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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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DEL PUERTO, a city of the province and go-vernment of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; founded by Gaspar de Kodas, on thespot of the Matanza of Valdivia, in 1676. It haschanged its place several times, on account of thebadness of.its temperature : and, lastly, in the year1588, it was removed by Francisco Redondo tothe spot where it now stands : is one league fromthe river Cauca, on a very steep declivity, whichis also of an unhealthy temperature, althoughabounding greatly in gold mines, which are,however, but little worked. Jt is the nativeplace of,
Fr. Marcos Vetancur, provincial of St. Domingoin Santa Fe:
Fr. Lorenzo de Figueroa, of the province ofSan Francisco :
Don Andres de Vetancur, elected bishop ofLa Concepcion in Chile;
Fr. Diego de Figueroa, provincial of San Augus-tin in Santa Fe : and
Don Luis de Vetancur, precentor of Quito, in-quisitor of Lima, and bishop-elect of Popayan ;all brothers, and men of singular virtue andlearning.
CECILIA, Dona, a settlement of the provinceand government of Santa Marta in the kingdomof Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore of the largeriver Magdalena, opposite the lake Zapatosa, threeleagues from the town of Mompox.
(CEDAR Point, a port of entry in Charlescounty, Maryland, on the e. side of Potowmacriver, about 12 miles below port Tobacco, and 96s. by w. of Baltimore. Its exports are chiefly to-bacco and Indian corn, and in 1794 amounted invalue to 18,593 dollars.)
Cedar, a river of the province and colony of
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Pennsylvania, which traverses New Jersey, andenters the sea.
CELAYA, a town of the intendancy of Gua-naxuato in the kingdom of Nueva Espana.Sumptuous edifices have been recently constructedhere, as also at Queretaro and Guanaxuato. Thechurch of the Carmelites of Celaya has a fineappearance ; it is adorned with Corinthian andIonic columns. Its height is 1833 metres, or 6018feet.
CENGUYO, San Pedro de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Yrimbo, and alcaldia mayorof Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacan,and kingdom of Nueva Espaiia. It contains 60families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n. zo.of its head settlement.
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papas; likewise in cattle, from the fleeces of whichgreat quantities of woven clotlis are made. Its'population amounts to 150 house-keepers and 100Indians. Four leagues to the s. w. of its capital,and near to the settlement of Turmeque.
==CHISCAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate at the foot of the Snowy sierra^and therefore of a cold and unpleasant temperature.Its productions correspond with those of a similarclimate ; it contains about 80 Indians, with a veryfew whites. Thirty-two leagues n. e. of Tunja.
CHISPAS, Punta de las, a point on the s.coast and w. head of the island of St. Domingo,in the territory possessed by the French ; lyingbetween the settlement and parish of the English,and the point of Burgados.
[CHISSEL, a fort in the state of Tennessee,two miles and a half from English ferry, on Newriver, 43 from Abingdon, and 107 from Longisland, on Holston.]
CHITA, a province and corregimienlo of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, and vice-royalty ofSanta Fe. It was formerly called Chisca. It isbounded w. by the province of Bogota, and n. bythe country bt the Laches Indians, or province ofCochuy, and e. and s. by the llanuras of theOrinoco. It was discovered by George Spira, aGerman, and he was the first who entered it withhis companions in 1535. This territory is fertile,abounds in wheat and maize, the grain of which isextremely large, as also in other seeds, and hasgoats and neat cattle in plenty. It is of an hotand unhealthy temperature, and has palms similarto those of Palestine and Barbary, producing ex-cellent dates. The capital is of the same name.This is situate at the foot of the mountains of Bo-gota ; it is a large settlement, and was formerly en-titled a city. Its inhabitants consist of upwardsof 700 whites and about 200 Indians. Twenty-four leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.
Same name, another settlement, which is the headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofVillalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tempe-rature, contains 90 families of Indians, and is threeleagues and a half to the s. of its capital.
CHITANOS, a barbarous nation of Indians;bounded by that of the Chiscas, but distinct fromit, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. They in-habit the woods to the n. e. of the mountains ofBogota and the shores of the rivers Ele, Cuiloto,and Arauca ; are an intractable and. cruel people,and dreaded by all their neighbours. In 1535,having joined company with the Jiraras, theytook and destroyed the city of Las Palmas.
CHITARAQUE, a settlement of the corregi-mienlo and jurisdiction of Velez in the NuevoReyno de Granada, it is of an hot but healtliytemperature, produces yucas, maize, plantains,cotton, and great quantities of sugar, from whichare made fine and much esteemed conserves.
