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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
San Nicolas de laPaz,
San J uan de lasPalmas,
San Nicolas deBari,
San Bernardo A-bad,
Tiquicio de Aden-tro,
Tiquicio de Afu-era,
Zienega del Oro,San Carlos de Co-losina.
San Geronimo deBuenavista.
The capital is a large city adorned with beauti-ful buildings, founded by Pedro de Heredia in1533, on the shore of a great and very convenientbay more than two leagues in length. It was call-ed Calamari in the time of the Indians, which sig-nifies, in their language, the land of craw-fish, fromthe abundance of these found in it. It is situateon a sandy island, which forming a narrow strait,gives a communication to the part called TierraBomba ; on the left it is entered by a woodenbridge, having a suburb called Xiximani, whichis another island uniting with the continent bymeans of a bridge in the same manner as itself.It is well fortified, and is the residence of a go-vernor, with the title of captain-general, dependenton the viceroy of Santa Fe, having beeu indepen-dent till the year 1739. Besides the precinct andbastions, it has a half-moon, which defends theentrance or gate ; and at a small distance is thecastle of San Felipe de Baraxas, situate on aneminence, and on the side of the bay the castles ofSan Luis, Santa Cruz, San Joseph, San P'elipe,and Pastelillo, which were rebuilt in a modernmanner, in 1654;, by the Lieutenant-general DonIgnacio de Sala, with the names of San Fernando,San Joseph, El Angel, and El Pastelillo. Thecathedral church is magnificent, and included in itis the parish of Sagrario, besides two other pa-rishes called La Trinidad and Santo Toribo. Ithas the convents of monks of St. Francisco, St.Domingo, St. Augustin, St. Diego, La Merced,and San Juan de Dios, which is an hospital, andsituate at the top of a high mountain without thewalls of the city, at a quarter of a league’s dis-tance from the convent of the barefooted Augustins,called Nuestra Senora de la Popa ; to this con-vent vessels are accustomed to offer up a salutationas soon as they discover it at sea. It has also acollege which belonged to the society of Jesuits,a convent of Santa Clara, one of the Observersof San Francisco, and another of barefooted Car-
melites. At a small distance without the city isthe hospital of San Lazaro for lepers, which ma-lady is epidemical in the country. It has also atribunal of the inquisition, established in 1610, ofwhich there is only three in all America, and put-tingthis city, in this pointof view, onafooting withthe metropolitan cities Lima and Mexico. It is thehead of a bishopric erected in 1534 by his holinessClement VII. The bay abounds in fish of variouskinds, but it is infested by marine wolves. Theclimate of this city is very hot ; from May to No-vember, which are the winter months, thunder,rain, and tempests are very frequent, but fromthis inconvenience they derive an advantage offilling with water their cisterns, called aijibes, andwhich afford them the only supply of this inostnecessary article ; accordingly every house is fur-nished with one of these cisterns : from Decemberto April, which is the summer, the heat is exces-sive, occasioning continual perspiration, whichdebilitates the frame, and causes the inhabitants tohave a pale and unhealthy appearance, althoughthey nevertheless enjoy good health, it being notunusual to find amongst them persons exceeding80 years of age. The irregularity of this climateproduces several very afflicting disorders, as theblack vomit, which is most common amongststrangers and sea-faring people, few of whom havethe luck to escape it, but no person ever has ittwice. The inhabitants are likewise much trou-bled with the leprosy, or disease of St. Lazarus ; theculebrilla, which is an insect which breeds under theskin, and causes a swelling which is accustomed toterminate in gangrene and spasms or convulsions :besides these inconveniences, there are multitudesof troublesome insects which infest the houses,such as beetles, niguas, scorpions, centipeds, andmorcielagos. The largest trees are the caob, thecedar, the maria, and balsam ; of the first aremade canoes, out of the solid trunk, for fishing andcommerce ; the red cedar is better than the white,and the two last, not to mention their utility fromthe compactness of their timber, for their delicioussmell and beautiful colour, are the trees fromwhence are procured those admirable distillationscalled the oil of Maria and balsam of Tolu. Hereare also tamarind trees, medlars, sapotas, papai/as,cassias, and Indian apple trees, producing deli-cate and pleasant fruits ; the fruit, however, of thelast mentioned is poisonous, and many who, de-ceived by the beauty of these apples, have therashness to taste them, soon repent of their folly,for they immediately swell to a distressing degree :so if perchance any one should sleep under itsbranches, he will be afflicted in the same way.
