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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


Massachusetts, incorporated in 1797, it beingformerly the n. part of Stoughton.)

CANUARI, a small river of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres. It runs to the n.and enters the Rio Grande of the Portuguese, be-tween the Mbouqui and the Pobatini.

CANUEIRAS, a point of the n. extremity ofthe island of Santa Catalina, on the coast ofBrazil.

CANUERALES, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cuyo in the kingdom ofChile, situate near the river Diamante.

CANUTO, a river of the province and govern-ment of Venezuela. It rises in the mountain Ta-cazuruma, runs nearly s. and enters the river ofLa Portuguesa.

CANXA, a small settlement of the head settle-ment of Orizavá, and alcaldía mayor of Yxmi-quilpan, in Nueva España.

(CANY Fork, in the state of Tennessee, is ashort navigable river, and runs n. w. into Cum-berland river, w. of the Salt lick, and oppositeSalt Lick creek, 50 miles in a straight line fromNashville.)

CANZE, a river of the colony and govern-ment of Surinam, in the part of Guayana possessedby the Dutch. It rises between the Berbice andthe Corentin, and after a very round-about course,enters the former, close to its mouth, or where itruns into the sea.

CAO, Santa Maria Magdalena de, asettlement of the province and corregimiento ofTruxillo in Peru, situate in the valley of Chicama.It was the capital in the time of the Indians, andthe number of these 200 years ago was 3000 ; butnow it is reduced to a wretched state, and occu-pies a small spot on the other side of the river,being nine leagues distant from its capital.

Cao, with the dedicatory title of Santiago, todistinguish it from another settlement of the sameprovince and corregimiento, although they areboth equally poor and reduced. Its inhabitantsmaintain themselves by the cultivation of maize,wheat, rice, and vegetables, which they carryfor sale to the other provinces, so that they arefor the most part a race of carriers, and indeedpossess no inconsiderable droves of mules. It issix leagues from its capital, just by the sea.

CAOBAS, River of the, in the island of St.Domingo, in that part possessed by the French.It rises in the valley of San Juan, runs to the w.and afterwards changing its course to the n. w. en-ters the Artibonito.

CAORA, a river which runs down from themountains of Guayana to the s. of the lake

Cassipa, into which it enters ; and afterwardsrunning out at the n. side of this lake, it findsits way through a subterraneous passage, until itempties itself into the Orinoco, on its s. shore.The borders of this river are inhabited by anation of barbarous Indians, who wander con-tinually through the forests without any fixedabode. They are cannibals as well as the otherIndian tribes around them, and with whom theykeep up a continual warfare.

CAPACA, a settlement of the province of Culi-acan in Nueva España ; situate near the head set-tlement.

CAPACHICA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Paucarcolla in Peru ; situate onthe w. shore of the lake Titicaca.

Capachica, a narrow strip of land formed bythe great lake Titicaca. Of these strips there arethree, and this appears, for the distance of a league,to be completely divided from any main land.

CAPACHO, a village under the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Christoval, in the new kingdom ofGranada ; of a warm temperature ; abounding insugar-cane, from which much sugar is manufac-tured, and in cacao ; but it is much infested bythe barbarian Indians, called the Motilones (short-haired), who destroy the plantations. It contains200 house- keepers, and is 24; leagues n. e. ofPamplona, in the road which leads to Mérida andLa Grita, and eight leagues from the city of SanChristoval.

CAPACMARCO, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru.

CAPAIA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Aimaraez in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Soraica.

Capaia, another settlement in the province ofBarcelona, and government of Cumana; situate onthe coast, on the banks of a river of the samename.

Capaia, a river of the same province and go-vernment, which rises in the serranía, and aftermaking many turnings runs into the sea, near thecape Codera towards the e.

CAPAIAN, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction ofthe city of Rioja.

CAPAIRE, a settlement of the province of Ve-nezuela, and government of Maracaibo ; situatevery near the coast, at the point Colorada, on theshore of the river Guepe.

(CAPALITA, a large town of North America,and in the province of Oaxaca. The countryround abounds with sheep, cattle, and excellentfruit.)

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C A R I B E.

It was formerly a very rich tract of land, si-tuate on the shore of the river Cazanare, a streamwhich crosses and stops the pass into the coun-try and for this reason there was a consider-able establishment formed here by persons whobelonged to tlie curacy of Santa Rosa de Chire.Its temperature is hot, but it is very fertile, andabounds in productions, which serve to provide forthe other settlements belonging to the same mis-sions : at present it is under the care of the reli-gious order of St. Domingo.

