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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
merit of Venezuela ; situate upon the coast nearcape Blanco.
(CATABAW River. See Wateree.)
(Catabaw Indians, a small tribe who have onetown called Catabaw, situate on the river of thatname, hit. 44° S9' n, on the boundary line betweenN. and S. Carolina, and contains about 450 inha-bitants, of which about 150 are fighting men.They are the only tribe w hich resides in the state ;144,000 acres of land . were granted them by theproprietary government. These are the remains ofa forrnidalile nation, the bravest and most generousenemy thp Six Nations had, butthey have degenera-ted sincp they have been surrounded by the whites.)
CATACACHI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiehto of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Santa Cruz, in which there is astream of water Avhich distils from some crevices,and deposits in its bed a sort of white stone orcrystalline substance, which they call catachi^ andwhich being dissolved in water, is accounted a spe-cific in the flux.
CATACUMBO, a river of the province andgovernment of Maracaibo, which rises to the e. ofthe city of Las Palmas, and runs e. increasing itsstream by many others which flow into it, until itunites itself with the Sulia, to enter the lake ofMaracaibo; where, at its mouth, it extends itselfand forms a large pool of water called La Lagu-neta.
CATALINA, Santa, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco in Nue-va Espana ; annexed to the settlement of NuestraSenora de la Purificacion. It contains 132 fami-lies of Indians.
CATALINA, Santa, another, of the head set-tlement of Tantoyuca, and alcaldia mayor ofTampico, in the same kingdom : it is of a hot tem-perature, and contains 80 families of Indians, whoapply themselves to the culture of the soil ; is 10leagues to the e. of its head settlement.
CATALINA, Santa, another,' of the head set-tlement of Mistepeque, and alcaldia mayor of Ne-japa, in Nueva España: it is of a cold temperature,situate at the foot of a mountain, with 60 familiesof Indians, and is 4 leagues from its head settle-ment.
CATALINA, Santa, another settlement of themissions which were held by the regulars of thecompany of Jesuits, in the province of Tepeguanaand kingdom of Nueva Viscaya, on the shore ofthe river Las Nasas ; is 30 leagues to the n. w. ofits capital.
CATALINA, Santa, another settlement, withthe addition of Sera, of the province and govern-ment of Maracaibo, in the district of the city ofPedraza ; situate on the shore of the river Pariva ;is one of the missions which are held in Barinas bjthe religion of St. Domingo.
CATALINA, Santa, another, of the same pro-
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CHACTAW, a settlement and capital of theIndian district of this name in Louisiana, in whichthe French had a fort and establishment. (TheChactaws, or Flat-heads, are a powerful, hardy,subtle, and intrepid race of Indians, "vpho inhabita very fine and extensive tract of hilly country,with large and fertile plains intervening, betweenthe Alabama and Mississippi rivers, and in the w.part of the state of Georgia. This natioti had,not many years ago, 43 towns and villages, inthree divisions, containing 12,123 souls, of which4041 were fighting men. They are called by thetraders Flat-heads, all the males having the foreand hind part of their skulls artificially flattenedwhen young. These men, unlike the Muscogul-ges, are slovenly and negligent in every part oftheir dress, but otherwise are said to be ingenious,sensible, and virtuous men, bold and intrepid, yetquiet and peaceable. Some late travellers, how-ever, have observed that they pay little attentionto the most necessary rules of moral conduct, atleast that unnatural crimes were too frequent amongthem. Dift'erent from most of the Indian nationsbordering on the United States, they have largeplantations or country farms, where they employmuch of their time in agricultural improvements,after the manner of the Avhite people. Althoughtheir territories are not one-fburth so large as thoseof the Muscogulge confedraey, the number of in-habitants is greater. The Chactaws and Creeksare inveterate enemies* to each other. There area considerable number of these Indians on the w.side of the Mississippi, who have not been homefor several years. A bout 12 miles above the postat Oachcta on that river, there is a small villageof them of about 30 men, who have lived there forseveral years, and made corn ; and likewise onBayau Chico, in the n. part of the district ofAppalousa, there is another village of them ofabout fifty men, who have been there for aboutnine years, and say they have the governor of
Louisiana’s permission to settle there. Besidesthese, there are rambling hunting parties of themto be met with all over Lower Louisiana. Theyare at war with the Caddoques, and liked by. neither red nor white people.)
(CHACTOOS, Indians of N. America, wholive on Bayau Boeuf, about 10 miles to the s. ofBayau Rapide, on Red river, towards Appalousa ;a small, honest people ; are aborigines of thecountry where they live; of men about 30 ; di-minishing; have their own peculiar tongue;speak Mobilian. The lands they claim on BayauBceuf are inferior to no part of Louisiana in depthand richness of soil, growth of timber, pleasant-ness of surface, and goodness of water.. TheBayau Bceuf falls into the Chaffeli, and dischargesthrough Appalousa and Attakapa into Vermilionbay.)
