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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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from s. to e. between 'the rivers Mechicor and St.John, and entering the sea at the mouth of thebay of Fundy.
AGREDA, or NUEVA MA'LAGA, a city of theprovince and government of Popayan, in the king-dom of Quito, founded by Geronimo Aguado in1541. It is small, and of a hot temperature, butabounds in gold mines. Forty-five leagues s. w.of its capital, 42 from Quito, and 37 to the e. ofthe S, sea.
Agua, a small island, situate near the k. coastof the island of Vaca, in the channel formed by theisland of St. Domingo, in front of the bay ofMesle.
==Agua de Culebra, SAN FRANCISCO XA-VIER DE LA==, 'a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Venezuela, a reduccionof Indians ofthe Capuchin fathers ; but the place is also inha-bited by some Spanish families. It belongs to the
district and jurisdiction of the city of San Felipe ;and in its vicinity dwell a great number of peoplein the estates belonging to it, and which produceabundance of cacao, plantains, yucas, and othervegetable productions.
AGUACAGUA, a settlement of the provinceof Guayana, and government of Cumana, one ofthose belonging to the missions of the CatalanianCapuchin fathers. It is on the shore of the riverCaroni, near the mouth, through which this en-ters the Orinoco. Lat. 8° 22' n. Long. 62^42' w.
AGUACATLAN, the head settlement of thedistrict of the alcaldia mayor of Xala in N uevaEspana. In 1745 it contained 80 families of In-dians, who employed themselves in the culture ofmaize and French beans. It has a convent of thereligious order of St. Francis, and lies two leaguess. e. of its capital.
AGUADA, a settlement of the island of Porto-rico ; situate in the bay of its name (Aguda), between thecapes Boriquen and St. Francis. It serves as aninlet for ships going to Tierra Firme and NuevaEspana to take in water. [Lat. 18° 23' «. Long.67° 6' a;.]
Aguada (Small river), a small river of the province and
America, having an excellent port, three leaguesin length, and in which there are many othersmall islands. On the adjoining mainland thereis a river called De Salmones, (salmon), on ac-count of its abounding with these fish, of whichindeed great quantities are taken, as they are es-teemed the finest species of fish of any in that partof the world .
Canseau, a small settlement of the sameisland, which was burnt by the French in the warof 1744.
Canseau, a cape of the same island, at the en-trance of the straits, and also a sand-bank at themouth of them.
CANTA, a province and government of Peru,bounded on the n. e. and e. by Tarma, on the w.by Chancay, partly by the corregimiento of Cer-cado, and on the s. by Huarochiri. It is 24leagues in length n. to s. and 35 in width e. to w.Its territory is generally uneven, being in the cor-dillera. It has some deep pits or canals, on thesides of which, and in small spots, they sow andcultivate vegetables, fruits, and potatoes. Thebreed of cattle is by no means inconsiderable here,and there are to be found most of the wild animalswhich are natives of the sierra, namely, vicuñas,(wild goats), and sheep peculiar to these countries,and differing from those of Europe. In this pro-vince as well as in nearly all those of the sierra,there is scarcely any wood for the purposes ofcooking, and this want is supplied by the use ofturf, which makes a lively fire, but which is veryapt to smoke. Those parts which are called que-bradas, or rugged and uneven, are very sickly,and are subject to two species of maladies com-mon to other cold climates in this country ; theone is that of warts, which not budding in duetime, often become exceedingly troublesome, andeven dangerous ; the other of corrosive sores,shewing themselves particularly upon the face,and are difficult to be cured, and which are attri-buted to the sting of an insect called uta. Somemines of silver were formerly worked here, whichwere so abundant, that they used to render 200marks each cajon, (an excavation of 20 feet square,more or less), but these, from not being regularlyworked, are filled with water. Here are also twohills of loadstone, as also some minerals of alum,copper, and red lead. The following rivers taketheir rise in this province : The Carabaya from thelakes Tacaimbaba and Lorococha, which emptythemselves into the sea on the n. of Lima ; andthe Pasamayo, which runs to the s. of Chancay,first receiving the waters of some hot medicitialsprings. Its corregidor used to receive a repar-
timiento of 125,000 dollars, and it paid yearly1000 for alcavala.
The capital is a town of the same name, in lat.11° 10' s. and its jurisdiction comprehends 62others, which are,
Santa Cruz, Baños,
Santa Catarina, Carae,
Chauca, San Agustin,
Culli, San Buenaventura,
Atabillos Altos, San Lorenzo,
Huanoquin, Atabillos Baxos,
San Juan, San Joseph,
San Miguel, Quizú.
CANTANABALO, a river of the province andgovernment of San Juan de los Llanos in thenew kingdom of Granada. It rises between theCaviusari and the Sinaruco, and running nearlyparallel with them, enters into the Orinoco.
CANTERBURY, a fort of the province ofHampshire, one of the four composing the colonyof New England. It is built on the shore of theriver Pennycook, and at the mouth of the water-course formed by the lake Winnipisiokee.
Massachusetts, incorporated in 1797, it beingformerly the n. part of Stoughton.)
CANZE, a river of the colony and govern-ment of Surinam, in the part of Guayana possessedby the Dutch. It rises between the Berbice andthe Corentin, and after a very round-about course,enters the former, close to its mouth, or where itruns into the sea.
CAO, Santa Maria Magdalena de, asettlement of the province and corregimiento ofTruxillo in Peru, situate in the valley of Chicama.It was the capital in the time of the Indians, andthe number of these 200 years ago was 3000 ; butnow it is reduced to a wretched state, and occu-pies a small spot on the other side of the river,being nine leagues distant from its capital.
Cao, with the dedicatory title of Santiago, todistinguish it from another settlement of the sameprovince and corregimiento, although they areboth equally poor and reduced. Its inhabitantsmaintain themselves by the cultivation of maize,wheat, rice, and vegetables, which they carryfor sale to the other provinces, so that they arefor the most part a race of carriers, and indeedpossess no inconsiderable droves of mules. It issix leagues from its capital, just by the sea.
CAOBAS, River of the, in the island of St.Domingo, in that part possessed by the French.It rises in the valley of San Juan, runs to the w.and afterwards changing its course to the n. w. en-ters the Artibonito.
Cassipa, into which it enters ; and afterwardsrunning out at the n. side of this lake, it findsits way through a subterraneous passage, until itempties itself into the Orinoco, on its s. shore.The borders of this river are inhabited by anation of barbarous Indians, who wander con-tinually through the forests without any fixedabode. They are cannibals as well as the otherIndian tribes around them, and with whom theykeep up a continual warfare.
Capachica, a narrow strip of land formed bythe great lake Titicaca. Of these strips there arethree, and this appears, for the distance of a league,to be completely divided from any main land.
CAPACHO, a village under the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Christoval, in the new kingdom ofGranada ; of a warm temperature ; abounding insugar-cane, from which much sugar is manufac-tured, and in cacao ; but it is much infested bythe barbarian Indians, called the Motilones (short-haired), who destroy the plantations. It contains200 house- keepers, and is 24; leagues n. e. ofPamplona, in the road which leads to Mérida andLa Grita, and eight leagues from the city of SanChristoval.
Capaia, a river of the same province and go-vernment, which rises in the serranía, and aftermaking many turnings runs into the sea, near thecape Codera towards the e.
It is distant 30 leagues to the n. of Tunja, andeight from the town of Suata.
CAPIUARI, a small river of the province andcaptainship of San Vincente in Brazil. It risesin the mountains near the coast, runs almost di-rectly from e. to w. and enters the Harihambu orTiete, between the Piraciacaba and Jundiaya.
Capiuari, another river of the province and go-vernment of the Chiquitos Indians, and in the king-dom of Peru ; it rises to the s. e. of the settlementof San Rafael, runs to the n. and enters the Yteneswith a slight inclination to the n. w.
CAPLITOILGUA, an island of the N. sea, inthe straits De Magellan, one of those which form thes. coast, at the mouth of the canal of St. Isidro.
Caplitoilgua, a bay in the former island.
Capot, a bay on the coast of the same island,on its n. w. side, between the town of Carbet andthe bay of Giraumont.
CAPUCINS, Morne des, or Morro de los
Capuchinos, a mountain of the island of Mar-tinique, at the back of the city of fort Royal.
CAPUE, with the addition of Baxo (low), to dis-tinguish it ; another settlement of the same islandand dominion as the former.
CAPUIO, a small settlement of the head settle-ment of Etuquaro, and alcaldía mayor of Vallado-lid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán ;in which district there are some cultivated lands,and in these, as well as in the settlement, residesome Spanish families, and some of the Musteesand Indians, who gain their livelihood in tilling theground, in making lime, and cutting wood. Fourleagues w. of its capital.
CAPULA, a village of a small settlement of thehead settlement and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec inNueva España ; situate in the cleft or hollow partof a mountain covered with trees ; its inhabitants,who consist of 63 Indian families, make charcoaland timber, these being the articles of their com-merce.
CAPULALPA, San Simon de, a small settle-ment of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor ofTezcoco in Nueva España, situate on the top of ahill; it has a very good convent of Franciscans,and contains 75 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes,and Mustees, and 196 of Indians : its territory isvery fertile, and the most luxuriant of any in thesame jurisdiction ; notwithstanding there is a lackof moisture, there being no running streams. Theyare used to gather most abundant crops of wheat,maize, barley, vetches, beans, and French beans ;they have large breeds of hogs, both in the villageand in the farms and neighbouring fattening stalls,which they carry for sale to Mexico, to La Puebla,and other parts. One league n. of its capital.