CARIBANA, a large country, at the presentday called Guayana Maritania, or Nueva Anda-iucia Austral. It extends from the mouth of theriver Orinoco to the mouth of the Marahon ; com-prehends the Dutch colonies of Esquibo, Surinam,and Berbice, and the French colony of Cayenne.It takes its name from the Caribes Indians, whoinhabit it, and who are very fierce and cruel,although upon amicable terms with the Dutch.Nearly the whole of this province is uncultivated,full of woods and mountains, but watered bymany rivers, all of which run for the most partfrom s. to e. and empty themselves into the sea ;although some flow from s. ton. and enter the Ori-noco. The climate, though warm and humid, ishealthy ; the productions, and the source of itscommerce, are sugar-cane, some cacao, wild wax,and incense. The coast, inhabited by Europeans,forms the greater part of this tract of country, ofwhich an account will be found under the respec-tive articles.

Caribana, a port on the coast of Tierra Firme,in the province and government of Darien, at theentrance of the gulf of Uraba.

CARIBE, a small port of the coast of TierraFirme, in the province and government of Vene-zuela, to the w. of cape Codera.

Caribe, Caribbee, or Charaibes, someislands close upon the shore of the province andgovernment of Cumana, near the cape of TresPuntas. [The Caribbee islands in the West In-dies extend in a semicircular form from the islandof Porto Rico, the easternmost of the Antilles, tothe coast of S. America. The sea, thus inclosedby the main land and the isles, is called the Ca-ribbean sea; and its great channel leads n. zo. tothe head of the gulf of Mexico through the sea ofHonduras. The chief of these islands are, SantaCruz, Sombuca, Anguilla, St. Martin, St. Bar-tholomew, Barbuda, Saba, St. Eustatia, St. Chris-topher, Nevis, Antigua, Montserrat, Guadalupe,Dcseada, Mariagalante, Dominica, Martinica,St. Vincent, Barbadoes, and Grenada. These areagain classed into Windward and Leeward isles bv

seamen, with regard to the usual courses of shipsfrom Old Spain or the Canaries to Cartagenaor New Spain and Porto Bello. The geographi-caltablesand maps class them into Great and LittleAntilles ; and authors vary much concerning thislast distinction. See Antilles. The Charaibesor Caribbecs were the ancient natives of the Wind-ward islands ; hence many geographers confine theterm to these isles only. Most of these were an-ciently possessed by a nation of cannibals, the ter-ror of the mild anti inotfensive inhabitants of His-paniola, who frequently expressed to Columbustheir dread of these fierce invaders. Thus, whenthese islands were afterwards discovered by thatgreat man, they were denominated Charibbeanisles. The insular Charaibs are supposed to beimmediately descended from the Galibis Indians,or Charaibes of S. America. An ingenious andlearned attempt to trace back the origin of the Ca-ribes to some emigrants from the ancient hemis-phere may be found in Bryan Edwards ; and itis to the valuable work of this author that we areindebted for the following illustrations of the man-ners and customs of this people. — The Caribesare avowedly of a fierce spirit and warlike dispo-sition. Historians have not failed to notice theseamong the most distinguishable of their qualities.Dr. Robertson, in Note X Cl II. to the first vol. ofhisHistory of America, quotes from a MS. Historyof Ferdinand and Isabella, Avrittenby Andrew Ber-naldes, the cotemporary and friend of Columbus,the folloAving instance of the bravery of the Caribes :A canoe with four men, two Avomen, and a boy, un-expectedly fell in with Columbus’s fleet. A Spanish,bark with 25 men was sent to take them; and the fleet,in the mean time, cut off their communication withthe shore. Instead of giving way to despair, theCaribes seized their arms with imdauntcd resolu-tion, and began the attack, wounding several ofthe Spaniards, although they had targets as wellas other defensive armour ; and even after thecanoe was overset, it was with no little difficultyand danger that some of them Avere secured, asthey continued to defend themselves, and to usetheir bows with great dexterity while swimmingin the sea. Herrera has recorded the same anec-dote. Restless, enterprising, and ardent, it wouldseem they considered war as the chief end of theircreation, and the rest of the human race as theirnatural prey ; for they devoured, without re-morse, the bodies of such of their enemies (themen at least) as fell into their hands. Indeed,there is no circumstance in the history of mankindbetter attested than the universal prevalence ofthese practices among them. Columbus was not]

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much incommoded by mosquitos ; so that its po-pulation is much reduced, and those that remainapply themselves to the cultivation of sugar-canes,maize, yucas^ and plantains.

