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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ACACUNA, a mountain of Peru, in the province and corregimiento of Arica in Peru. It is very lofty, and is four leagues distant from the S. sea; is very barren, and situate between the promontory of Ilo and the river Sama. Lat. 70° 29' S [Long. 18° 35' W.]
ACADIA, a province and peninsula of N. America, on the E coast of Canada, between the island or bank of Newfoundland and New England, by which it is bounded on the w. It is more than 100 leagues in length from N W S E and nearly 80 in width, from NE to SW from the gulph of St. Lawrence to the river Santa Cruz. It was discovered in 1497 by Sebastian Cabot, sent thither from England by Henry VII. The French, under the command of Jacob Cartier, of St. Maloes, established themselves here in 1534, in order to carry on a codfishery on the bank of Newfoundland; and in 1604, Peter Guest, a gentleman of the household of Henry IV of France, was sent by that king to establish a colony, which he founded at Port Royal. The English entered it under Gilbert Humphry, in consequence of a grant which had been made to this person by Queen Elizabeth, and gave it the title of Nova Scotia. In 1621 King James I made a donation of it to the Earl of Stirling; and in 1627 the French, commanded by Kirk de la Rochelle, made themselves masters of it, destroying all the establishments of the English, who were obliged to surrender it up, in 1629, by the treaty of St. Germains. The French shortly afterwards lost it; a Governor Philip having taken possession of it; but they, however, regained it in 1691, through the conduct of Mr. De Villebon. In order to settle the pretensions of the rival courts, commissioners were, by mutual consent, appointed in the peace of Riswick, in 1697, to consider which should be the limits of Nova Scotia and New England; and in the peace of Utrecht, it was entirely ceded to the English, who afterwards returned to it. This beautiful country contains many rivers and lakes; the principal of these is the Rosignol, well stocked with fish: there are also many woods, full of excellent timber, and thronged with very singular birds; as, for instance, the Colibri, or hummingbird, and various others. The same woods abound in many kinds of fruits and medicinal herbs. It is very fertile in wheat, maize, pulse of all sorts, and also produces cattle of various kinds, animals of the chase, and abundance of fine fish. Its principal commerce is in skins and salt fish. The winter is longer and colder than in Europe. The capital is Port Royal.— [The name of Acadia was first applied to a tract from the 40th to the 46th degree of N lat. granted to De Mons, Nov. 8, 1603, by Henry IV of France. For the present state of this country, see NOVA SCOTIA.]
ACAGUATO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldía mayor of Tancitaro. It is so reduced as to consist of no more than 15 families of Indians, who maintain themselves by sowing some maize, and other vegetable productions. — Eight leagues S of the capital.
ACAMBARO, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Zelaya, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán. It contains 490 families of Indians, 80 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and a convent of the order of St. Francis. In its district there are other small settlements or wards.— Seven leagues S of its capital.
ACAMISTLAHUAC, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tasco, annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it is distant two leagues to the E N E. It contains 30 Indian families.
ACAMUCHITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Texopilco, and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec. It contains 60 Indian families, whose commerce is in sugar and honey. It produces also maize, and cultivates many vegetable productions. — Five leagues N of its head settlement.
ACANTEPEC, the head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlapa. It is of a cold and moist temperature, contains 92 Indian families, among which are included those of another settlement in its vicinity, all of whom maintain themselves by manufacturing cotton stuffs.
ACANTI, a river of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains which lie towards the N and empties itself into the sea between Cape Tiburon and the bay of Calidonia.
ACAPALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldía mayor of Chiapa, in the kingdom of Guatemala. Lat. 16° 53' N Long. 93° 52' W [It is situate on the Tobasco river, near the city of Chiapa, and not far from a bay in the S. sea, called Teguantipac.]
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dom ; annexed to the curacy of Pasco ; in whichis the celebrated mountain and mine of Lauri-cocha.