C H A
CHACTAW, a settlement and capital of theIndian district of this name in Louisiana, in whichthe French had a fort and establishment. (TheChactaws, or Flat-heads, are a powerful, hardy,subtle, and intrepid race of Indians, "vpho inhabita very fine and extensive tract of hilly country,with large and fertile plains intervening, betweenthe Alabama and Mississippi rivers, and in the w.part of the state of Georgia. This natioti had,not many years ago, 43 towns and villages, inthree divisions, containing 12,123 souls, of which4041 were fighting men. They are called by thetraders Flat-heads, all the males having the foreand hind part of their skulls artificially flattenedwhen young. These men, unlike the Muscogul-ges, are slovenly and negligent in every part oftheir dress, but otherwise are said to be ingenious,sensible, and virtuous men, bold and intrepid, yetquiet and peaceable. Some late travellers, how-ever, have observed that they pay little attentionto the most necessary rules of moral conduct, atleast that unnatural crimes were too frequent amongthem. Dift'erent from most of the Indian nationsbordering on the United States, they have largeplantations or country farms, where they employmuch of their time in agricultural improvements,after the manner of the Avhite people. Althoughtheir territories are not one-fburth so large as thoseof the Muscogulge confedraey, the number of in-habitants is greater. The Chactaws and Creeksare inveterate enemies* to each other. There area considerable number of these Indians on the w.side of the Mississippi, who have not been homefor several years. A bout 12 miles above the postat Oachcta on that river, there is a small villageof them of about 30 men, who have lived there forseveral years, and made corn ; and likewise onBayau Chico, in the n. part of the district ofAppalousa, there is another village of them ofabout fifty men, who have been there for aboutnine years, and say they have the governor of
Louisiana’s permission to settle there. Besidesthese, there are rambling hunting parties of themto be met with all over Lower Louisiana. Theyare at war with the Caddoques, and liked by. neither red nor white people.)
(CHACTOOS, Indians of N. America, wholive on Bayau Boeuf, about 10 miles to the s. ofBayau Rapide, on Red river, towards Appalousa ;a small, honest people ; are aborigines of thecountry where they live; of men about 30 ; di-minishing; have their own peculiar tongue;speak Mobilian. The lands they claim on BayauBceuf are inferior to no part of Louisiana in depthand richness of soil, growth of timber, pleasant-ness of surface, and goodness of water.. TheBayau Bceuf falls into the Chaffeli, and dischargesthrough Appalousa and Attakapa into Vermilionbay.)
CHACURIES, a settlement of the jurisdictionof the city of Pedraga, in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, is of the missions which were held thereof the order of St. Domingo. It is but small, andits climate is hot.
(CHADBOURNE’S River, district of Maine,called by some Great Works river, about 30 milesfrom the mouth of the Bonnebeag pond, fromwhich it flows. It is said to have taken its lattername from a mill with 18 saws, moved by onewheel, erected by one Lodors. But the projectwas soon laid aside. The former name is derivedfrom Mr. Chadbourne, one of the first settlers,,who purchased the land on the mouth of it, of thenatives, and whose posterity possess it at this day.)
CHAGRE, a large and navigable river of theprovince and government of Panamá in the king-dom of Tierra Firme, has its origin and sourcein the mountains near the valley of Pacora, andtakes its course in various directions, makingmany windings, which are called randa/es, until itenters the N. sea. It is navigated by large vesselscalled chatas, (having no keels), up as far as thesettlement of Cruces, where is the wharf for un-lading, and the royal custom-houses ; the greaterpart of the commerce being conducted by thismeans, to avoid the obstacles occurring from a badand rocky road from Portobeloto Panama. It hasdifferent forts for the defence of its entrance ; thefirst is the castle of its name, at the entrance ormouth ; the second is that of Gatun, situate upona long strip of land formed by a river of this name ;and the third is that of Trinidad, situate in a simb
C H A
lar way by a river of its name. It abounds inlarge alligators and mosquitoes, which render itsnavigation very troublesome. Its shores are co-vered with beautiful trees, which are inhabited bya variety of birds and apes of several species, whichmake an incredible chattering and noise. It wasby this river that the pirate John Morgan camewhen he took and sacked Panama in 1670. Itwas discovered by Hernando de la Serma in 1527,when he called it the river of Lagartos, but itsmouth was before discovered by Lope de Olanoin 1510. Here are found, at certain seasons, avery small fish of the size of a pin, called titles,and these are so abundant, that putting into thewater a large basket, it is certain to be drawn outfull ; they are fried, and make very savouryfritters.
