leagues long from ?^. to s. and sixwide, where it extends itself farthest along the e.shore of the river Maranon, Avhich divides thisprovince from those of Conchucos and Huama-chuco. Its temperature is various ; in the hol-lows and uneven I'laces it is mild ; in the partslying upon the above river it is hot, and in thevery lofty parts it is cold. The territory is ruggedand uneven, and a level spot of ground, or Uarmra,is scarcely to be seen throughout the w'hole. Onthe e. side it is as it were walled in by vejy
lofty and craggy mountains, increasing in heightuntil they gradually reach the loftiest summit:but these are the provident sources of streamswhich flow down from them into the Maranon, andwhich, together with the rains, fertilize several spotsof kind, producing maize, wheat, potatoes, ocas,bark, French beans, herbs, and sugar-cane, for theworking of which there are mills on the spot.Every kind of cattle is found here in moderation,and the Maranon abounds in fish. Almost all themountains of this province have in them veins ofsilver and gold ore : but these are very deceitful,and as well upon this account as from the want ofhands, they are for the most part abandoned. Thegold mines, however, have always been worked,though the silver mines not more than 20 yearsback up to now, in which time some riches havebeen discovered ; and even at the present day thegold mines would produce 600 marks, and those ofsilver 3000. The trade of the mines is certainlythe principal commerce of the place, and it is faci-litated by four ports in the Maranon, which afforda convenient opening and communication with theother provinces. The inhabitants of this placescarcely amount to 8000, who live in 17 settle-ments. Its repartimiento used to amount to50,000 dollars, and its alca'oala to 400 dollarsper annum.
The settlements are,
Asiento de Saru-milla,
Santa Isabel dePias,
Santa Magda leade Huayo,Pataz,
The settlement, the capital of this province, is ofthe same name. Lat. 7° 36' s.
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dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pasco ; in whichis the celebrated mountain and mine of Lauri-cocha.
CAXAMARQUILLA Y COLLAOS, the territory ofthe missions which forms part of the former pro-vince, and which is a reduccion of the infidel moun-tain Indians, who have been converted by themonks of St. Francis: these Indians are main-tained by a portion paid by the kin«?’s procuratorout of the royal coffers at Lima. They dwell tothe e. of the province, and are reduced to foursettlements ; two of the Ibita, and two of the Cho-lona nation. It is now 90 years since their foun-dation, and the number of Indians may at presentamount to 2000. Those settlements are situateupon mountains covered with trees and thickwoods ; from whence the natives procure incense,cffCflo, resinous gums, oil of Maria, dragon’s blood,the reed called bejuco^ dried fish, honey, wax,monkeys, parrots, and macaws, whicli^ are thebranches of its commerce ; tliough not less so isthe coca plant, which they pack up in measures offour bushels each , and carry in abundance to differentparts, for the consumption of the whole province.The missionaries of the above order have madevarious attempts, and have spared neither painsnor labour in penetrating into the interior parts ofthe mountains ; having repeatedly discovered otherbarbarous nations, whom they would fain have re-duced to the divine knowledge of the gospel.
The aforesaid settlements are,
Jesus de Sion, San Buenaventura,
Jesus de Ochonache, Pisano.
CAXATAMBO, a province and corregimientoof Peru, bounded n. by that of Huailas, n. e. bythat of Conchuios, e. by that of Huamalies, s. e.by that of Tarma, s. by the part of Chancay calledChecras, s. e. by the low part of Chancay, and n.w. by that of Santa. It is in length 34 leagues n. e.s. w. and 32 in width n. w. s. e. ; the greaterpart of it is situate in a serrama. Its temperatureis consequently cold, except in the broken and un-even spots and in the low lands. Besides the pro-ductions peculiar to the serrama., this provinceabounds in all sorts of seeds and fruits; in allspecies of cattle, especially of the sheep kind, fromthe fleece of whicli its inhabitants manufacturemuch cloth peculiar to the country ; this beingthe principal source of its commerce. It producessome grain and cochineal, used for dyes ; and if thislatter article were cultivated, it would bring greatprofit. Amongst tlie mountains of this provincethere is one called Huilagirca of fine flint, and twomines of sulphur and alcaparrosa, articles employedin the colouring of wools, not only in this province,
but in those of Huanuco, Huamalies, and Jauja:It has also mines of good yeso or gypsum. Theprincipal rivers by which it is irrigated, are twowhich rise in the same soil, and both of which enterthe S. sea, after having laved the contiguous pro-vinces ^ in former times there were fine silver mines,which are still worked, but for some reason or other,to very little profit. On the n. c. part, on some emi-nences, is a spot called Las Tres Cruces, (The ThreeCrosses), there being as many of these fixed up hereto determine its boundaries, and that of the pro-vince of Santa Huailas. Its population consists ofthe 69 following settlements : its repartimiento usedto amount to 1^0, (XX) dollars, and the akavala to1046 dollars per annum.