CAXAMARQUILLA Y COLLAOS, the territory ofthe missions which forms part of the former pro-vince, and which is a reduccion of the infidel moun-tain Indians, who have been converted by themonks of St. Francis: these Indians are main-tained by a portion paid by the kin«?’s procuratorout of the royal coffers at Lima. They dwell tothe e. of the province, and are reduced to foursettlements ; two of the Ibita, and two of the Cho-lona nation. It is now 90 years since their foun-dation, and the number of Indians may at presentamount to 2000. Those settlements are situateupon mountains covered with trees and thickwoods ; from whence the natives procure incense,cffCflo, resinous gums, oil of Maria, dragon’s blood,the reed called bejuco^ dried fish, honey, wax,monkeys, parrots, and macaws, whicli^ are thebranches of its commerce ; tliough not less so isthe coca plant, which they pack up in measures offour bushels each , and carry in abundance to differentparts, for the consumption of the whole province.The missionaries of the above order have madevarious attempts, and have spared neither painsnor labour in penetrating into the interior parts ofthe mountains ; having repeatedly discovered otherbarbarous nations, whom they would fain have re-duced to the divine knowledge of the gospel.
The aforesaid settlements are,
Jesus de Sion, San Buenaventura,
Jesus de Ochonache, Pisano.
CAXATAMBO, a province and corregimientoof Peru, bounded n. by that of Huailas, n. e. bythat of Conchuios, e. by that of Huamalies, s. e.by that of Tarma, s. by the part of Chancay calledChecras, s. e. by the low part of Chancay, and n.w. by that of Santa. It is in length 34 leagues n. e.s. w. and 32 in width n. w. s. e. ; the greaterpart of it is situate in a serrama. Its temperatureis consequently cold, except in the broken and un-even spots and in the low lands. Besides the pro-ductions peculiar to the serrama., this provinceabounds in all sorts of seeds and fruits; in allspecies of cattle, especially of the sheep kind, fromthe fleece of whicli its inhabitants manufacturemuch cloth peculiar to the country ; this beingthe principal source of its commerce. It producessome grain and cochineal, used for dyes ; and if thislatter article were cultivated, it would bring greatprofit. Amongst tlie mountains of this provincethere is one called Huilagirca of fine flint, and twomines of sulphur and alcaparrosa, articles employedin the colouring of wools, not only in this province,
but in those of Huanuco, Huamalies, and Jauja:It has also mines of good yeso or gypsum. Theprincipal rivers by which it is irrigated, are twowhich rise in the same soil, and both of which enterthe S. sea, after having laved the contiguous pro-vinces ^ in former times there were fine silver mines,which are still worked, but for some reason or other,to very little profit. On the n. c. part, on some emi-nences, is a spot called Las Tres Cruces, (The ThreeCrosses), there being as many of these fixed up hereto determine its boundaries, and that of the pro-vince of Santa Huailas. Its population consists ofthe 69 following settlements : its repartimiento usedto amount to 1^0, (XX) dollars, and the akavala to1046 dollars per annum.
Caxatambo, the ca-
A cay a,
Palpas, distinct from
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ment of the province and corre^innenlo of Hiia-machuco in Peru ; one of the lour divisions of thecuracy of Estancias.
CHUQUIYAPU, an ancient province of Peru,which was conquered and united to the empire byMayta Capac, fourth Emperor of the Incas, afterthe famous battle and victory of Huallu againstthe Collas Indians. It is tolerably well j, copied,and of a cold climate. Its territory abounds inexcellent pastures, iti which there are great quan-tities of cattle. In some parts, where the tempera-ture is hot, there is found maize, cacao, and sugar-cane. This country abountls in woods, and inthese are found tigers, leopards, stags, and mon-keys of many dilFerent species.
[CHURCH Creek Town, in Dorchestercounty, Maryland, lies at the head of Churchcreek, a branch of Hudson river, seven miles $.w.from Cambridge.]
[Church Hill, a village in Queen Ann’s county,Maryland, at tlie head of S. E. Creek, a branch ofChester river, n. w. of Bridgetown, and n. e. ofCentreville eight miles, and 85 s. w. from Phila-delphia. Lat. 39° 6' n. Long. 76° 10' a?.]