CHITAREROS, a barbarous and brutal nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada,who inhabit the mountains in the vicinity of Pam-plona ; they are mixed with some families of theLaches. This nation is extremely numerous, andpass a wandering life without any fixed abode ;they go entirely naked, and are much given to sen-sual gratifications ; some of them have embraced2
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the Catholic faith, and are reduced to settlements,though the number of these is very small.
CHITEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapain Nueva Espaiia. It is of a cold temperature,and contains 39 families of Indians, who live bysowing maize, the only vegetable production oftheir territory. Five leagues w. n. w. of its capi-tal.
CHITO, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito, upon the s. shore of the river Sangalla,and in the royal road of Loxa, which leads to To-mependa. In its vicinity are some gold mines,but which are not worked ; its temperature is hotand moist, and consequently unhealthy.
[CHITTENDEN County, in Vermont, lieson lake Champlain, between Franklin county onthe w. and Addison s. ; La Moille river passesthrough its n. w. corner, and Onion river dividesit nearly in the centre.' Its chief town is Burling-ton. This county contained, by the census of1791, 44 townships and 7301 inhabitants. Sincethat time the n. counties have been taken from it,so that neither its size or number of inhabitants cannow be ascertained.]
[Chittenden, a township in Rutland county,Vermont, contains 159 inhabitants. The roadover the mountain passes through this township.It lies seven miles e. from the fort on Otter creek,in Pittsford, and about 60 n. by e. from Ben-nington.]
[CHITTENENGO, or Canaserage, a con-siderable stream which runs n. into lake Oneida,in the state of New York.]
CHIUAO, a small river of theprovince and colony of Surinam, or the part ofGuayana possessed by the Dutch . It rises in themountain of Sincomay, runs n. and turning w.enters another river which is without a name, andwhere several others unite to enter the Cuyuni onthe s. side.
CHIUATA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Cumana in the kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises from some plains in this territory,runs s. collecting the waters of several otherrivers, particularly that of the Suata, and thenenters the sea, just as it becomes navigable.
CHIUCHIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Canchas. In its district there is amineral hot-water spring, much renowned for thecuring of various kinds of maladies.
CHIUGOTOS, a barbarous na-tion of Indians of the province and government ofVenezuela, bordering upon the settlement of Mara-capana. They are very few, and live retired in themountains ; they are cruel even to cannibalism.
CHIXILA, a settlement and head settlement ofthe district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta inNueva Espana. It is of an hot temperature, con-tains 134 families of Indians, and lies 12 leaguesto the n. of its capital.
CHOCAMAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Zacan, and alcaldia mayorof Cordoba, in Nueva Espana. It is of a coldand moist temperature, contains 103 families ofIndians, and is five leagues to the n, n. w. of thecapital.
CHOCO, a large province and government ofthe jurisdiction of Popayan ; by the territory ofwhich it is bounded e. and s. e . ; on the w. by thePacific or S. sea; n. by the barbarous nations ofIndians, and by the province of Darien ; and s. bythat of Barbacoas. The whole of this provinceabounds in woods and mountains, and is crossedby a chain of the Andes, which run as far as theisthmus of Panama. It is watered by several riversand streams, all of which run w. and enter the S.sea. The districts of Citara and Raposo form apart of this province ; very few of their ancientinhabitants remain at the present day ; the greaterpart of them having perished in the war of the
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down from the mountains to the jy. of the RachcsIndians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. untilit enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix,opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto,which lies to the s.
CHOPO, a settlement of the government andjurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a very mild climate, andabounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and manysorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branchof its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them forsale to the capital, which lies at a small distancefrom hence, in the road leading to M6rida andGibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost asmany indigent settlers.
[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are threemiles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]
CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians,of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwellingimmediately upon the mountains and forests ofFosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitchtheir huts near the river Bermejo. But little isknown of their customs and of their country.
CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plainsor llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touchingtoAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogo-les, and extending n. as far as the mountains ofthe Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They areat present reduced to the Catholic religion, and aremixed with those of other nations ; but some fewof them still persist in their idolatry, and livedispersed upon the mountains.
[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres, near a small lakeabout 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35°33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]
[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, thoughonly two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth.It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions,in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they foundits temperature to be intensely sultry.]