Caxatambo, the ca-
A cay a,
Palpas, distinct from
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Luis de Cabrera, to make an cfl’ecliial discoveryof this nation, but he did not succeed. In 1662the innermost part of this country was penetratedby Fatlier Geronimo Montemayor, of the extin-guished company of Jesuits. He discovered anation of Indians, whose manners correspondedwith this ; but he did not succeed in establishingmissions, for want of labourers, and from other ob-stacles which arose.
Ceuadas, a very abundant river of the sameprovince and kingdom, from which the above set-tlement borrowed its title. It rises from the lake ofCoraycocha, Avhich is in the desert mountain or"pararno of Tioloma. It runs n. and passing bythe former settlement, becomes united witli anotherriver, formed by two streams flowing down fronrtheparamo of Lalangiiso, and from the waste watersof the lake Colta ; it then passes through the set-tlement of Pungala, its course inclining slightly tothe e. and at a league’s distance from the settlementof Puni, is entered by the Riobamba near the Cu-bigies, another river which flows down from themountain of Chimborazo, and following its courseto the«. for some distance, turns to the c.as soon asit reaches the w. of the mountain of Tungaragua,and at last empties itself into the Maranon ; rvhenit passes through the settlement of Penipe, it flowsin so large a body that it can be passed only bymeans of a bridge, which is built there of reeds ;and before it reaches the ba/ios or baths, it col-lects the Avaters of the Tacunga, Ambato, and otherrivers, Avhich flowing doAvn from the one and theother cordillera, have their rise in the s. summitof Eiinisa, and in the s. part of Ruminambi andCotopasci.
CEUALLOS, Morro de los, an island ofthe river Taquari, formed by this dividing itselfinto two arms to enter the river Paraguay, in theprovince and government of this name.
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runs from w. to e. being navigable by small vesselstill it enters the S. sea.
CHACALTANGUIS, a settlement and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofCozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, is of a moisttemperature, and situate on the shore of the largeriver Alvarado. It contains seven families of Spa-niards, 18 of Mulattoes and Negroes, and 75 ofPopolucos Indians. Within its district are 19 en-gines or mills for making refined sugar ; and itsterritory produces maize and cotton in abundance ;is three leagues to the e. of its capital.
CHACALTONGO , Natividad de, a settlementand head settlement of the district of the alcaldiamayor of Tepozcolula, is of a cold temperature,and surrounded by eight wards within its district ;in all of which there are 160 families of Indians,who cultivate much maize and wheat ; is sevenleagues between the e. and s. of its capital.
(CHACAPOYAS. See Chachapoyas.)
CHACARACUIAN, a settlement of the pro-province and government of Cumaná in thekingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate in the mid-dle of the serrania of that province. It isunder the care of the Catalanian Capuchin fa-thers ; and, according to Cruz, on the coast ofthe sea of Paria.
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either in the service of the United States duringthe war, or fled to them for protection. The in-digence or ill habits of these people occasioned thebreaking up of the settlement, and a better sort ofinhabitants have now taken their place. The landsare fertile, and two rivers run through it, wellstored with fish. It has 575 inhabitants, and threeslaves. By the state census of 1796, 76 of the in-habitants are electors.)