COLONCHE, a small settlement of Indians,of the district and jurisdiction of Santa Elena,in the government of Guayaquil, and kingdomof Quito ; situate on the s. shore of a river,from whence it takes its name, in lat. 1° 56' s.The said river rises in the mountains of thedistrict, and enters the S. sea, opposite the islandof La Plata.

Colonche, a small island of the S. sea, nearthe coast of the province and government of Gua-yaquil.

COLONIES OF THE English. See thearticles Virginia, Carolina, New England,New York, Jersey, Massachusetts, RhodeIsland, Pennsylvania, Nova Scotia ; of theJ3utch, see Surinam, Berbice, Corentin,CuRAZAo ; of the Portuguese, San Gabriel;of the French, Cayenne, St. Domingo, Mar-tinique; of the Danes, St. Thomas. (See gene-ral Tables of Dominions, &c. in the introductorymatter.)

COLOPO, a large river of the province andgovernment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom ofQuito. It runs from s. e. to n. w. at an almostequal distance between the rivers Esmeraldas andVerde, and runs into the S. sea, in the bay of SanMateo, in lat. 58' n.

COLOR, Cabo de, a cape on the coast of theprovince and captainship of Sergipé in Brazil. Itlies between the rivers Real and Ponica.

COLORADA, Punta, a point on the coast ofthe N. sea, and in the province and governmentof Venezuela, to the e. of the cape San Roman.

COLORADA, a river of tlie jurisdiction andalcaldta mayor of Penonomé, in the governmentof Panama, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It risesin the mountains to the s. and enters the Pacificnear the settlement of Anton.

COLORADO, a settlement of the provinceand government of Tucumán, in the district andjurisdiction of the city of Salta, and s. s. e. of thesame.

Colorado, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Marta in the kingdom of TierraFirme; situate on the shore of the river of its name.

Colorado, a river of the province and corre-^imiento of Cuyo in the kingdom of Chile. Itrises in its cordillera, to the n. runs e. and spendsitself in various lakes, on account of the level oftlie country. The geographer Cruz errs in makingit enter the river Maipo.

Colorado, another, a large river of the pro-:vince and government of Sonora in NuevaEspana.

Colorado, another, a small river of the pro-vince and government of Santa Marta in thekingdom of Tierra Firme, which enters the greatriver Magdalena before you come to the townof Tamalameque.

Colorado, another, in the province and go-vernment of Louisiana, near the road wliich leadsto Mexico. It runs s. e. in a very large stream,and enters the sea in the bay of San Bernardo.

Colorado, a cape or point of land of the s.coast of St. Domingo, in the part possessed bythe French, between the bays of Tondo and Puer. .

Colorado, a mountain of the province andgovernment of Tucumán, on the shore of the riverSalado, and to the s. of the settlement of Nuestra'Sefiora de Buenas Costumbres. ;

COLORADOS, a barbarous nation of Indians,of the province and corregimiento of Tacunga inthe kingdom of Quito, who inhabit some moun-,tains of the same name, very craggy and rugged,abounding in animals and wild beasts, such asbears, lions, tigers, deer, squirrels, monkeys, andmarmosets. These Indians, although the greaterpart of them are reduced to the Catholic faith bythe extinguished company of the Jesuits, aregiven to superstition ; they are divided into twoparts, the one called the Colorados of Angamarca,since tlieir principal settlement bears this title, andthe other the Colorados of St. Domingo ; they now,belong to the province and government of Esme-raklas, and live retired in the woods, and upon thebanks of the rivers Toachi and Quininay, wherethe missionaries of the religion of St. Domingo ofQuito exercise their apostolical zeal. The princi-pal settlement of this place, being situate on the w.shore, is called St. Domingo. The commerce ofthese Indians, and by which they subsist, is incarrying to Guayaquil, the province by whichthey are bounded , w dod for making canoes and rafts,sugar-canes, achiote, and agi pepper, and bring-ing back in exchange cattle, fish, soap, and othernecessary eft'ects.

COLOSO, a settlement of the province andgovernment ©f Cartagena ; situate on the shore ofthe river Pechelin, to the s. s. w. of the townof Maria, to the jurisdiction^of which it apper-tains.

COLOTLAN, a settlement and head settlementof the alcaldia mayor of Mextitlan in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 240 families of Indians, and isthree leagues to the w. of its capital.