CAPULUAC, San Bartolome de, a headsettlement of the alcaldia mayor of Metepec inNueva España; it contains 524 Indian families,including those who inhabit the wards of its dis-trict, and it is two leagues to the s. e. of its capital.
Rio Negro, on a great island formed by this riverand that of Pasimoni.
Carlos, San, a settlement (with the surnameof Real) of the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the shore of the river La Plata,near the colony of Sacramento, which belonged tothe Portuguese. In its vicinty, on the n. n. e. part,there is a lake of very good sweet water.
Carlos, San, a valley in the province and go-vernment of Tucumán, which is very fertile invines, wheat, maize, carob-trees, tar, and in birdsand animals of the chase. Its natives are thosewho most of all infested the Spaniards when theyconquered this province.
Carlos, San, another, of the province andcountry of Las Amazonas ; a reduccion of the mis-sions which were held there by the regulars of thesociety of Jesuits. It lies between the rivers Arau-caso and Shiquita, in the territory of the Cahu-maris Indians.
Carlos, San, some sierras or mountains, calledDe Don Carlos, in the province and captainship ofRey in Brazil. They run parallel to the sierra ofLos Difuntos, in the extremity of the coast formedby the mouth of the river La Plata.
CARLOSAMA, a large settlement of Indians ofthe province and corregimiento of Pastes in thekingdom of Quito, on the 5. shore of the river ofits name. Its territory is most fertile, but the cli-mate is very cold, and the streets almost always
Impassable. It is to the zo. n. zo. of the settlementof Ipialos, and e. n. e. of that of Cumbal.
CARMEN, a river of the province and colony ofSurinam, in the part of Guayana possessed by theDutch. It rises in the sierra of Rinocote, runsfrom w. to e. and gathering the waters of manyothers, enters in a large body into the Mazar-roni.
Carmen, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cartagena ; situate in the district ofthe mountains of Marca, between those of San Ja-cinto and San Francisco de Asis. It is one ofthose new settlements that were founded by the Go-vemor Don Juan Pimienta in 1776.
Carmen, another, in the same kingdom ; situatenear a stream and on the shore of the river Tocan-tines, on the e. side, and not far from the Arrayalof San Feliz.
San Nicolas de laPaz,
San J uan de lasPalmas,
San Nicolas deBari,
San Bernardo A-bad,
Tiquicio de Aden-tro,
Tiquicio de Afu-era,
Zienega del Oro,San Carlos de Co-losina.
San Geronimo deBuenavista.
The capital is a large city adorned with beauti-ful buildings, founded by Pedro de Heredia in1533, on the shore of a great and very convenientbay more than two leagues in length. It was call-ed Calamari in the time of the Indians, which sig-nifies, in their language, the land of craw-fish, fromthe abundance of these found in it. It is situateon a sandy island, which forming a narrow strait,gives a communication to the part called TierraBomba ; on the left it is entered by a woodenbridge, having a suburb called Xiximani, whichis another island uniting with the continent bymeans of a bridge in the same manner as itself.It is well fortified, and is the residence of a go-vernor, with the title of captain-general, dependenton the viceroy of Santa Fe, having beeu indepen-dent till the year 1739. Besides the precinct andbastions, it has a half-moon, which defends theentrance or gate ; and at a small distance is thecastle of San Felipe de Baraxas, situate on aneminence, and on the side of the bay the castles ofSan Luis, Santa Cruz, San Joseph, San P'elipe,and Pastelillo, which were rebuilt in a modernmanner, in 1654;, by the Lieutenant-general DonIgnacio de Sala, with the names of San Fernando,San Joseph, El Angel, and El Pastelillo. Thecathedral church is magnificent, and included in itis the parish of Sagrario, besides two other pa-rishes called La Trinidad and Santo Toribo. Ithas the convents of monks of St. Francisco, St.Domingo, St. Augustin, St. Diego, La Merced,and San Juan de Dios, which is an hospital, andsituate at the top of a high mountain without thewalls of the city, at a quarter of a league’s dis-tance from the convent of the barefooted Augustins,called Nuestra Senora de la Popa ; to this con-vent vessels are accustomed to offer up a salutationas soon as they discover it at sea. It has also acollege which belonged to the society of Jesuits,a convent of Santa Clara, one of the Observersof San Francisco, and another of barefooted Car-
melites. At a small distance without the city isthe hospital of San Lazaro for lepers, which ma-lady is epidemical in the country. It has also atribunal of the inquisition, established in 1610, ofwhich there is only three in all America, and put-tingthis city, in this pointof view, onafooting withthe metropolitan cities Lima and Mexico. It is thehead of a bishopric erected in 1534 by his holinessClement VII. The bay abounds in fish of variouskinds, but it is infested by marine wolves. Theclimate of this city is very hot ; from May to No-vember, which are the winter months, thunder,rain, and tempests are very frequent, but fromthis inconvenience they derive an advantage offilling with water their cisterns, called aijibes, andwhich afford them the only supply of this inostnecessary article ; accordingly every house is fur-nished with one of these cisterns : from Decemberto April, which is the summer, the heat is exces-sive, occasioning continual perspiration, whichdebilitates the frame, and causes the inhabitants tohave a pale and unhealthy appearance, althoughthey nevertheless enjoy good health, it being notunusual to find amongst them persons exceeding80 years of age. The irregularity of this climateproduces several very afflicting disorders, as theblack vomit, which is most common amongststrangers and sea-faring people, few of whom havethe luck to escape it, but no person ever has ittwice. The inhabitants are likewise much trou-bled with the leprosy, or disease of St. Lazarus ; theculebrilla, which is an insect which breeds under theskin, and causes a swelling which is accustomed toterminate in gangrene and spasms or convulsions :besides these inconveniences, there are multitudesof troublesome insects which infest the houses,such as beetles, niguas, scorpions, centipeds, andmorcielagos. The largest trees are the caob, thecedar, the maria, and balsam ; of the first aremade canoes, out of the solid trunk, for fishing andcommerce ; the red cedar is better than the white,and the two last, not to mention their utility fromthe compactness of their timber, for their delicioussmell and beautiful colour, are the trees fromwhence are procured those admirable distillationscalled the oil of Maria and balsam of Tolu. Hereare also tamarind trees, medlars, sapotas, papai/as,cassias, and Indian apple trees, producing deli-cate and pleasant fruits ; the fruit, however, of thelast mentioned is poisonous, and many who, de-ceived by the beauty of these apples, have therashness to taste them, soon repent of their folly,for they immediately swell to a distressing degree :so if perchance any one should sleep under itsbranches, he will be afflicted in the same way.
Were Held by the Jesuits, in the province and go-vernment of Paraguay ; situate almost to the s, ofVilla Rica.
CASA-PIEDRA, a settlement of this province andkingdom ; situate near the coast and upon the shoreof a river thus called.
Casa-Piedra, a river which runs s. s. e. in thisprovince, and joins the sea very near Cape Frio.
Casarida. This river rises near the coast, runsn. and enters the sea.
CASAUATAI, a river of the province andcountry of the Amazonas : it rises from the lake ofthe Gran Cocama, in 6 ° 48' s. hit. runs to the s. ofthe Maraiion, and following its course towards then. for more than 25 leagues, runs e. to enter theUcayale on its e. side, and afterwards to receivethe waters of the Zapofe.
CASCABELES, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito :it rises near the ruins of the city of Simancas, andenters the river Caqueta, where are also the ruinsof the city of Mocoa.
CASCAS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Conturnaza ; in the district of whichthere is, at three leagues distance, a large piece ofhewn stone of 13 yards long and three quarters of ayard wide on every face, particularly rough andunpolished.
Cascas, a large swamp of the province and go-vernment of San Juan de los Llanos, which isformed from different arms of the rivers Sarare andApure, and communicates itself with the lake ofArechona ; both of these lakes being near the lastriver, and at the skirt of ihe paramo or mountain de-sert of Chisgas.
(CASCO Bay, in the district of Maine, spreadsn. w. between cape Elizabeth on the s. w. and capeSmall Point on the n. e. Within these points,which are about 40 miles apart, are about 300 smallislands, some of which are inhabited, and nearlyall more or less cultivated. The land on theseislands, and on the opposite coast on the main, isthe best for agriculture of any on the sea-coast ofthis country. Casco includes several bays. Maquoitbay lays about 20 miles n. of cape Elizabeth. Thewaters of Casco extend several arms or creeks ofsalt water into the country. The waters go upMeadow’s river, where vessels of a considerablesize are carried by the tide, and where it flowswithin one mile of the waters of Kennebeck. Onthe e. side of cape Elizabeth is the arm of the seacalled Stroudwater. Farther e. is Presumpscotriver, formerly called Presumpea, or Presumpkeag,which rises in Sebago Pond. This river opens tothe waters of Casco bay on the e. of Portland ; itsextent is not great, but it has several valuable millsupon it. Rayal’s river, called by the nativesW estecustego, falls into the bay six miles from
vince and government, on the shore of the riverMasparro, between the cities of New and Old Ba-rinas.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and government of La Sonora in NuevaEspana ; situate in the country of the SobaipurisIndians, on the shore of a river which enters theGila, between the settlements of San Cosme andSan Angelo.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of theprovince and alcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in thekingdom of Guatemala.