CHAMPLAIN, a lake of the same province, ofmore than 20 leagues in length, and from 10 to12 in width, abounding in excellent fish. It wasdiscovered in 1609 by a French gentleman of tliename of Champlain, who gave it his name, whichit still retains. It communicates with a smallerlake called Sacrament, and the canal passing fromone side to the other of these is extremely rapidanddangerous, from the inequality of its bottom. Atthe distance of 25 leagues to the s, are some verylofty mountains, which are covered with snow, andin which are found castors and a variety 'of ani-mals of the chase; and between these mountainsand the aforesaid lake are some beautiful levelmeadows or llanuras^ which, when first discover-ed, were well peopled with Iroquees Indians ; butthese have greatly diminished in numbers, throughthe continual wars Avith the French and English.[This lake is next in size to lake Ontario, and liese. n. €. from it, forming a part of the dividing linebetween the states of New York and Vermont. Ittook its name from a French governor, who wasdrowned in it; it was before called Corlaer’s lake.Reckoning its length from Fairhaven to St.John’s,a course nearly n. it is about 200 miles ; its breadthis from one to 18 miles, being very different in diffe-rent places ; the mean width is about five miles, andit occupies about 500,000 acres ; its depth is suf-ficient for the largest vessels. There are in it abovesixty islands of different sizes : the most consider-able are North and South Hero and Motte island.North Hero, or Grand isle, is 24 miles long, andfrom two to four wide. It receives at Ticonderogathe waters of lake George from the s. s. w. whichis said to be 100 feet higher than the waters of thislake. Half the rivers and streams which rise inVermont fall into it. There are several which cometo it from New York state, and some from Cana-da ; to which last it sends its own waters a n.course, through Sorell or Chamblee river, into theSt. Lawrence. This lake is well stored with fish,particularly salmon, salmon trout, sturgeon, andpickerel, and the land on its borders, and on thebanks of its rivers, is good. The rocks in severalplaces appear to be marked and stained with theformer surface of the lake, many feet higher than
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it has been since its discovery in 160S. The wa-ters generally rise from about the 20th of April tothe 20th of June, from four to six feet ; the great-est variation is not more than eight feet. It is sel-dom entirely shut up Avith ice until the middle ofJanuary, Between the 6th and 15th of April theice generally goes off, and it is not uncomtiAon formany square miles of it to disappear in one day.]
CHAMPLE, a large unpeopled tract of theprovince of Taraumara, and kingdom of NuevaVizcaya, in which there is a mountain aboundinggreatly in silver mines. Here is also a missionAvhicli Avas established by the regulars of the com-pany for the reduction of the natives : is 12leagues n. e. of the town of Santa Eulalia.
CHAMUINA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Costarica in the kingdom of Guate-mala. It empties itself into the S. sea near the li-mits of this jurisdiction, and of that of Chiriqui inthe kingdom of Tierra Firme.
CHANCAY, a province and corregimiento ofthe kingdom of Peru ; bounded n. by that of San-ta ; n. e. and n. by that of Caxatambo ; e. by thatof Cauta; and s. by the corregimiento of Cercado.It is 27 leagues in length from n. to s. and thesame in width e. w. and has on its coast some portsand creeks not remarkable for their security. Itcomprehends in its district two territories, one ofa cold temperature toAvards the cordillera, calledDe los Checras; and another of a warm tempera-ture, lying in the valleys towards the sea, calledDe Chancay. It is irrigated by two rivers, oneon the s. side, called Pasamayo, and the otherHuama, on the n. The latter has an arched bridge,which was built in the time of the viceroy, theMarquis de Montes Claros, the buttresses of whichare two rocks, through which the river passes.On the e. and in the cold part of this province,are found the productions peculiar to the cli-mate, such as papas, ocas, and some wheat andmaize. Here are also cattle, ot the fleeces of which
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Granada ; situate in a beautiful and delightfulcountry. Its temperature is hot, it abounds incacao, maize, yucas, and plantains, and has someneat cattle and gold mines. The inhabitantsamount to 100 families, and it is annexed to thecuracy of its capital.
(CHAPEL Hill, a post-town in Orangecounty, N. Carolina ; situated on a branch of New-hope creek, which empties into the n.w. branch ofCape Fear river. This is the spot chosen for theseat of the university of N. Carolina. Few housesare as yet erected ; but a part of the public build-ings were in such forwardness, that students Avereadmitted, and education commenced, in January1796. The beautiful and elevated site of thistown commands a pleasing and extensive view ofthe surrounding country : 12 miles s. by e. ofHillsborough, and 472 s.w. of Philadelphia.Lat. 35° 56' n. Long. 79° 2' w.)
CHAPIGANA, a fort of the province and go-vernment of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme,built upon a long strip of land, or point, formedby the great river of Tuira. There is also a smallfort of the same name in a little gulf, and nearlyclosed at the entrance, behind the fort of San Mi-guel, in the S. sea.
CHAPUARE, a river of the province and go-vernment of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito, risesin the mountains of Cacao, which are upon theshore of the river Madera ; runs w. forming acurve, and enters the latter river, just where theYtenes and Marmore also become united.