CHURCHILL, a great river of New S. Wales,one of tlie provinces of N. America, at the mouthof which the English Hudson bay company have afort and establishment; situate in lat. 59° w. andlong. 94° 12' w. The commerce of this place isgreat and lucrative, and on account of its greatdistance entirely secure from any disturbance fromthe French. In 1747 the number of castor-skins,which were brought by 100 Indians to this spot intheir canoes, amounted to 20,000. Several otherkinds of skins were also brought from the n, by200 other Indians ; some of whom came hither bythe river Seals, or Marine Wolves, 15 leagues tothe s. of the fort. To the n. of this fort there areno castors, since there arc no woods where theseanimals are found, though there are many otherwoods Avhich abound in wolves, bears, foxes, buf-faloes, and other animals whose skins are valuable.Here are great quantities of shrubs or small trees,planted by the factory, supplying timber ; but theopposite side, of the river is most favourable to theirgrowth ; and at a still greater distance are foundlarge trees of various kinds. The company re-siding in the fort is exposed to many risks, andobliged to inhabit a rock surrounded by frosts andsnows for eight months in the year, being exposedto all the winds and tempests. On account of thedeficiency of pasture, they maintain near the fac-tory no more than four or five horses, and a bullw ith two cows ; for the maintenance of which du-ring the winter, fodder is brought from a fennybottom some miles distant from the river. Thosewho have been hero allirm, that between this riverand the river Nelson there is, at a great distanceup the country, a communication or narrow passof land, by which these rivers are divided; and theIndians who carry on this traffic, have dealingswith the English navigating the river Nelson orAlbany. [See New Britain.]
[CHURCHTOWN, a village so called, in then. e. part of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, about20 miles e.n.e. of Lancaster, and 50w.n.w.oi'Philadelphia. It has 12 houses, and an episcopalchurch ; and m the environs are two forges, which
|manufacture about 450 tons of bar iron annually.|
It has some celebrated fountains of mineral waters,
CHURUMACO, a settlement of the head settle-ment and dlealdia mayor of Cinagua in NuevaEspaña ; situate in a dry and warm country ; onwhich account the seeds scarcely ever come to ma-turity, save those of maize ; melons indeed growin abundance, owing to the cultivation they find,and from water being brought to them from a riverwhich runs at least a league’s distance from thethe settlement. In its district are several herds oflarge cattle, which form the principal branch ofthe commerce of the inhabitants : these consist of80 families of Indians. In its limits are also foundsome ranchos, in which reside 22 families of Spa-niards, and 34 of Mustees and Mulattoes. At ashort distance is the mountain called Ynguaran, inwhich copper mines are found, though this metalhas not been observed much to abound. Fourleagues to the e. of its capital.
CHYAIZAQUES, a barbarous nation, and
CURAMPA, an ancient settlement of the pro-vince of Chinchasuyu in Peru. The Prince Ya-huar Huacar, eldest, son of the first Emperor, theInca Roca, took it by force of arms, and subjectedit to the crown. It was then one of the strongplaces of the province.
CURAUAUA, a river of the kingdom of Chile,in the district and jurisdiction which belonged tothe city Imperial. It runs w. and forms Avith theEyou the great lake of Puren, out of which it runson the 5. w. side, uniting itself with the Cauten,or the Imperial.
CURASAY a large and navigable river of theprovince and government of Maynas in the king-dom of Quito. It rises in the paramos of 'i'a-cunga, and after running e. for more than 90leagues, enters the Napo ; first collecting the wa-ters of the Soetuno, Noesino, and Turibuno, onthen, and on the s. the Villano. The woods onthe s. are inhabited by some barbarous nations ofIquitos, Ayacores, and Scimugaes Indians, and the«. parts by the Yates and Zaparas.
enters the Orinoco, near the Angostura, or narrowpart.
CURASENI, a small river of the province andgovernment of San Juan de los Llanos in theNuevo Reyno de Granada. It runs e. and entersthe Orinoco between the settlements of the missionsAvhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, called Santa Teresa, and San Ignacio.
CURAZAICILLO, a small river of the pro-vince and government of Mainas in the kingdomof Quito. It rises in the country of the AbijirasIndians, runs e. and turning afterwards to the n.enters the Napo, close to the settlement of Oravia.
CURIANCHE, an habitation or palace, builtby the first Emperor of the Incas, Manco Capac,of very large stones, and covered with straAv; fromAvhence the city of Cuzco has its origin. Thispalace was afterwards dedicated to the sun, andbecame converted into a temple, being the mostbeautiful and rich structure of any in Peru, in thetime of the Indians; the inside of it being casedAvitb gold, and the outside with silver, these metals