Catalina, Santa, an island of the N. sea,near the coast of Tierra Firme, opposite the Escu-do de Veraguas. It is of a good temperature, fer-tile, and abounding in cattle and fruits. It had init a settlement defended by two castles, called San-tiago and Santa Teresa; which, together with thetown, were destroyed by an English pirate, JohnMorgan, who took the island in 1665 ; and al-though it was recovered in the same year by thepresident of Panama and Colonel Don J uan Perezde Guzman, it remained abandoned and desert.
Catalina, Santa, a valley, in which there isalso a small settlement, in the Nuevo Reyno deLeon ; annexed to the curacy of its capital, fromwhence it lies three leagues to the w. It contains20 families in its neighbourhood, and producesonly some sorts of pulse and some goats.
CATAMAIU, a large and rapid river of theprovince and government of Loxa in the kingdomof Quito, also called Chira, at the part where itenters the sea. It rises in the paramo or desertmountain of Sabanilla ; and collecting the watersof several smaller rivers, runs from s. to n.until it unites itself with tlie Gonzanama, whichenters it on the s. side, in lat. S° 47' s. ; it thenturns its course to the xo. and afterwards to the5 . w. and receives the tributary streams of therivers Quiros, Macara, and Pelingara ; all ofwhich enter it on the s. side. Being swelled withthese, it takes the name of Amotape, from the settle-ment of this name, situate on its shore. Near itsmouth this river is called Colan, and it empties it-self into the sea in the corregimiento and provinceofPiura. The countries which it laves are fertileand beautiful, and its banks are covered with or-chards and plantations of sugar-canes of the terri-tory of Loxa. The climate here is very hot, andin the valleys formed by this river the inhabitantsare much afflicted with the tertian fever ; its wa-ters are generally very cold and unwliolesonic.
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(==CATORCE, or La Purissima ConcepcionDe Alamos de Catorce==, one of the richest minesof New Spain, and in the intendancy of San LuisPotosi. The real de Catorce, however, has onlybeen in existence since 1773, when Don SebastianCoronado and Don Bernarbe Antonio de Zepedadiscovered these celebrated seams, which yield an-nually the value of more than from 18 to ^20 mil-lions of francs, or from 730,460/. to 833,500/.sterling.)
CAUAILLON, a settlement and parish of theFrench, in their possessions in St. Domingo ; situ-ate on the coast and at the w. head, near the bayof its name, between the settlements of Torbec andLos Cayos.
CAUAIU, a small river of the same provinceand government as the former. It runs w. andenters the Parana, between the rivers Verde andYocare-mini.
Cauaiu, a bay of the same island, opposite theIsla Vaca or Cow island.
CAUASAN, San Francisco Xavier de, atown of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate in the midst of the sierraof Topia, on the coast of the S. sea, on the shoreof the river Plastin. It has a small port for lesservessels, which has oftentimes been invaded byenemies. It is a curacy administered by the cler-gy, and to which two small settlements of MexicaaIndians are annexed.
CAUCA, a large and copious river of the pro-vince and government of Popayán, which risesin the mountains of the government of Mariquita,and running 160 leagues from s. to?i. in whichcourse it collects the ’waters of many other rivers,it passes near the cities of Popaj'iin, Buga, Cali,and Anserma ; from whence it is navigable until itenters the large river of the Magdalena. It is verynarrow where it passes through the cities of Po-payan and Antioquia, and forms the letter S, tak-ing its course through rocks, which render its na-vigation very dangerous. The Indians, however,are so dexterous in guarding their canoes fromrunning against the rocks by paddles, that it isvery seldom indeed that any accident occurs tothem. They call this strait Las Mamas de Cara-manta, from a city which was here of this name.Many make this navigation for the purpose ofavoiding a round-about journey of many days, andin a bad road through the mountains ; and it issaid that some have had the good fortune to dis-cover a route by water free from all difficulties,and that this was actually made by the pontificateof the bishop of Popayan, Don Diego de Mon-toy.
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DEL PUERTO, a city of the province and go-vernment of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; founded by Gaspar de Kodas, on thespot of the Matanza of Valdivia, in 1676. It haschanged its place several times, on account of thebadness of.its temperature : and, lastly, in the year1588, it was removed by Francisco Redondo tothe spot where it now stands : is one league fromthe river Cauca, on a very steep declivity, whichis also of an unhealthy temperature, althoughabounding greatly in gold mines, which are,however, but little worked. Jt is the nativeplace of,
Fr. Marcos Vetancur, provincial of St. Domingoin Santa Fe:
Fr. Lorenzo de Figueroa, of the province ofSan Francisco :
Don Andres de Vetancur, elected bishop ofLa Concepcion in Chile;
Fr. Diego de Figueroa, provincial of San Augus-tin in Santa Fe : and
Don Luis de Vetancur, precentor of Quito, in-quisitor of Lima, and bishop-elect of Popayan ;all brothers, and men of singular virtue andlearning.
CECILIA, Dona, a settlement of the provinceand government of Santa Marta in the kingdomof Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore of the largeriver Magdalena, opposite the lake Zapatosa, threeleagues from the town of Mompox.
(CEDAR Point, a port of entry in Charlescounty, Maryland, on the e. side of Potowmacriver, about 12 miles below port Tobacco, and 96s. by w. of Baltimore. Its exports are chiefly to-bacco and Indian corn, and in 1794 amounted invalue to 18,593 dollars.)
Cedar, a river of the province and colony of
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Pennsylvania, which traverses New Jersey, andenters the sea.
CELAYA, a town of the intendancy of Gua-naxuato in the kingdom of Nueva Espana.Sumptuous edifices have been recently constructedhere, as also at Queretaro and Guanaxuato. Thechurch of the Carmelites of Celaya has a fineappearance ; it is adorned with Corinthian andIonic columns. Its height is 1833 metres, or 6018feet.
CENGUYO, San Pedro de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Yrimbo, and alcaldia mayorof Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacan,and kingdom of Nueva Espaiia. It contains 60families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n. zo.of its head settlement.
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ters the sea between the river Rosa and the settle-ment and parisli of Cul de Sac.
CERINZA, a settlement of the corregimiento ofTunja in tlie Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of acold temperature, and abounds in cattle and theproductions peculiar to the climate. It contains300 families, and lies in a valley, from which ittakes its name.
CERMEN, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Venezuela ; situate on the side ofthe town of San Felipe, towards the e. betweenthis town and the settlement of Agua Culebras, onthe shore of the river Iraqui.
CERRALUO, a town and presidency of theNuevo Reyno de Leon, garrisoned by a squadronof 12 soldiers and a captain, who is governor ofthis district, for the'purpose of restraining the bor-dering infidel Indians. Between the e. and n. isthe large river of this name ; and from this begins atract of extensive country, inhabited by barba-rous nations, who impede the communication andcommerce Avith regard to this part and the pro-vinces of Tejas and Nuevas Felipinas. Is 35leagues to the e. of its capital.
Cerraluo, a bay of the coast and gulf of Ca-lifornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, opposite an islandwhich is also thus called ; the one and theother hav-ing been named out of compliment to the Marquis ofCerraluo, viceroy of Nueva Espana. TJie afore-said island is large, and lies between the formerbay and the coast of Nueva Espana.
Cerrito, another, with the surname of SantaAna. See Ctuayaquie.
==Cerro, another, called San Miguel de CerroGordo==, which is a garrison of the province of Te-peguana in the kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. Itssituation is similar to the road which leads to it,namely, a plain level surface ; although, indeed,it is divided by a declivity, in ivhich there is apool of water, and by Avhich passengers usuallypass. This garrison is the residence of a captain,a Serjeant , and 28 soldiers, who are appointed tosuppress the sallies of the infidel Indians. In itsvicinity is a cultivated estate, having a beautifulorchard, abounding in fruit-trees and in zepas,which also produce fruit of a delicious flavour.The garrison lies 50 leagues n. w. of the capitalGuadiana.
Cerros, San Felipe de los, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Uruapa, and alcaldia mayorof Valladolid, in the province and bishopric ofMcchoacan. It contains 26 families of Indians,and lies eight leagues to the e. of its head settle-ment, and 10 from the capital.
CESARA, a large and copious river of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, which was called bythe Indians Pompatao, meaning in their idiom,“ the lord of all rivers,” is formed of severalsmall rivers, which flow down from the snowysierras of Santa Marta. It runs s. leaving the ex-tensive llamtras of Upar until it reaches the lakeZapatosa, from whence itj issues, divided into fourarms, which afterwards unite, and so, following acourse of 70 leagues to the w, enters the Magda-lena on the <?. side, and to the s. of the little settle-ment called Banco.
CESARES, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe kingdom of Chile towards the s. Of themare told many fabulous accounts, although theyare, in fact, but little known. Some believe themto be formed of Spaniards and Indians, being thoseAvho Avere lost in the straits of Magellan, and be-longed to the armada which, at the beginning ofthe conquest of America, Avas sent by the bishop ofPlacencia to discover the Malucas. Others pre-tend that the Arucanos, after they had destroyedthe city of Osonio, in 1599, took aAvay with themthe Spanish Avomen ; and that it Avas from the pro-duction of these Avomen and the Indiatis that thisnation of the Cesares arose. Certain it is, that theyare of an agreeable colour, of a pleasing aspect,and of good dispositions. They have some lightof Christianity, live without any fixed abode ; andsome have affirmed that they have heard the soundof bells in their territorj". It Avas attempted in1638, by the governor of Tucuman, Don Geronimo
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20. Don Ignacio de Flores, native of Quito,who had served as captain of cavalry in the regi-ment of the volunteers of Aragon, and who was go-vernor of the province of Moxos, being of the rankof colonel ; he was nominated as president by wayof reward for his services, in having been instru-mental to the pacification of the Indians of Peru,and to the succouring of the city of La Paz, whichwas besieged by rebels : he governed until 1786,when he was removed from the presidency.