CHACURIES, a settlement of the jurisdictionof the city of Pedraga, in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, is of the missions which were held thereof the order of St. Domingo. It is but small, andits climate is hot.
(CHADBOURNE’S River, district of Maine,called by some Great Works river, about 30 milesfrom the mouth of the Bonnebeag pond, fromwhich it flows. It is said to have taken its lattername from a mill with 18 saws, moved by onewheel, erected by one Lodors. But the projectwas soon laid aside. The former name is derivedfrom Mr. Chadbourne, one of the first settlers,,who purchased the land on the mouth of it, of thenatives, and whose posterity possess it at this day.)
CHAGRE, a large and navigable river of theprovince and government of Panamá in the king-dom of Tierra Firme, has its origin and sourcein the mountains near the valley of Pacora, andtakes its course in various directions, makingmany windings, which are called randa/es, until itenters the N. sea. It is navigated by large vesselscalled chatas, (having no keels), up as far as thesettlement of Cruces, where is the wharf for un-lading, and the royal custom-houses ; the greaterpart of the commerce being conducted by thismeans, to avoid the obstacles occurring from a badand rocky road from Portobeloto Panama. It hasdifferent forts for the defence of its entrance ; thefirst is the castle of its name, at the entrance ormouth ; the second is that of Gatun, situate upona long strip of land formed by a river of this name ;and the third is that of Trinidad, situate in a simb
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lar way by a river of its name. It abounds inlarge alligators and mosquitoes, which render itsnavigation very troublesome. Its shores are co-vered with beautiful trees, which are inhabited bya variety of birds and apes of several species, whichmake an incredible chattering and noise. It wasby this river that the pirate John Morgan camewhen he took and sacked Panama in 1670. Itwas discovered by Hernando de la Serma in 1527,when he called it the river of Lagartos, but itsmouth was before discovered by Lope de Olanoin 1510. Here are found, at certain seasons, avery small fish of the size of a pin, called titles,and these are so abundant, that putting into thewater a large basket, it is certain to be drawn outfull ; they are fried, and make very savouryfritters.
CHAGRE, with the dedicatory title of San Lo-renzo, a settlement of the same province and king-dom ; situate upon the top of a mountain at theentrance or mouth of the former river. It has forits defence a strong castle, which was built by theorder of Philip 11. by the famous engineer J uanBautista Antoneli. This was taken by the pirateJohn Morgan, after having made a glorious de-fence, in 1668, when the settlement was burnt andsacked ; and in 1740 it was taken by the English,commanded by Admiral Vernon, who entirelydestroyed it ; its loss in that war being supplied bytwo strong batteries, which hindered the Englishfrom making a breach, for the third time, whenthey came with three frigates of war : but theywere driven back by Captain Don Juan de Her-mida, who was formerly captain of the regimentof Granada. In 1752 this castle was rebuilt, in themost perfect manner, by the lieutenant-generaland engineer Don Ignatio de Sala, governor ofCartagena, who came hither for this purpose byorder of the king. In this fortress several per-sonages of distinction' have been held prisoners,ami amongst others the Marquis of La Mina,])resiilent, governor, and captain-general of thekingiUmi in 1694. Is 13 leagues from Porto-belo.
the channels of the Orinoco as far as the gulfTriste.
CHAIPI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Parinacochas in Peru, annexed tothe curacy of the corregimiento of Pullo ; in whichwas venerated, ever since the time of the conquest,a beautiful image of the Virgen del Rosario, which,with the temple, was burnt a few years since, andthe parishioners being much afflicted at their loss,the Marquis of Selva Alegre, president of Quito,sent them another equal to the first : at the cele-bration of the festival people assemble from all theneighbouring districts.
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America called New South Wales. Its territoryconsists of a white dry sand, and it is covered withsmall trees and shrubs. This island has a beauti-ful appearance in the spring to those Avho discoverit after a voyage of three or four months, and afterhaving seen nothing but a multitude of mountainscovered with frost, which lie in the bay, and in thestrait of Hudson, and which are rocks petrifiedwith eternal ice. This island appears at that sea-son as though it were one heap of verdure. Theair at the bottom of the bay, although in 51“ of hit.and nearer to the sun than London, is excessivelycold for nine months, and extremely hot the remain-ing three, save when the n. w. wind prevails. Thesoil on the e. <^s well as on the w. side produces allkinds of grain and fruits of fine qualities, whichare cultivated on the shore of the river Rupert.Lat. 52“ 12' n. Long. 80“ w.