COLOTLIPAN, a settlement of the head set-

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seasons, and is flooded by waters rushing downthrough a neighbouring channel, and in factAvould be hereby rendered iinitdiabitable, but forthe mounds Avhich have been raised for its defence.One half of the city experiences in one day a va-riation of all the winds from n. to s. These winds,thus changing, are accompanied with great tem-pests of thunder and lightning. At one momentthe heat which accompanies the n. wind is ex-cessive, and at another the cold which accompaniesthe s. is intolerable. It is, indeed, to this causethat the number of sudden deaths which occurhere are attributed. The city is small, and nearlyof a square figure, but the buildings are superiorto any in the province. It has three convents ;those of the religious order of St. Francis, St. Do-mingo, and La Merced, an hospital of Bethleraites,with the dedicatory title of San Roque ; two mo-nasteries of nuns, tlie one of Santa Teresa, the otherof Santa Clara, and two colleges with the titles ofuniversities, it is the head of a bishopric, erectedin 1570, and is very rich, owing to the great com-merce which it carries on in mules bought in theprovince of Buenos Ayres, and fattened in thepastures here, for the purpose of being sold for thesupply of the other provinces, and in fact of thewhole of Peru. It abounds in all kinds of pro-ductions, and is 70 leagues from Santiago del Es-tero, to the s. in 62° 39'; long. 31° 20' s. lat. (Foran account of the late revolutions of this place,see La Plata.)

Cordova, another city, in the province andgovernment of Cumaná, founded by Gonzalo deOcampo in 1525, near the sea-coast. It is so re-duced and poor, that it does not deserve the nameof a city. It is bounded by the Caribes Indians.

Cordova, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru.

Cordova, another, of the province and go-vernment of Santa Marta in the kingdom of Ti-erra Firme, situate upon the coast. It was sackedby the English pirate Gauson in 1625.

CORDOVES, Rio Del, a river of the provinceand government of Buenos Ayres. It runs zo. andenters the Yazigua close to the pass of Chileno.

CORE, Bank of, an isle of the N. Sea, nearthe coast of S. Carolina, between those of Oca-cook and Drum.

(Core Sound, on the coast of N. Carolina,lies s. of, and communicates with Pamlico.)

COREBO, a river of the province and govern-ment of Chocó. It rises in the valley of 'I'atave,at the foot of the mountains of Choco, and entersthe Paganagandi.

CORENA, a port on the coast of the province

COR 51^

and captainship of the Rio Janeiro in Brazil, closeto the island of Santa Maria.

CORENTE, a river of the kingdom of Brazil.It rises in the head of that of the Paraguas and theVerde, runs s, s.e. and enters the above river atmid-course.

CORENTIN, a river of the province and co-lony of Surinam, or part of Guayana in the Dutchpossessions, according to the last advices ot theFather Bernardo Rosclla of the extinguished so-ciety, Avhich advices were received from theDutch, and served, in 1745, to the making the mapof this province and the Orinoco. It rises in then. part of the famed lake Parime, which some havethought to exist merely in fable. It runs s. wa-teringtlie Dutch colonies; and five leaguesto the w.of Berbice, and to the s. e. of the Orinoco, emptiesitself into the sea, in 5° 22' n. lat. : at its entranceit is one league wide. The English call it Devil’screek, which signifies Barranco del Diablo. Inthe interior of its course it has some sand-banks,which extend for three leagues, and render its na-vigation difficult, notwithstanding that at the lowtide there arc still some channels of water. In thisriver are likewise three small well cultivated islands,lying in a direction from n. tov. They are veryfertile, and covered with trees, and the soundingsof the river about them varies from five to sixfathoms.

CORETIQUI, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru.

CORIANA. See Coro.

CORIDON, Salinas de, salt grounds in thepoint and zo. head of the island of St. Domingo,on the shore of the port Pimiento.

CORIMPO, a settlement of the province ofCinaloa in Nueva Espaiia ; situate on the shore ofthe river Mayo, between the settlements of Heco-joa and Nabajoa.

(CORINTH, a township in Orange county,Vermont, z€. of Bradford, containing 578 inha-bitants.)

CORIO, a settlement of the province and cap-tainship of San Vincente in Brazil, on the shoreand at tlie source of the river Uruguay.

CORIPATA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the cu-racy of Atabillos Altos.

CORIPI, a river of the province and govern-ment of Guayana, iii the French possessions. Itenters the sea between the Oiapoco and capeOrange.

CORIS, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento oi Huailas in Peru, annexed to the cu-racy of Aija.

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