Charcas, a ferocious and barbarous nation ofIndians of Peru, to the s.w. of the lakes of Aul-laga and of Paria ; conquered by Mayta Capac,fourth monarch of the Incas. At present theyare reduced to the Christian faith in the govern-ment of Chuquisaca or La Plata.
Santa Maria Charcas, a settlement, with the dedicatory titleof Santa Maria, being the real of the mines of thekingdom of Nueva Galicia, in which are markedthe boundaries of its jurisdiction, and those ofNueva Espana, the last district of the bishopric ofMechoacan. It contains a convent of the religi-ous order of St. Francis, and 50 families of Spa-niards, ilfwstees, and Mulattoes, as also many of In-dians dispersed in the rancherias and the estatesof its district: is 130 leagues to the n. J to then. w. of Mexico, 75 from Guadalaxera, and 18 tothe n. e. of the sierra of Pinos. Lat. 22° 55'.Long. 100° 40'.
Charcas, another settlement and real of themines of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate two leagues from thecapital. In its vicinity are the estates of Panuco,in which they work with quicksilver the metals ofthe mines. To its curacy, which is adminsteredby one of the Catholic clergy, are annexed twosmall settlements of Serranos Indians, amongst whomare found some few of the Tepeguana nation.
(Charles River, in Massachusetts, called an-ciently Quinobequin, is a considerable stream,the principal branch of which rises from a pondbordering on Hopkinton. It passes through Hollis-ton and Bellingham, and divides Medway fromMed field, Wrentham, and Franklin, and thenceinto Dedham, where, by a curious bend, it forms apeninsula of 900 acres of land. A stream calledlother brook runs out of this river in this town,and falls into Neponsit river, forming a naturalcanal, uniting the two rivers, and affording a num-ber of excellent mill-seats. From Dedham thecourse of the river is n. dividing Newton fromNeedham, Weston, and Waltham, passing overromantic falls ; it then bends to the n. e. and e.through Watertown and Cambridge, and passinginto Boston harbour, mingles with the waters ofMystic river, at the point of the peninsula ofCharlestown. It is navigable for boats to Water-town, seven miles. The most remarkable bridgeson this river are those which connect Boston withCharlestown and Cambridge. SeeBosxoN. Thereareseven paper mills on this river, besides other mills.][Charles County, on the w. shore of Maryland,lies between Potowmack and Patuxent rivers. Itschief town is port Tobacco, on the river of thatname. Its extreme length is 28 miles, its breadth24, and it contains 20,613 inhabitants, including10,085 slaves. The country has few hills, is gene-rally low and sandy, and produces tobacco, Indiancorn, sweet potatoes, &c.)
CHARLES. See Carlos, San.
CHARLESTON, a capital city of S. Carolina,is one of the best of N. America, excelling inbeauty, grandeur, and commerce. It is situateupon a long strip of land between two navigablerivers, which are Ashley and Cowper, and thegreater part of it upon the latter. This forms inthe city two small bays, the one to the n. and theother to the s. The town is of a regular construc-tion, and well fortified both by nature and art,having six bastions and a line of entrenchment ; onthe side of the river Cowper it has the bastions of
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and pleasantly situated. Before the deslrnction oftil is town by the British in 1775, several brandiesof mannfadures were carried on to great advan-tage, some of which have been since revived : par-ticularly tlic manufacture of pot and pearl ashes,ship-building, rum, leather in all its branches,silver, tin, brass, and pewter. Three rope-walkshave lately been erected in this town, and tlie in-crease of its houses, population, trade, and naviga-tion, have been very great within a few' years past.This town is a port of entry in conjunction withBoston. At the head of the neck there is a bridgeover Mystic river, which connects Charlestown withMalden.)
CHARLESTOWN, another city of the island ofNevis, one of the Caribes, in the Antilles ; in w Inchthere are beautiful houses and shops well providedwith every thing ; is defended by a fort calledCharles. It has a market every Saturday, begin-ning at sun-rise and finishing at mid-day, whitherthe Negroes bring 'maize, names, garden-herbs,fruits, &c. In the parish of San Juan is a pieceof sulphureous land, in the upper extremity of anopening of the land, called Solfatara, or Sulphurgut, which is so hot as to be telt through the solesof the shoes when being trodden upon. At thefoot of the declivity of this same part of the city,is a small hot stream, called the Bath, which beingsupposed to rise from the aforesaid spot, loses itselfshortly in the sand. Towards the side lying nextthe sea are two fountains, one of hot water, theother of cold, and of these two are formed the lakeof Blackrock, the waters of which are of a moderatewarmth, and which lies to the n. of the city, beingnearly a quarter of a mile’s distance from the placewhere are caught eels and silver-fish, resemblingthe cod and slimgut in flavour, the latter of whichlias a head disproportioned to its body. [A prodi-gious piece ol Nevis mountain falling down in anearthquake several years ago, left a large vacuity,which is still to be seen. The altitude of thismountain, taken by a quadrant from Charlestownbay, is said to be a mile and a half perpendicular ;and from the said bay to the top, four miles. Thedeclivity from this mountain to the town is verysteep half-way, but afterwards easy of ascent.] InLat. 17° 8' u. and long. 62° 40' w.
Charlestown, another city of the island ofBarbadoes ; the situation of which is two leaguesfrom that of San Miguel. It has a good port de-fended by two castles ; the one beyoml the other,and both commanding the city and the road: inthe middle of them is a platform. Tlse inhabitantscarry on a great trade with the other islands.
county. New York, on the s. side of Mohawk river,about 32 miles w. of Schenectady. By the statecensus of 1796, 456 of the inhabitants are elec-tors.)
(Charlestown, a township in Mason county,Kentucky ; situate on the Ohio, at the mouth ofLauren’s creek. It contains but few houses, andis six miles n. of Washington, and 60 n. e. of Lex-ington. Lat. 38° 28' n.)
(Charlestown, a post town in Cheshire county,New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecticutriver, 30 miles s. of Dartmouth college, upwards of70 n. of Northampton, 116 n. of w. of Boston, 120w. by 71. of Portsmouth, and 431 n. n. e. of Phila-delphia. It was incorporated in 1753, and con-tains 90 or 100 houses, a Congregational church,a court-house, and an academy. The road fromBoston to Quebec passes through this town. Lat.43° 16' n. Long. 72° 23' w. A small internaltrade is carried on here.)
(Charlestown, a post town in Cecil county,Maryland, near the head of Chesapeak bay ; sixmites e. n. e. from the mouth of Susquehannahriver, 10 zo. s. w. from Elktown, and 50 s. w. by zb.from Philadelphia. Here are about 20 houses,chiefly inhabited by fishermen employed in theherring fishery. Lat. 39° 36' w.)
(Charlestown, a district in the lower countryof S. Carolina, subdivided into 14 parishes. Thislarge district, of which the city of Charleston is thechief town, lies between Santee and Combaheerivers. It pays 21,473/. 14s. 6d. sterling, taxes. Itsends to the state legislature 48 representatives and13 senators, and one member to congress. It con-tains 66,986 inhabitants, of whom only 16,352 arefree.)
(Charlestown, a township in Washingtoncounty, Rhode Island state, having the Atlanticocean on the s. and separated from Richmond on the71. by Charles river, a water of Fawcatiick. Some ofits ponds empty into Fawcatiick river, otliers intothe sea. It is 19 miles /L ti:;. of Newport, andcontains 2022 inhabitants, including 12 slaves. Afew years ago there w'ere about 500 Indians in thestate ; the greater part of them resided in tin's town-ship. They are peaceable and well disposed togovernment, and s|5cak the English language.)
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America called New South Wales. Its territoryconsists of a white dry sand, and it is covered withsmall trees and shrubs. This island has a beauti-ful appearance in the spring to those Avho discoverit after a voyage of three or four months, and afterhaving seen nothing but a multitude of mountainscovered with frost, which lie in the bay, and in thestrait of Hudson, and which are rocks petrifiedwith eternal ice. This island appears at that sea-son as though it were one heap of verdure. Theair at the bottom of the bay, although in 51“ of hit.and nearer to the sun than London, is excessivelycold for nine months, and extremely hot the remain-ing three, save when the n. w. wind prevails. Thesoil on the e. <^s well as on the w. side produces allkinds of grain and fruits of fine qualities, whichare cultivated on the shore of the river Rupert.Lat. 52“ 12' n. Long. 80“ w.
CHARO, Matlazingo, the alcaldía mayorof the province and bishopric of Mechoacán inNueva España, of a mild and dry temperature,being the extremity of the sierra of Otzumatlan ;the heights of which are intersected with manyveins of metals, which manifest themselves veryplainly, although they have never yet been dugout ; and in the wet seasons the clay or mud pitsrender the roads impassable. It is watered by theriver which rises in the pool or lake of Valladolid,and by which the crops of wheat, maize, lentils, andthe fruits peculiar to the place, are rendered fertileand productive. This reduced jurisdiction belongsto the Marquises of Valle, and is subject to theDukes of Terranova. Its population is reduced tosome ranchos, or meetings for the purpose of labour,and to the capital, which has the same name, andwhich contains a convent of the religious order ofSt. Augustin, this being one of the first templesbuilt by the Spaniards in this kingdom, the presentdilapidated state of it bearing ample testimony toits great antiquity. It contains 430 families ofPirindas Indians, employed in labour and in thecultivation of the land, and in making bread, whichis carried for the supply' of Valladolid, the neigh-bouring ranchos and estates. It should also have45 or 50 families of Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mulat-toes. Is .50 leagues to the w. of Mexico, and twoto the e. of Valladolid. Long. 100° 44'. Lat.19“34'.