CHARO, Matlazingo, the alcaldía mayorof the province and bishopric of Mechoacán inNueva España, of a mild and dry temperature,being the extremity of the sierra of Otzumatlan ;the heights of which are intersected with manyveins of metals, which manifest themselves veryplainly, although they have never yet been dugout ; and in the wet seasons the clay or mud pitsrender the roads impassable. It is watered by theriver which rises in the pool or lake of Valladolid,and by which the crops of wheat, maize, lentils, andthe fruits peculiar to the place, are rendered fertileand productive. This reduced jurisdiction belongsto the Marquises of Valle, and is subject to theDukes of Terranova. Its population is reduced tosome ranchos, or meetings for the purpose of labour,and to the capital, which has the same name, andwhich contains a convent of the religious order ofSt. Augustin, this being one of the first templesbuilt by the Spaniards in this kingdom, the presentdilapidated state of it bearing ample testimony toits great antiquity. It contains 430 families ofPirindas Indians, employed in labour and in thecultivation of the land, and in making bread, whichis carried for the supply' of Valladolid, the neigh-bouring ranchos and estates. It should also have45 or 50 families of Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mulat-toes. Is .50 leagues to the w. of Mexico, and twoto the e. of Valladolid. Long. 100° 44'. Lat.19“34'.
CHARPENTIER, Fond du, a bay of the n. e.
coast of the island of Martinique, between the townand parish of Marigot and the Pan de Azucar.
CHARRUAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofParaguay, who inhabit the parts lying between therivers Parana and Uruguay. These Indians arethe most idle of any in America, and it has beenattempted in vain to reduce them to any thing likea civilized state.
Charruas, a settlement of this province andgovernment.
Charruas, a river of the same province, whichruns s. s. w. and enters the Paraná.
(Chartier’s Creek. See Canonsburg andMorganza.)
(CHARTRES, a fort which was built bythe French, on the e. side of the Mississippi,three miles n. of La Prairie du Rocher, or theRock meadows, and 12 miles n. of St. Genevieve,on the w. side of that river. It was abandoned in1772, being untenable by the constant washings ofthe Mississippi in high floods. The village s. ofthe fort was very inconsiderable in 1778. A mileabove this is a village settled by 170 warriors of thePiorias and Mitchigamias tribes of Illinois Indians,who are idle and debauched.)
(CHEGOMEGAN, a point of land about 60miles in length, on the s. side of lake Superior.About 100 miles w. of this cape, a considerableriver falls into the lake ; upon its banks abundanceof virgin copper is found.)
CHEGONOIS, a small river of the same pro-vince and colony as the former. It runs s. w, andenters the Basin des Mines.
(CHELMSFORD, a township in Middlesexcounty, Massachusetts ; situated on the s. side ofMerrimack river, 26 miles n. w. from Boston, andcontains 1144 inhabitants. There is an ingeniouslyconstructed bridge over the river at Pawtucketfalls, which connects this town with Dracut. Theroute of the Middlesex canal, designed to connectthe waters of Merrimack with those of Bostonharbour, will be s. through the e. part of Chelms-ford.)
(CHELSEA, called by the ancient natives Win-nisimet, a town in Suffolk county, Massachusetts,containing 472 inhabitants. Before its incorpora-tion, in 1738, it was award of the town of Boston,It is situated n. e. of the metropolis, and separatedfrom it by the ferry across the harbour, calledWinnisimet.)
(Chelsea, the name of a parish in the city ofNorwich, (Connecticut), called the Landing, situ-ated at the head of the river Thames, 14 miles n.of New London, on a point of land formed bythe junction ofShetucket and Norwich, or Littlerivers, w hose united waters constitute the Thames.It is a busy, commercial, thriving, romantic, andagreeable place, of about 150 houses, ascending
one above another in tiers, on artificial founda-tions, on the 5. point of a high rocky hill,)
(CHEMUNG is a township in Tioga county,New York. By the state census of 1796, 81 ofits inhabitants were electors. It has Newton w.and Oswego e. about 160 miles n. w. fiom NewYork city, measuring in a straight line. Betweenthis place and Newton, General Sullivan, in his vic-torious expedition against the Indians in 1779, hadadesperate engagement with the Six Nations, whomhe defeated. The Indians werestrongly entrenched,and it required the utmost exertions of the Ame-rican army, with field pieces, to dislodge them ;although the former, including 250 tories, amount-ed only to 800 men, while the Americans were5000 in number, ami well appointed in every re-spect.)
(CHENENGO is a n. branch of Susquehan-nah river. Many of the military townships arewatered by the n. w. branch of this river. Thetowns of Fayette, Jerico, Greene, Clinton, andChenengo, in Tioga county, lie between this riverand the e. waters of Susquehannah.)