CHAPULTEPEC, a settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Corjoacan in Nueva España ; situate onthe skirt of a mountainous eminence, on which arethe castle and palace Avhich were the residence ofthe viceroys until they made their public entriesinto Mexico. Here are beautiful saloons andcharming gardens, bedecked with all sorts of deli-cate flowers ; also a wood of branching savins,which was filled Avith stags and rabbits, and anabundant supply of water to render the soil fertile ;although, independently of a large and deep pool,it is also intersected by several streams, which,through canals, are carried to supply the s. part of
the city of Mexico. Its inhabitants amount to 40families of Indians, in the district of the parish ofa convent of St. Francis, with certain families ofSpaniards and Mustecs, embodied with the parishof Vera Cruz of Mexico ; from Avheuce this is dis-tant one league to the w. s.w.
Chapultepec, with the dedicatory title of SanJuan, another settlement of the district and headsettlement of Tlacoluca, and alcaldia mayor ofXalapa, in the same kingdom ; founded betweenfour mountains, the skirts of Avhich form a circleround it. It contains 100 families of Indians, in-cluding those of the settlement of Paztepec, closeto it. Although its population was formerlythought to amount to 500 families, no cause canbe assigned for the present diminution ; notAvith-standing the elder people affirm, that this is a judg-ment of God for their having caused so many sor-rows and anxieties to the poor curate, who hadlaboured so hard and with such zeal to convertthem from their idolatry : certain it is, they arenow extremely humble and docile. It is tAvo leaguesn. e. of its capital.
Chapultepec, another, with the same dedica-tory title of San Juan, in the head settlement of thetown of Marquesado, and alcaldia mayor of QuatroVillas. It contains 25 families of Indians, Avhooccupy themselves in the cultivation of cochineal,wheat, maize, fruits, woods, coal, lime-stone, andtimber. It is a little more than a mile to the s. u\of its capital.
CHAPULUACAN, a settlement of the jurisdic-tion and alcaldia mayor of Valles in Nueva Es-pana ; situate on the skirt of a very lofty sierra ;is of a mild temperature, and produces maize, cot-ton, bees-Avax, and honey, and large cattle. It isannexed to the curacy of Tamzunchale, contains58 families of Indians, and lies 38 leagues from itscapital.
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cattle of all sorts; aiul there arc some gold mines,though they produce at present very sp:n ingly;some of the silver mines, Avhlch were very fruitful,have lately filled with water, and attempts havebeen made in vain to empty them. Indeed theonly mines which have produced any great wealthare those found in the mountains of Aullagas, andfrom them, for some years past, metals of therarest qualities have been extracted. In the woodsof the valleys, which produce very fine and excel-lent timber, are found wolves, tigers, and otherwild beasts inhabiting the mountains ; also aspecies of bees, which form their combs in the hol-lows of trees, and the honey of which they callde charas. There is a river in this province com-posed of several streams, and which unites itselfwith the Cochabamba. The number of its inha-bitants amounts to 36,000, who are divided into27 settlements. Its reparlimienfo used to amountto 92,665 dollars, and its n/cflxvife to 7-11 dollarsper annum. It is one of the richest provinces ofPeru.
The capital is of the same name, and the othersettlements are,
San Francisco dc Micani,San Marcos de Mirailo-res,
Santiago de l\Ioscari,
San Pedro de Buenavista,Acasio,
(CHEAT River rises in Randolph county,Virginia, and after pursuing a n. n. w. course, joinsMonongahela river, three or four miles within thePennsylvania line. It is 200 yards wide at itsmoutli, and 100 yards at the Dunkards settlement,50 miles higher, and is navigable for boats, exceptin dry seasons. There is a portage of 37 milesfrom this river to the Potowmack, at the mouth ofSavage river.)
nada, of a cold temperature. It lies between somemountains, and abounds in the produclioris of a,cold climate, such as wheat, maize, trullles, andbarley ; it consists of 100 house-keepers, and of40 Indians, all of Avliom are subject to the disorderof the cotos, or swelling of the throat; is 21leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.
CHEBEN, a river of Nova Scotia. It risesfrom a small lake near the settlement and fort ofSackville, runs n. and enters the Basin des Mines,or of the Mines, of the bay of Fundy.
(CHEBUCTO, a bay and harbour on the s. s. e.coast of Nova Scotia, distinguished by the loss ofa French fleet in a former war between Franceand Great Britain. Near the head of this bay,on the w. side, stands the city of Halifax, the ca-pital of the province.)
CHECHIRGANTI, a river of the provinceand government of Darien in the kingdom ofTierra Firme. It rises in the mountains on the n.side, runs n. and enters the sea in the small beechor playon, opposite the port of Calidonia.
CHECHAS. See Chancay.