CHARPENTIER, Fond du, a bay of the n. e.
coast of the island of Martinique, between the townand parish of Marigot and the Pan de Azucar.
CHARRUAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofParaguay, who inhabit the parts lying between therivers Parana and Uruguay. These Indians arethe most idle of any in America, and it has beenattempted in vain to reduce them to any thing likea civilized state.
Charruas, a settlement of this province andgovernment.
Charruas, a river of the same province, whichruns s. s. w. and enters the Paraná.
(Chartier’s Creek. See Canonsburg andMorganza.)
(CHARTRES, a fort which was built bythe French, on the e. side of the Mississippi,three miles n. of La Prairie du Rocher, or theRock meadows, and 12 miles n. of St. Genevieve,on the w. side of that river. It was abandoned in1772, being untenable by the constant washings ofthe Mississippi in high floods. The village s. ofthe fort was very inconsiderable in 1778. A mileabove this is a village settled by 170 warriors of thePiorias and Mitchigamias tribes of Illinois Indians,who are idle and debauched.)
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(CHATA-HATCHI, or Hatchi, is the largestriver which falls into St. Rose’s bay in W. Florida.It is also called Pea river, and runs from n. e. en-tering the bottom of the bay through severalmouths, but so shoal that only a small boat orcanoe can pass them. Mr. Hutchins ascended thisriver about 25 leagues, where there was a smallsettlement of Coussac Indians. The soil and tim-ber on the banks of the river resemble very muchthose of Escambia.)
(CHATAUCHE, or Chatahuthe, a river inGeorgia. The n. part of Apalachiola river bearsthis name. It is about SO rods wide, very rapid,and full of shoals. The lands on its banks are lightand sandy, and the clay of a bright red. Thelower creeks are settled in scattering clans and vil-lages from the head to the mouth of this river.Their huts and cabins, from the high colour of theclay, resemble clusters of new-burned brick kilns.The distance from this river to the Talapose river,is about 70 miles, by the war-path, which crossesat the falls, just above the town of the Tucka-batches.)
(CHATAUGHQUE Lake, in Ontario county.New York, is about 18 miles long, and three broad.Conewango river, which runs a s. s. e. course,connects it with Alleghany river. Tliis lake isconveniently situated fora communication betweenlake Erie and the Ohio ; there being water enoughfor boats from fort Franklin on the Alleghany tothe n. w. corner of this lake ; from thence there isa portage of nine miles to Cliatanghque harbour onlake Erie, over ground capable of being made agood waggon road. This communication was onceused by the French.)
niently for the fishery ; in which they have usuallyabout 40 vessels employed. It has 1140 inhabi-tants, and lies 95 miles s. e. of Boston. See CapeCod.)
(Chatham County, in Hillsborough district,N. Carolina, about the centre of the state. It con-tains 9221 inhabitants, of whom 1632 are slaves.Chief town, Pittsburg. The court-house is a fewmiles w. of Raleigh, on a branch of Cape Fearriver.)
(Chatham, a town of S. Carolina, in Cherawsdistrict ; situate in Chesterfield county, on the w.side of Great Pedee river. Its situation, in a highlycultivated and rich country, and at the head of anavigable river, bids fair to render it a place ofgreat importance. At present it has only about 30houses, lately built.)
(Chatham County, in the lower district ofGeorgia, lies in the n. e. corner of the state, havingthe Atlantic ocean e. and Savannah river n. e. Itcontains 10,769 inhabitants., including 8201 slaves.The chief toAvn is Savannah, tlie former capital ofthe state.)
(Chatham House, in the territory of the Hud-son bay company. Lat. 55° 28' n. Long. 97*32' w. from Greenwich.)
CHAUCHILLOS, a settlement of the province
cattle of all sorts; aiul there arc some gold mines,though they produce at present very sp:n ingly;some of the silver mines, Avhlch were very fruitful,have lately filled with water, and attempts havebeen made in vain to empty them. Indeed theonly mines which have produced any great wealthare those found in the mountains of Aullagas, andfrom them, for some years past, metals of therarest qualities have been extracted. In the woodsof the valleys, which produce very fine and excel-lent timber, are found wolves, tigers, and otherwild beasts inhabiting the mountains ; also aspecies of bees, which form their combs in the hol-lows of trees, and the honey of which they callde charas. There is a river in this province com-posed of several streams, and which unites itselfwith the Cochabamba. The number of its inha-bitants amounts to 36,000, who are divided into27 settlements. Its reparlimienfo used to amountto 92,665 dollars, and its n/cflxvife to 7-11 dollarsper annum. It is one of the richest provinces ofPeru.
The capital is of the same name, and the othersettlements are,
San Francisco dc Micani,San Marcos de Mirailo-res,
Santiago de l\Ioscari,
San Pedro de Buenavista,Acasio,
(CHEAT River rises in Randolph county,Virginia, and after pursuing a n. n. w. course, joinsMonongahela river, three or four miles within thePennsylvania line. It is 200 yards wide at itsmoutli, and 100 yards at the Dunkards settlement,50 miles higher, and is navigable for boats, exceptin dry seasons. There is a portage of 37 milesfrom this river to the Potowmack, at the mouth ofSavage river.)
nada, of a cold temperature. It lies between somemountains, and abounds in the produclioris of a,cold climate, such as wheat, maize, trullles, andbarley ; it consists of 100 house-keepers, and of40 Indians, all of Avliom are subject to the disorderof the cotos, or swelling of the throat; is 21leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.
CHEBEN, a river of Nova Scotia. It risesfrom a small lake near the settlement and fort ofSackville, runs n. and enters the Basin des Mines,or of the Mines, of the bay of Fundy.
(CHEBUCTO, a bay and harbour on the s. s. e.coast of Nova Scotia, distinguished by the loss ofa French fleet in a former war between Franceand Great Britain. Near the head of this bay,on the w. side, stands the city of Halifax, the ca-pital of the province.)
CHECHIRGANTI, a river of the provinceand government of Darien in the kingdom ofTierra Firme. It rises in the mountains on the n.side, runs n. and enters the sea in the small beechor playon, opposite the port of Calidonia.
CHECHAS. See Chancay.
(CHEDABUCTO, or Milford Haven, alarge and deep bay on the easternmost part ofNova Scotia, at the mouth of the gut of Canso.Opposite to its mouth stands isle Madame. Sal-mon river falls into this bay from the w. and isremarkable for one of the greatest fisheries in theworld.)
(CHEESADAWD Lake, about 210 miles n. e.by e. of the Canadian house, on the c. end ofSlave lake, in the Hudson bay company’s terri-tory, is about 35 miles in length, and the same inbreadth. Its w. shore is mountainous and rocky.)
settlement of Naiilingo, and alcaldm mayor ofXalapa, in Nueva Espaila, the name of which sig-nifies the place of six fountains. It is situate inthe most lofty part of a rugged and mountainoussierra, on which account its temperature is everywhere cold, and subject more than any other partof its district to continual fogs and rains. Itscommerce consists in maize, which it produces inabundance, and in the breeding of swine, both ofwhich articles are carried for sale to Vera Cruz.Its inhabitants are also engaged in the mule-droveswhich pass through these parts in tlieir way tothe windward coasts, and which proceed over aroad so rough and stony that they are under thenecessity of descending and ascending precipicesby means of steps or artificial passages hewn outof the rocks ; and however difficult this might ap-pear to some, they do not experience any gleatdelay, although the animals are very heavilyloaded, and the road be rendered still more difli-cult, if, as it often happens, the journey be per-formed in the winter season. This very stonyroute is a narrow pass or defile which shortens theway leading to the province of La Guasca. Theinhabitants of this settlement are composed of 236families of Indians. It lies three short leagues tothe n. of its capital.
CHICONCUAUTLA, a settlement of the headsettlement and alcaldia mayor of Guachinango inNueva Espana. It is of a mild temperature, andcontains 270 families of Indians, including thethree other small settlements of its district. Sixleagues to the e. of its capital.
CHICUAS, a nation of Indians of Peru. It isat present reduced to merely a settlement of theprovince of Condesuyos, in which is found abun-dance of cochineal, made use of by the natives indyeing of wool ; this being the branch of com-merce by which they maintain themselves.
CHIETLAN, a head settlement of the alcaldiamayor of Yzucar in Nueva Espaila. It was for-merly the corregbniento, and is at present embo-died with this jurisdiction. It is of a warm andmoist temperature, but very pleasant, and coveredwith gardens full of flowers, fruits, and vegetables.The territory also abounds in wheat, maize, andother seeds, and particularly in dates, the wholeof the district being covered with palms. Its in-habitants consist of 267 families of Spaniards,Mustees, and Mulattocs, and of 356 families of In-dians, including those dwelling in the settlementswhich belong to this district. It abounds like-wise in garbanzos, or Spanish pease, anniseed, andmelons, all of which are of the best quality of anj^in the whole kingdom. It lies three leagues s. ofits capital.
The aforesaid settlements are,
San Nicolas de Tenaxcalco,
Santiago de Azalan.