(Chenengo, a post town, and one of the chiefin Tioga county, New York. The settled partof the town lies about 40 miles w. e. from Tiogapoint, between Chenengo river and Susquehan-nah ; has the town of Jerico on the n. By thestate census of 1796, 169 of its inhabitants areelectors. It was taken off from Montgomerycounty, and in 1791 it had only 45 inhabitants.It is 375 miles n. n. w. of Philadelphia.)
(CHENESSEE or GENESSEE River rises in Penn-sylvania, near the spot, which is the highest groundin that state, where the eastern most water of Allegha-ny river, and Pine creek, a water of Susquehannah,and Tioga river, rise. Fifty miles from its sourcethere are falls of 40 feet, and five from its mouth of 75feet, and a little above that of 96 feet. These fallsfurnish excellent mill-seats, which arc improved bythe inhabitants. After a course of about 100 miles,mostly n, e. by n. it empties into lakeQntario, four
miles and a half e. ofirondequat or Rundagut bay,and SO e. from Niagara falls. The setlleincnts onChenessee river from its month upwards, areHartford, Ontario, Wadsworth, and Williams-burgh. The last mentioned place, it is probable,wili soon be the seat of extensive comineice.There will not be a carrying place between NewYork city and Williamsburgh Avhen tiie w.canals and locks shall be completed. The carry-ing places at present areas follows, viz. Albanyto Schenectady, 16 miles ; from the head of tiieMohawk to Wood creek, one ; Oswego lalls, two ;Chenessee falls, two ; so that there are but 2 1 milesland carriage necessary, in order to convey com-modities from a tract of country capable of main-taining several millions of people. The famousChenessee flats lie on the borders of this river.They arc about 20 miles long, and about fourwide; the soil is remarkably rich, quite clear oftrees, producing grass near 10 feet high. Tlieseflats are estimated to be worth 200,000/. as theynow lie. They arc mostly the property of theIndians.)
CHENGUE, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Santa Marta in the kingdom ofTierra Firme ; situate on the sea-coast. It wassacked by William Gauson in 1655, who alsodestroyed and plundered circumjacent estates.
(CHEPAWAS, or Chipeways, an Indiannation inhabiting the coast of lake Superior andthe islands in the lake. They could, according toMr. Hutchins, furnish 1000 warriors 20 yearsago. Otlier tribes of this nation inhabit the coun-try round Saguinam or Sagana bay, and lakeHuron, bay Puan, and a part of lake Michigan.They were lately hostile to the United States, but,by the treaty of Greenville, August 3. 1795, theyyielded to them the island De Bois Blanc. SeeSix Nations.)
CHEPETLAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment, and alcaldía mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Es-paña. It contains 203 families of Indians, wholive by tiie making and selling of chocolate cups.Two leagues to the n. n. 70. of Tenango.
sippi to the lands claimed by the Sioux, withwhom they still cop.tend for dominion. Theyclaim also, c. of the Mississippi, the country ex-tending as far as lake Superior, including thewaters of the St. lamis. Tliis country is thicklycovered with timber generally, lies level, andgenerally fertile, though a considerable propor-tion of it is intersected and broken up by smalllakes, morasses, and small swamps, particularlyabout the heads of the Mississipi and river St.Louis. They do not cultivate, but live princi-pally on the wild rice, which they procure in greatabundance on the borders of Leach lake and thebanks of the Mississipi. Their number has beenconsiderably reduced by W'ars and tlie small-pox.Their trade is at its greatest extent.)
(Chepewas, of Red Lake, Indians of N. Ame-rica, who claim the country about Red Lake andRed Lake river, as far as the Red river of lakeWinnipie, beyond which last river they contendwith the Sioux for territory. This is a low levelcountry, and generally thickly covered with timber,interrupted with many swamps and morasses. This,as well as the other bands of Chepewas, are es-teemed the best hunters in the ti. to. country ; butfrom the long residence of this band in the countrythey now inhabit, game is become scarce ; there-fore their trade is supposed to be at its greatest ex-tent. The Chepewas are a well-disposed people,but excessively fond of spirituous liquors.)
(Chepewas, of River Pembena, Indians of N.America, who formerly resided on the e. side ofthe Mississippi, at Sand lake, but were induced bythe N. W. company to remove, a few years since,to the river Pembena. They do not claim thelands on which they hunt. Tiie country is level,and the soil good. The w. side of the river ispi incipally prumVs, or open plains ; on the e. sidethere is a greater proportion of timber. Theirtrade at present is a very valuable one, and willprobably increase for some years. They do notcultivate, but live by hunting. They are well-disposed towards the whites.)
CHEPILLO, a small island of the S. sea, inthe gulf of Panamá, and at the mouth or entranceofthe river Bayano, is somewhat more than twoleagues distant Irom the continent; three miles incircumference, and enjoys a pleasant climate, al-though sometim.es subject to intense heat. It wasformerly inhabited by the Indians, of whom there