21. Don Fray Pedro de Espineira ; elected in1762 ; he governed until his death, in 1778.
22. Don Francisco Joseph de Maran ; electedin 1779.
Concepcion de la Vega, another city, inthe island of St. Domingo, founded by the AdmiralChristopher Columbus, on a beautiful and spaciousplain, or Uanura^ celebrated for a conquest gainedon it by a numerous army of Indians. It has a goodparish church, erected into a bishopric, and wliichwas afterwards done away with in 1605, it beingthen embodied with the archbishopric of S. Do-mingo. it has also a convent of the religiousorder of St. Francis, in which is deposited andvenerated the first cross that the discoverer and con-queror of this country planted here ; which, al-though the Indians have endeavoured with all theirmight to break and destroy, has resisted all theireftbrts. Twenty-five leagues from the capital ofS. Domingo.
(Concepcion del Pao, a city of the provinceand government of Caracas ; composed of the in-habitants of Trinity, of Margareta, and of Caracas,who owned the folds in the plains near the Ori-noco, to the s. of Barcelona ; they here succes-sively fixed their dwellings, for the purpose ofbeing in the centre of their property, and of super-intending it themselves. In 1744 the number ofthese houses were found considerable enough to ac-quire the name of village. There are only 2300people of all classes here, subsisting will] facilityby Ihe fertility of the soil. The air and water aregood, and the only inconveniences the inhabitantsexperience are an excessive lieat, and inundationsarising from the long and heavy rains. The produceof the land is merely the provisions common to theCQuntry. The wealth of the inhabitants consistsentirely in cattle, which they export to Trinity,liia Guarapiche or Orinoco, This village, nowa city, is distinguished from St.John the Baptistdel Pao, situate in the province of Venezuela, bythe title of Concepcion del Pao. Lat. 8° 42' n.Long. 65° 10' ra.)
Concepcion, another, of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Leon in Nueva Espana, andof the bishopric of Mechoacan ; annexed to thecuracy of Rincon. It contains 208 families of In-dians, 100 of Spaniards, and ^0 oi Mustees. Itproduces wheat, maize, and other seeds, and is aquarter of a league from its curacy, and fourleagues from the capital.
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichare held by the religious order of St. Francis, inthe province of Texas and kingdom of Nueva Es-pana. It is 112 leagues to the e. n. e. of the pre-sidency of San Antonio de Bejar.
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province and government of Mainas,of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore ofthe great river Maranon, on a point of land formedby the same, and where this river is entered by theApena and the Guallaga,
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the province of Tepeguana, and kingdomof Nueva Vizcaya; situate on the bank of theriver Florido, near the settlement and real of themines of Parral.
Concepcion, another, of the missions whichbelong to the religion of St. Francis, in the pro-vince of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Viz-caya, lying 17 leagues distant between the s. ands. w. of the real of the mines of San Felipe de Chi-guagua.
Concepcion, another, with the surname ofAchaguas, being composed of Indians of this na-tion, in the kingdom of Granada ; of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits in Orinoco; situate on the shore of theriver Meta.
Concepcion, another settlement, the capital ofthe province and captainship of Itamaraca in Bra-zil ; situate on the top of a mountain by the sea-side. It has a magnificeut parish church, and isgarrisoned by two companies of troops, it con-tains 300 housekeepers, and has three large sugar.
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upon the loftiest part of that most beautiful lltinura,from which the prospect is so enchanting ; sliew-ing on one side the sea, on another the river whichwaters tlie precincts, and on another some shadypoplar groves. It is of an extremely benign tem-perature, and enjoying throughout the year a per-petual spring, being neither incommoded by heatnor cold. It is extremely fertile, and abounds inwhatever can conduce to the comfort and conve-nience of life. The city is tolerably large ; all thestreets are drawn at straight lines ; and the housesare disjoined from each other by large gardens,which are all well supplied with water brought byaqueducts from the river. The parish church isvery beautiful, and not less so are those of the re-ligious orders of St.. Francis, St. Domingo, St.Augustin, La Merced, San Juan de Dios, and thecollege which formerly belonged to the regularsof the company of the Jesuits. It has a port,which is convenient ajid much frequented by ves-sels ; upon the shore of which are caught tunnies,abacoras, and various other kinds of fish ; alsomany delicate kinds of shell-fish. At a small dis-tance is a very abundant copper mine, from whichmuch metal is extracted and carried to Europe ;and it is of this, as well as of its excellent breedof horses, its wine, oil, tallow, cow-hides, anddried meats, that its commerce is composed ; send-ing, as it does yearly, four or five vessels loadedwith these effects to Lima. Although it has minesof the purest gold, yet these are but little worked.The whole of the town is covered with beautifulmyrtles, and of these there is a delightful grove.It was destroyed by the Araucanos Indians in1547 ; and in 1579 it was attempted to be taken byFrancis Drake, who was repulsed by the inhabi-tants, la 1680 it seemed to be rebuilt only thatit might undergo a sacking the same year by theEnglish pirate, Bartholomew Sharps. Its popula-tion consists of 500 families of Spaniards andpeople of colour, and some Indians. Fifteenleagues from the city of Concepcion, and 58 fromthe capital of the kingdom, Santiago. Lat. 30° s.Long. 71° 18'. [See Chile,]
COQUIMBO, an island of the coast of this pro-vince and corregimiento.