CHIGUACHI, a settlement of the corregimi-ento of Ubaqué in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ;situate behind the mountains of Guadalupe andMonserrat, of the city of Santa Fe, from whence itis distant five leagues to the c. It is of a delight-ful temperature, and abounds in wheat, maize,barley, potatoes, sugar-cane, and plantains. Itsinhabitants consist of 200 families of Spaniards,and a very tew Indians.
CHIGUAGUA, San Felipe de, a town ofthe province of Taraumara, and kingdom ofNueva Viscaya ; situate near the river San Pedro.Its population consists of 2000 families of Spa-niards, and some of Mustees and Mulattoes. Thetown is large and well built, and the liouses arehandsome ; amongst otlier buildings, the most con-
tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues tothe w. n. w. of Mexico.
Chilchota, another settlement of the headsettlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cui-catlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountainwhich is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading incochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits.It is eight leagues from its head settlement.
Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory titleof San Pedro. It is of the head settlement ofQuimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de losLlanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 fami-lies of Indians.
CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlementand real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ix-miquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215families of Indians, and in the real are 27 ofSpaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. Itis of an extremely cold and moist temperature,and its commerce depends upon the working ofthe lead mines. Some silver mines were formerlyworked here, but these yielded so base a metal,and in such small quantities, that they were en-tirely abandoned for those of lead, which yieldedby far the greatest emolument. Five leagues tothe e. of its capital.
CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. Ame-rica, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by thestraits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on thee. by the provinces of Tucuman and BuenosAyres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, andon the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios.472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magal-lanicas from the straits and the plains or desertsof Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. TheInca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carriedhis conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, inlat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the firstSpaniard who discovered this country, in the year1335, and began its conquest, which was after-wards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pe-dro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, andafterwards met with a disgraceful death at thehands of the Indians, having been made prisonerby them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are themost valorous and warlike of all in America ) theyhave maintained, by a continual warfare, their inde-pendence of the Spaniards, from whom they areseparated by the river Biobio. This is the limitof the country possessed by them ; and thoughthe Spaniards have penetrated through differententrances into their territories, and there built va-rious towns and fortresses, yet have all these beenpulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-
fenders of their liberty and their country. Theyare most dexterous in the management of the lance,sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macanawood ; and although they are equally so in thepractice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom,saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” Theyare very agile and dexterous horsemen, and theirhorses are excellent, since those which run wild,and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have notdegenerated, or become at all inferior to the bestwhich that country produces. The part whichthe Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends itswhole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapoto the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond theisle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues,at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, asit were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera ofthe Andes ; from these descend infinite streams andrivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys,and forming a country altogether charming andluxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for theconvenience and enjoyment of life, producing, inregular season, all the most delicate fruits of Ame-rica and Europe. The summer here begins inSeptember, the estio (or hot summer) in December,the autumn in March, and the winter in June.The climate is similar to that of Spain, and thetemperature varies according to the elevation ofthe land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru,and which are very low, are of a warm tempera-ture, and lack rain, having no other moisture thanwhat they derive from some small rivers descend-ing from the cordillera^ and running, for the spaceof 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the otherprovinces it rains more frequently, in proportionas they lay more to the s. especially in the winter,from April to September ; for which reason theyare more fertile. These provinces are watered bymore than 40 rivers, which also descend from thecordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snowmelted in the summer, swelling them to a greatheight. They generally abound in fish of themost delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and manyothers. The sea-coast is of itself capable of main-taining a vast population by the shell-fish foundupon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the mostdelicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ;here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasya species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados,pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes,and tunnies, which come at their seasons onthe coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadra-bas of Andaluda. For some years past they saltdown cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a
smaller size, are more delicate, and of superiorflavour to those caught in Newfoundland. Am-bergris is also found upon the coast. The moun-tains abound in trees of the most beautiful kind,laurels, oaks of four sorts, the carob-tree, thewood of M'hich is extremely hard, reulis, cinna-mon-trees, Cyprus, sandal, paraguas, hazel-nut,ivall-nut, volos, and alerces, which are a kind ofcedar, of which they make planks in great num-bers to carry to Lima and other parts. Many ofthese trees are green the whole year round, fromthe moisture and shelter they derive from the cor-dillera, which contains in its bowels much fire, asappears from the volcanoes found upon it, andwhich are 12 in number, without counting manyothers, even as far as the straits of Magellan. Al-though these mountains and woods are so immense,beasts of a savage kind are rarely to be found, ex-cepting such, now and then, as a tiger or leopard ;but there are great numbers of deer, stags, vicunas,and Imanacos, which served as food for the In-dians; as likewise of birds, as ducks, vandurrias,swans, herons, kites, doves, piuguenes, tarlales,parrots, hawks, falcons, goshawks ; and many sing-ing birds, as goldfinches, larks, starlings, diucas,trillies, and many others. Its present vegetableproductions are wheat, barley, Indian wheat, grainsof different kinds, oil of the finest olives, excellentwines, much esteemed in Peru; all kinds of suc-culent fruits, oranges, lemons, innumerable sorts ofapples, and every kind of garden herb. Flax andliemp is cultivated here, from which they makerigging for vessels trading to the S. seas ; and thiscould be supplied in a proportion equal to any de-mand. This kingdom keeps up a considerabletrade with Peru ; for, one year with the other, itsends to Lima from 150 to 180,000 bushels ofwheat, 120,000 quintals of grease, much wine,and other productions, as almonds, nuts, lentils,a sort of wild marjoram and bastard saffron ; andtakes in exchange sugar and cloths of the country.It derives also great emolument from large herdsof the cow kind, from flocks of sheep and goats,of the skins of which they procure fine tanned lea-ther, leathern jackets, sharaois leather, and soles ofshoes : from these animals is also procured muchfat or tallow. Flere are numerous breeds of mostbeautiful horse.s, and some of these, from excellingall the others in the swiftness of their paces, arecalled aguiliUias. It also abounds in mules, andit would still more so, if, as formerly, they werein request at Peru, where their skins were usedinstead of fine cloths and carpets. Baizes arc stillmade ; as likewise some sorts of small cord, coarse€tutfs, and many kinds of sackcloth, which is the
common vesture, and consists of a square garment,with an opening to admit the head ; but manylooms have been lost through a want of Indians inthe manufactories. The greater part of thesepeople still prefer their original uncivilized state,depending upon the natural fruits of the earth forfor their food ; for, besides the productions aboveenumerated, they used to gather, without thetrouble of cultivation, all sorts of delicious fruits,such as pines, though different from those of Eu-rope; and to make excellent chiclia of the murtilla.Indeed the luxuriance and abundance of delicateflowers, and aromatic and medicinal herbs, is al-most incredible ; of the last the following are themost esteemed for their virtue, viz. the cancliala-gua, quinchemali, alhahaquilla, and culen. Itcontains many mines of the richest gold, silver,copper, lead, tin, quick-silver, brimstone, load-stone, and coal : yielding immense riches, whichthe Indians never appreciated, nor even gavethemselves the least trouble about, until the con-quest of the Incas, who began to work them ;sending portions of gold to Cuzco for the orna-ment of the temples and palaces, rather by way ofgift than of tribute. The incursions and rebel-lions of the Indians, principally of the Arauca-nians, who, in the year J599, took and destroyedsix cities, viz. Valdivia, Imperial, Angol, SantaCrux, Chilian, and Concepcion, is the cause whythe population is in many places not large, andthat it consists of poor people, living in smallcommunities ; the fact being, that they are alwaj^sliving in constant dread of a surprise from the In-dians; not but that on the confines there are gar-risons, well defended by Spanish troops, with ne-cessary provisions of artillery, victuals, and am-munition. The war which has from the begin-ning been sustained by the Spaniards against thesemost ferocious Indians, has tended greatly to re-duce the numbers of the former ; some havingbeen killed on the spot, and others doomed to beslaves to their indignant conquerors. Indeed,when it was found that arms were of no availagainst them, some missionaries of the society ofthe Jesuits were sent among them, in the year1612, in order to propagate the gospel ; when theFathers Horacio Vechi and Martin de Arandasuffered martyrdom at their hands: after which atreaty of peace was made by the Governor Mar-quis de Baides, A. D. 1640, and which has sincebeen renewed yearly ; their deputies coming re-gularly to the capital to receive the presents fromthe king of Spain. They have, notwithstanding,at different times broken the treaty, making in-cursions into the Spanish towns, and their manner4
at the most, of 360 houses : for having been des-troyed by tlie Araucanians, in 1599, it as neversine e been able to reach its former degree of splen-dour. Jt lies between the river Nuble to the n.and the Itala to the s. in lat. 35° 56' s.
another, a mountain or volcano of the sameprovince and corregimiento (Chillan), at a little distancefrom the former city. On its skirts are the Indiannations of the Puclches, Pehuenches, and Chiquillanes, who have an outlet by the navigation ot theriver Demante.
CHILLOA, a llanura of the kingdom of Quito, near this capital, between twochains of mountains, one very lofty towards thee. and the other lower towards the s. It is wateredby two principal rivers, the Pita and the Amaguana,which at the end of the llanura unitethemselves at the foot of the mountain calledGuangapolo, in the territory of the settlement ofAlangasi, and at the spot called Las Juntas. In thisplain lie the settlements of Amaguana, Sangolqui,Alangasi, and Conocoto, all of which are curacies ofthe jurisdiction of Quito. It is of a mild and pleasanttemperature, although sometimes rather cold, fromits proximity to the mountains or paramos of Pintac, Antisana, Rurainavi, and Sincholagua. Herewas formerly celebrated the cavalgata, by the col-legians of the head- college and seminary of SanLuis dc Quito, during the vacations. The soilproduces abundance of wheat and maize. It ismuch resorted to by the gentlemen of Quito as aplace of recreation, it is eight or nine leagues inlength, and six in width.