(CHEDABUCTO, or Milford Haven, alarge and deep bay on the easternmost part ofNova Scotia, at the mouth of the gut of Canso.Opposite to its mouth stands isle Madame. Sal-mon river falls into this bay from the w. and isremarkable for one of the greatest fisheries in theworld.)
(CHEESADAWD Lake, about 210 miles n. e.by e. of the Canadian house, on the c. end ofSlave lake, in the Hudson bay company’s terri-tory, is about 35 miles in length, and the same inbreadth. Its w. shore is mountainous and rocky.)
tilizes the valley which gives it its name ; and runs30 leagues, collecting the waters of many otherstreams, mountain floods, and rivulets, which aug-ment it to such a degree as to render the fording ofit impracticable just where it enters the sea.
CHICAMOCHA, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It rises in the paramo or mounlain-desert of Albarracin, between that city and thecity of Santa Fe, on the 7i. side : when it passesthrough Tunja, being then merely a rivulet, it hasthe name of the river of Gallinazos, which it after-wards changes for that of Sogamoso ; and for thatof Chia, Avhen it passes through this settlement.It is afterwards called Chicamocha, and passesthrough various provinces, until it becomes incor-porated with the Magdalena, into which it entersin one large mouth. A little before this it formsa good port, called De la Tora, where there wasformerly a settlement, but which is at present ina state of utter ruin.
(CHICAPEE, or Chickabee, a smrdl river inMassachusetts, which rises from several ponds inWorcester county, and running s.zo. unites withWare river, and six miles further empties into theConnecticut at Springfield, on the e. bank of thatriver.)
CHICASAWS, a settlement of Indians of S.Carolina, comprising the Indians of this nation,who have here many other settlements ; in all ofwhich the English have forts, and an establish-ment for their commerce and defence.
Chicasaws, a river of this province, whichruns w. and enters the Mississippi 788 miles fromits mouth, or entrance into the sea.
(CHICCAMOGGA, a large creek, which runsn.w. into Tennessee river. Its rnoutli is six milesabove the Whirl, and about 27 s. w. from themouth of the Ilivvassee. The Chiccamogga Indiantowns lie on this creek, and on the bank of theTennessee. See Ciiickamages.)
Quiaca serving as the line of division, vo. by thatof Lipes, and n. by that of Porco. The district ofTarija belonging to this corregimiento, which is 40leagues distant from the capital of Chichas, isbounded e. by the territories of the infidel Chiri-guanos, Chanaes, and Mataguayos Indians, to thefirst settlements of which from the last habitationsof Tarija there is a narrow, craggy, and mountain-ous route of 14 leagues in length. It is alsobounded on the n. and w. by the valley of Pilaya,and on the s, by the jurisdiction of Xuxui. Thedistrict of Chichas is 140 leagues in circumference,and that of Tarija 80, being either of them inter-sected by some extensive seiTanias : in the boun-daries of the former there are many farms andestates for breeding cattle, where are also producedpotatoes, maize, wheat, barley and other grain,likewise some wine. Here are mines of gold andsilver, which were formerly very rich ; it havingbeen usual for the principal ones to yield somethousand marks in each caxon ; this being espe-cially the case in the mines of Nueva Chocaya,which still yield to this da}-- 60 or 60 marks. Manyof the metals found in these mines are worked upfor useful purposes. The mines of Chilocoa have,on the Whole, been most celebrated fortlieir riches.The rivers, which are of some note, are that ofSupacha, which flows down from the cordillera ofLipes, and running e. passes through the middle ofthe province until it enters the valley of Cinti, ofthe province of Pilaya and Paspaya ; and another,called Toropalca, which enters the province ofPorco, and passes on to the same part of Cinti.The inhabitants of this district amount to 6200.In the settlement of Tatasi both men and womenare subject to a distressing lunacy, which causesthem to run wildly and heedlessly over the moun-tains, without any regard to the precipices whichlie in their way ; since it has generally been ob-served that they dash themselves headlong down :if, however, it should happen that they are notkilled, the fall, they say, frequently restores themto a sane mind. The observation, that the animalsof this country, namely, \\ie vicunas and the nativesheep, are subject to this malady, is without founda-tion ; but it is thought to arise from the peculiareflluviasof the minerals abounding here, and whichhave a great tendency to cause convulsions. Thewomen of tlie aforesaid settlement, when about tobring forth children, like to be delivered of themin the low parts of the qiiebradas, or deep glens.The settlements of this province are,
Santiago de Cota- San Antonio de Riogaiia, Blanco,