CORAS, Santiago de los, a settlement of themissions which were held by the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits in California ; situate at anequal distance from both coasts. It is composedof Indians of the nation of its name, and is theplace where the Father Lorenzo Carranza, a mis-sionary, suffered martyrdom.
CORAZON DE Jesus, a settlement of thecorregimiento and jurisdiction of Velez in theNuevo Reyno de Granada. Its population i*small, and it is situate in a country mountainousand full of pools, being scanty in vegetable pro-ductions, with 200 inhabitants, a miserable race.It is near the settlement of Chiquinquira, and tothe s. of Velez.
CORAZON, another, called De Maria, of the mis-sions which were held by the regulars of the companyof J esLiits, in the province and government of May-nas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on theshore of the river Aguarico.
CORAZON, another, called De Jesus, in the pro-vince and government of the Chiquitos Indians inPeru ; situate at the foot of the cordillera of SanFernando, a reduccion of the missions which wereheld there by the regulars of the company,
COTAHUIZITLA, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan inNueva Espana. It is of a hot temperature, con-tains 28 families of Indians, who are busied inmaking mats, which they cs\\ petates. It belongsto the curacy of Atlatlauca, the capital of thealcaldia mayor of this name; being distant 10leagues from its capital.
COTICA, a river of Guayana, in the part pos-sessed by the Dutch, or colony of Surinam. Itruns n. until it comes very near the coast, makingmany turns, and then changing its course e. entersthe Comowini. At its mouth is a fort to defendits entrance, called Someldick.
COTIJA, Valley of, of the alcaldia mayor of
Tinguindin in Nueva Espana. It is more thantwo leagues in circumference, and in it live 205families of Spaniards. It is of a mild temperature,and abounds in seeds. Seven leagues to the w. ofits capital.
COTLALTA, a settlement and head settlementof the alcaldia mayor of Tuxtla in Nueva Espana.It contains 140 families of Indians, and three orfour of Spaniards. It abounds greatly in tamarinds,of which are made excellent conserves.
COTOCOLLAO, a settlement of the kingdomof Quito, in the corregimiento of the district ofthe Cinco Leguas de la Capital; being situate justwhere the beautiful llanura or plain of lilaquitoor Rumi-Pampa terminates. Its territory extendsto n. w. upon the skirt of the mountain Pichincha,and is bounded on the n. by the settlement of Po-masque. It is of a somewhat cold and moist tem-perature ; and in it is the county of Selva Florida,of the house of Guerrero Ponce de Leon, one ofthe most ancient and illustrious of the kingdom.
COTOPACSI, a mountain and desert, or pa-ramo, of the province and corregimiento of Ta-cunja in the kingdom of Quito, to the s. and one-fourth to s. e. It is of the figure of an invertedtruncated cone, and is in height 2952 Parisian feetabove the level of the sea : on its summit, whichis perpetually covered with snow, is a volcano,which burst forth in 1698, in such a dreadful man-ner as not only to destroy the city of Tacunja,with three fourths of its inhabitants, but othersettlements also. It likewise vomited up a river ofmud, which so altered the face of the province,that the missionaries of the Jesuits of Maynos,seeing so many carcases, pieces of furniture, andhouses floating down the Maranon, were persuadedamongst themselves that the Almighty had visitedthis kingdom with some signal destruction ; they,moreover, wrote circular letters, and transmittedthem open about the country, to ascertain Avhatnumber of persons were remaining alive. Thesemisfortunes, though in a moderate degree, recurredin the years 1742, 1743, 1760, 1768. From thee. part of this mountain the Napo takes its rise;and from the s. the Cotuche and the Alagues,which, united, form the river San Miguel, andafterwards, with others, the Patate ; to this theChambo joins itself, which afterwards degenerates.