[CHILMARK, a township on Martha’s Vineyard island, Duke’s county, Massachusetts, con-taining 771 inhabitants. It lies 99 miles s. by e.of Boston. See Maktha’s Vineyard.]
CHILOE, a large island of the Archipelago orAncud of the kingdom of Chile, being one of the18 provinces or corregimientos which compose it.It is 58 leagues in length, and nine in width at thebroadest part ; and varies until it reaches onlytwo leagues across, which is its narrowest part. Itis of a cold temperature, being very subject toheavy rains and fresh winds ; notwithstanding '
which its climate is healthy. Around it are fourother islands ; and the number of settlements inthese are 25, which are,
All of these are mountainous, little cultivatad,and produce only a small proportion of wheat,barley, flax, and papas ^ esteemed the best of anyin America ; besides some swine, of which hamsare made, which they cure by frost, and are of sodelicate a flavour as not only to be highly esteemedhere, but in all other parts, both in and out of thekingdom, and are in fact a very large branch ofcommerce. The principal trade, however, con-sists in planks of several exquisite woods, the treesof which are so thick, that from each of them arscut in general 600 planks, of 20 feet in length,and of 1| foot in width. Some of these treeshave measured 24 yards in circumference. Thenatives make various kinds of woollen garments,such as ponchos f quilts, coverlids, baizes, and bor~dillos. The whole of this province is for the mostpart poor ; its natives live very frugally, and withlittle communication with any other part of theworld, save with those who are accustomed to comehither in the fleet once a-year. Altliough it hassome small settlements on the continent, in Val-divia, yet these are more than 20 or 30 leagues dis-tant from this place, and are inhabited by infidelIndians. These islands abound in delicate shell-fish of various kinds, and in a variety of otherfish ; in the taking of which the inhabitants aremuch occupied, and on which they chiefly sub-sist. This jurisdiction is bounded on the n. bythe territory of the ancient city of Osorno, whichwas destroyed by the Araucanian Indians, bythe extensive Archipelagoes of Huayaneco andHuaytecas, and others which reach as far as thestraits of Magellan and the Terra del Fuego, e.by the cordilleras and the Patagonian country, andw. by the Pacific or S. sea. On its mountains arefound amber, and something resembling gold dust,which is washed up by the rains, although no
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Tvliich rises in the mountains of the cordillera.On its shores is caught a much esteemed sort ofshell-fish, called iascas. It runs into the sea inlat. 31° 40'.
CHUBISCA, a settlement of the missionswhich belong to the religious order of St. Francis,in the province of Taraumara, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya, lying four leagues to the s. e.one-fourth to the s. of the settlement and real of themines of San Felipe de Chiguaga. Fivfe leaguesto the s. €. of this settlement are two large estates,called Fresnos and Charcas.
CHUCHA, a bay in the port of Portobelo, andlying quite in the interior of the same. It is anharbour, or second port, of a circular figure,closed in on all sides, its access being through anarrow channel. Several rivers flow into it.
CHUCUNAQUI, a large river of the provinceof Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the mountainous parts, and runs 13leagues as far as the fort Royal of Santa Maria,collecting in its course the waters of 20 rivers lessthan itself ; it then enters the grand river Tuira.
CHUCHUNGA, a settlement of the provinceand government of Jaen do Bracamoros in thekingdom of Quito; situate on the shore of theriver of its name, having a port, which is a lad-ing-place for the river Maranon. The above riverrises in the sierra of the province of Luya andChilians, enters the Ymasa, being united to theCumbassa ; these together run into the Maranon,and at their conflux is the aforesaid port. Itsmouth is in lat. 5° 12' SO* s.
CllUCMI. See Julumito.
CHUCUITO, a province and government ofPeru ; bounded e. by the great lake of its name,and part of the province of Omasuyos ; n. by thatof Paucarcolla orPuno ; s. e. by that of Pacages ;and s. w. and w. by the cordillera of the coastwhich looks towards Moquehua. It is 23 leagueslong from «. to s. and 36 wide. It was extremelypopulous at the time of the conquest, and was onthat account considered wealthy. Its governorshad the controul of political afiairs, and enjoyedthe title of vice-patron and captain-general of theimmediate provinces, including some which layupon the coast. It is of a cold but healthy tempe-rature, particularly in the rainy months, whichare December, February, and March. It producessweet and bitter papas, of which are made chum,bark, canagua, hagua, and barley. In some ofthe glens, where the soil is moister, they growpulse, flowers, and fruit-trees. This provinceabounds in cattle, such as cows, sheep and pigs,and native sheep, which the natives use for trad-ing instead of asses ; the regular load for eachbeing four or five arrohas. Here are also bredalpacas, huanacos, vicunas, deer, cuyes, and vizca-chas, which are similar in shape and figure to ahare ; also pigeons, partridges, ducks, and os-triches. From (he fleeces of the cattle many kindsof woven articles are made for useful and orna-mental apparel, beautifully dyed ; and from thewool of the alpaca handsome carpets, quilts, andmantles of various designs and colours. This pro-vince has many silver mines, which are workedwith emolument ; also streams of hot medicinalwaters. It is situate on the shores of the greatlake of Chucuito, from which large quantities offish are taken, and sold for a good price to theneighbouring provinces. It is watered by severalrivers, all of which enter the lake : the largest ormost considerable of them is the Hilava. Its na-tives amount to 30,000, separated in 10 differentsettlements. Its repartimiento used to amount to101,730 dollars, and its alcavala to 813 dollars an-nually. The capital is of the same name. This
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corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Anco.
CHUNIANIS, a barbarous nation of Indiansof the lands of Magellan, in the vicinity of thestraits of Magellan. It is a tribe descended fromthe Huyellanes. They are numerous and fero-cious ; the men and women go entirely naked ;their arms are bows and arrows, the latter beingpointed with well-filed flints ; they are robust, ofgreat strength, and fine appearance. Some tra-vellers pretend that these are the fabulous giantsof whom so many have written.
CHUPACHOS, a river of Peru, which flowsdown from the mountains of the Andes. It risesfrom the lake Patancocho, in lat. 10° 4P s . ;washes the country of the Chupachos Indians, fromwhence it takes its name, and finishes its courseby emptying itself into the Mollobamba, on the®,side, in lat. 7° 21' s.
CHUPANA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. Itrises iu the cordillera of the Andes, to the n. of thecity of Guanuco in Peru, and after collecting thewaters of several other rivers in its protractedcourse, enters the river Maranon in a very broadstream.
CHUPAS, an extensive valley or plain of theprovince and corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru,near to the city. It is celebrated for the battlewhich was fought here by the Licentiate Baca deCastro, of the royal council of Castille, governor ofPeru, on the 16th September 1542, against thearmy of the rebels commanded by Diego de Al-magro the younger, and son of the conqueror of thesame name, when the latter was routed and takenprisoner with the loss of more than 700 men.
CHUQUIABO. See PAZ.
CHUQUICARA, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Guamachuco. It rises in thesame province, and enters the river Santa, chang-ing its own name to this, immediately that it touche*the boundary of this jurisdiction, which it divide*from those of Truxillo and Guamachuco.
CHUQUINGA, a settlement close to that ofNasca, and nearly upon the shore of the riverAmancay, where there is a narrow pass, throughwhich two men cannot without great difficulty goabreast ; for on one side rises the mountain nearlyperpendicular, and on the other is a precipicewhich runs into the river ; this is the spot where asignal victory was obtained by the rebel FranciscoHernandez Giron, in 1554, against the BrigadierAlonzo de Alvarado, both of them leaders of fac-tions, maintaining the separate interests enkindledin the civil wars of Peru.
CHUQUIRIBAMBA, a large settlement of Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Loxa inthe kingdom of Quito ; on the shore of a smallriver which enters the Catamayu, on which ac-count some maintain that it is the origin of thelatter. It is surrounded by a beautiful and fertile
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[CLARE, a township on St. Mary’s bay, inAnnapolis county, Nova Scotia. It has about50 families, and is composed of woodland andsalt marsh.]
CLARE, a small island of the South sea, close tothe port of Guayaquil. It is desert, and twoleagues in length. It is commonly called Amorta~jado, since, being looked upon from any part, itbears the resemblance to a dead man. Twenty-five leagues from Cape Blanco.
[Clare, a very lofty mountain of the provinceand government of Sonora in Nueva Espaila, nearthe coast of the gulf of California, and in themost interior part. It was discovered in 1698.]
[CLAREMONT, a township in Cheshire coun-ty, New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecti-cut river, opposite Ascutney mountain, in Ver-mont, and on the n. side of Sugar river ; 24; milesi. of Dartmouth college, and 121 s.w. hy w. ofPortsmouth. It was incorporated in 1764, andcontains 1435 inhabitants.]
[Claremont County, in Camden district, S.Carolina, contains 2479 white inhabitants, and2110 slaves. Statesburg is the county town.]
[Clarendon, a township near the centre ofRutland county, Vermont, watered by Ottercreek and its tributary streams; 14 or 15 miles e.of Fairbaven, and 44 «. e. of Bennington. It con-tains 1478 inhabitants. On the s. e. side of amountain in the w. part of Clarendon, or in theedge of Tinmouth, is a curious cave, the mouthof which is not more than two feet and a half indiameter ; in its descent the passage makes anangle with the horizon of 35° or 40°; but con-tinues of nearly the same diameter through itswhole length, which is 31^ feet. At that distancefrom the mouth, it opens into a spacious room, 20feet long, 12| wide, and 18 or 20 feet high ; everypart of the floor, sides, and roof of this room ap-pear to be a solid rock, but very rough and un-even. The water is continually percolating throughthe top, and has formed stalactites of variousforms ; many of which are conical, and some havethe appearance of massive columns ; from thisroom there is a communication by a narrow pas-sage to others equally curious.]
Same name, another (settlement), of the same island (Barbadoes), on the 5 ..coast.
[Clarke, a new county of Kentucky, betweenthe head waters of Kentucky and Licking rivers-Its chief town is Winchester.]
[CLARKSBURG, the chief town of Harrisoncounty, Virginia. It contains about 40 houses, acourt-house, and gaol ; and stands on the e. sideof Monongahela river, 40 miles s. w. of Morgan-town.]
[CLARKSTOWN, in Orange county. NewYork, lies on the w. side of the Tappan sea, twomiles distant, n. from Tappan township six miles,and from New York city 29 miles. By the statecensus of 1796, 224 of its inhabitants are elec-tors.]
[CLARKSVILLE, the chief town of what wastill lately called Tennessee county, in the state ofTennessee, is pleasantly situated on the e. bank ofCumberland river, and at the mouth of Red river,opposite the mouth of Muddy creek. It containsabout SO houses, a court-house, and gaol, 45,miles w. w. of Nashville, 220 n. w. by w. ofKnoxville, and 940 zso. by s. of Philadelphia.Lat. 36° 25' n. Long. 87° 23' a).]
[Clarksville, a small settlement in the n, w.territory, which contained in 1791 about 60 souks.It is situate on the n. bank of the Ohio, oppositeLouisville, a mile below the rapids, and 100miles s. e. of post Vincent. It is frequently flood-ed when the river is high, and inhabited bypeople who cannot at present find a better situa-tion.]
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kingdom of Chile. It rises from one of the lakesof Avendafio, runs w. and then turning s. entersthe river Laxa. On its shore the Spaniards havea fort, called Yumbel, or Don Carlos de Austria,to restrain the Araucanos Indians.
[CLAVERACK, a post-town in Columbiacounty. New York, pleasantly situated on a largeplain, about two miles and a half e. of Hudsoncity, near a creek of its own name. It containsabout 60 houses, a Dutch church, a court-house,and a goal. The township, by the census of 1791,contained 3262 inhabitants, including 340 slaves.By the state census of 1796 tkere appears to be412 electors. It is 231 miles from Philadelphia. 1
[CLERK’S Isles lie s, w. from, and at theentrance of Behring’s straits, which separate Asiafrom America. They rather belong to Asia, beingvery near, and s. s. w. from the head-land whichlies between the straits and the gulf of Anadir inAsia. They have their name in honour of thatable navigator, Captain Clerk, the companion ofCaptain Cook. In other maps they are called St.Andrea isles.]
[CLERMONT, a post-town in Columbia coun-ty, New York, six miles from Red hook, 15from Hudson, 117 miles n. of New York, and212 from Philadelphia. The township contains867 inhabitants, inclusive of 113 slaves.]
[Clermont, a village 13 miles from Camden,S. Carolina. In the late war, here was ablock-house encompassed by an abbatis; it wastaken from Colonel Rugely of the British militia,in December 1781, by an ingenious stratagem ofLieutenant-colonel W ashington.]
[CLIE, Lake Le, in Upper Canada, about 38miles long and 30 broad; its waters communicatewith those of lake Huron,]
[CLINCH Mountain divides the waters ofHolston and Clinch rivers, in the state of Tennessee.In this mountain Burk’s Garden and MorrisesNob might be described as curiosities.]
[Clinch, or Peleson, a navigable branch ofTennessee river, which is equal in length to Hol-ston river, its chief branch, but less in width. Itrises in Virginia, and after it enters into the stateof Tennessee, it receives Powel’s and Poplar’screek, and Emery’s river, besides other streams.The course of the Clinch is s. w. and s. w. by w . ;its mouth, 150 yards wide, lies 35 miles belowKnoxville, and 60 above the mouth of the Hiwasse.It is beatable for upwards of 200 miles, andPowel’s river, nearly as large as the main river, isnavigable for boats 100 miles.]
[CLINTON, the most n. county of the state ofNew York, is bounded n. by Canada, e. by thedeepest waters of lake Champlain, which line se-parates it from Vermont, and s. by the county ofWashington. By the census of 1791, it contained16 14 inhabitants, including 17 slaves. It is di-vided into five townships, viz. Plattsburgh, thecapital. Crown Point, Willsborough, Champlain,and Peru. The length from n. to s. is about 96miles, and the breadth from e. to w. including theline upon the lake, is 36 miles. The number ofsouls was, in 1796, estimated to be 6000. By thestate census, in Jan. 1796, there were 624 personsentitled to be electors. A great proportion of thelands are of an excellent quality, and produce
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which is above 100 leagues distant, and thatthrough a desert country.]
COBITU, a river of the province and mis-sions of the Gran Paititi. It rises in themountains of the infidel Indians, which serveas a boundary to the province of Larecaja ;runs nearly due n. collecting the waters of manyothers, and enters theMarmore w ith the name of Mato.
[COBLESKILL, a new town in the county ofSchoharie, New York, incorporated March 1797.]
COBOS, a fortress of the province and govern-ment of Tucuman in Peru ; of the district and ju-risdiction of the city of Salta, from whence it isnine leagues distant ; having been founded in 1693at the foot of a declivity, to serve as an outworkor defence against the Indians of Chaco, it is atpresent destroyed and abandoned, and serves as acountry-house on the estate of an individual.
COBRE, Santa Clara de, a settlement ofthe alcald'ia mayor of Valladolid, in the provincennd bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 100 fa-milies of Spaniards, bO oi Mustees, 38 of Mulat-toes, and 135 of Indians ; some of whom speculatein working the mines of copper which are closeby, others in the cultivation of maize, and othersgain their livelihood as muleteers. Three leaguess. of the city of Pasquaro.
Same name, a mountain on the coast of the provinceand corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It derives its name from some very abun-dant copper mines. Great quantities of this metalare carried from hence to Spain for founding artil-lery, and for different purposes.
of the large river Napo, and at last becomes in-corporated with the same.
[COCALICO, a township in Lancaster county,Pennsylvania.]
COCAMA, a great lake in the midst of thethick woods which lie in the country of Las Amazonas, to the s. and w. of tlie river Ucayale. It is10 leagues long from n. to s. and six wide from e.to w. On the e. it flows out, through a littlecanal, into the river Ucayale, and on the w. itforms the river Cassavatay, which running n. andthen e. enters also the Ucayale. Its shores areconstantly covered with alligators and tortoises.
COCAMAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe country of Las Amazonas, who inhabit thew'oods to the s. of the river Maraiion, and in thevicinities of Ucayale. It takes its name from theformer lake, called La Gran Cocama. Theyare a barbarous and cruel race, wandering over theforests in quest of birds and wild beasts for meresustenance. Their arms are the macana, and theIndian cimeter, or club of chonia, a very strongebony.
COCATLAN, San Luis de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Coatlan, and alcadia mayorof Nexapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 160 fa-milies of Indians, employed in the trade in cochi-neal and cotton stuffs. It is four leagues to the n.of its head settlement.
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COCO, a river of the province and governmentof Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the mountains of the n. and enters the seaopposite the island of Las Palmas, and gives itsname to the territory of a Cacique, thus called.
COCOMERACHI, a settlement of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara, andkingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. It is 40 leagues tothe w. s.zo. of the town 'And real of the mines ofChiguaga.
COCONUCO, See Cucunuco.
COCOS, some small islands of the Pacific orS. sea, lying close together, and divided by somenarrow channels. They abound in cocoa-trees,and from thence take their name. They are alsocalled Santa Cruz, from having been discoveredon the day of the invention of the cross. Theclimate here is pleasant, but the isles are unculti-vated and desert. Lat. 5° n.
COCUI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Tunja in the NueVo Reyno de Gra-nada ; situate at the foot of the sierra Nevada. Itis of a cold temperature, but abounds in all kindsof productions, and particularly in wheat, maize,barley, &c. It contains 700 white inhabitants,and 150 Indians. Thirty-two leagues from Tunja,and eight from the settlement of Chita.
COCUPAC, a city and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofValladolid in Nueva Espana, and of the bishopricof Mechoaean. Its situation is in a nook to the n.of the great lake. On the e. and ze. are two loftymountains, which form so many other entrances,the one to the 5. and the other to the n. Its tem-perature is rather cold than w'arm ; and althoughit does not want for fruits, it is but ill supplied withwater, the only stream it has not running morethan the distance of a stone’s throw before it entersa lake. The inhabitants are thus under the ne-cessity of supplying themselves by wells. Thepopulation of this city consists in 45 families ofSpaniards, 52 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 150of Indians. They occupy themselves in the mak-ing of tiles or flags ; and the inferior order aremuleteers. It has a convent of the religious orderof St. Francis.
COD, a cape of the coast of New England andprovince of Massachusetts. It runs for many leaguestowards the sea, forming a large semicircle, andafterwards returning, forms the bay of Barnstable.[See Cape Cod, Barnstable, &c.]