CHAGRE, with the dedicatory title of San Lo-renzo, a settlement of the same province and king-dom ; situate upon the top of a mountain at theentrance or mouth of the former river. It has forits defence a strong castle, which was built by theorder of Philip 11. by the famous engineer J uanBautista Antoneli. This was taken by the pirateJohn Morgan, after having made a glorious de-fence, in 1668, when the settlement was burnt andsacked ; and in 1740 it was taken by the English,commanded by Admiral Vernon, who entirelydestroyed it ; its loss in that war being supplied bytwo strong batteries, which hindered the Englishfrom making a breach, for the third time, whenthey came with three frigates of war : but theywere driven back by Captain Don Juan de Her-mida, who was formerly captain of the regimentof Granada. In 1752 this castle was rebuilt, in themost perfect manner, by the lieutenant-generaland engineer Don Ignatio de Sala, governor ofCartagena, who came hither for this purpose byorder of the king. In this fortress several per-sonages of distinction' have been held prisoners,ami amongst others the Marquis of La Mina,])resiilent, governor, and captain-general of thekingiUmi in 1694. Is 13 leagues from Porto-belo.
the channels of the Orinoco as far as the gulfTriste.
CHAIPI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Parinacochas in Peru, annexed tothe curacy of the corregimiento of Pullo ; in whichwas venerated, ever since the time of the conquest,a beautiful image of the Virgen del Rosario, which,with the temple, was burnt a few years since, andthe parishioners being much afflicted at their loss,the Marquis of Selva Alegre, president of Quito,sent them another equal to the first : at the cele-bration of the festival people assemble from all theneighbouring districts.
c o c
COCO, a river of the province and governmentof Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the mountains of the n. and enters the seaopposite the island of Las Palmas, and gives itsname to the territory of a Cacique, thus called.
COCOMERACHI, a settlement of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara, andkingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. It is 40 leagues tothe w. s.zo. of the town 'And real of the mines ofChiguaga.
COCONUCO, See Cucunuco.
COCOS, some small islands of the Pacific orS. sea, lying close together, and divided by somenarrow channels. They abound in cocoa-trees,and from thence take their name. They are alsocalled Santa Cruz, from having been discoveredon the day of the invention of the cross. Theclimate here is pleasant, but the isles are unculti-vated and desert. Lat. 5° n.
COCUI, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Tunja in the NueVo Reyno de Gra-nada ; situate at the foot of the sierra Nevada. Itis of a cold temperature, but abounds in all kindsof productions, and particularly in wheat, maize,barley, &c. It contains 700 white inhabitants,and 150 Indians. Thirty-two leagues from Tunja,and eight from the settlement of Chita.
COCUPAC, a city and headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofValladolid in Nueva Espana, and of the bishopricof Mechoaean. Its situation is in a nook to the n.of the great lake. On the e. and ze. are two loftymountains, which form so many other entrances,the one to the 5. and the other to the n. Its tem-perature is rather cold than w'arm ; and althoughit does not want for fruits, it is but ill supplied withwater, the only stream it has not running morethan the distance of a stone’s throw before it entersa lake. The inhabitants are thus under the ne-cessity of supplying themselves by wells. Thepopulation of this city consists in 45 families ofSpaniards, 52 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 150of Indians. They occupy themselves in the mak-ing of tiles or flags ; and the inferior order aremuleteers. It has a convent of the religious orderof St. Francis.
COD, a cape of the coast of New England andprovince of Massachusetts. It runs for many leaguestowards the sea, forming a large semicircle, andafterwards returning, forms the bay of Barnstable.[See Cape Cod, Barnstable, &c.]
CORPUS-CHRISTI, a settlement of the mis-sions which were held by the regulars of the com-pany of Jesuits in the province and government ofParaguay ; situate on the shore of the river Parana,about 11 leagues n. e. of Candelaria. Lat. 27° T23" s. Long. 55° 32' 29" w.
CORRIENTES, S.Juan de , a city of theprovince and government of Buenos Ayres inPeru ; founded in 1588, on the e. coast of the riverLa Plata, near the part where those of the Paranaand Paraguay unite. It has, besides the parish
church, three convents, of St. Domingo, St. Francis,and La Merced, and a college which belonged tothe regulars of the company of Jesuits. This cityhas been harassed by the infidel Abipones In-dians, who have here put to death many Spaniards,and taken others prisoners ; on which account aguard of horse-militia has been established for itsdefence. (It is 100 leagues n. of the city of SantaFe, and contained, in 1801, 4300 inhabitants. Lat.27° 27' 21" s.)
CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, a rivcr of the pro-vince and government of Darien in the kingdom ofTierra Firme. It rises in the mountains towardsthe n. and enters the sea in the large plain oppositethe Mulatto isles.
CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, another, of the pro-vince and government of Paraguay. It rises in theserrania which lies between the rivers Paraguayand Parana, runs w. and enters the former betweenthe rivers Mboeri and P'areiri.
CORRIENTES, S. JUAN DE, another cape, calledalso De Arenas Gordas, on the coast which lies be-tween the river La Plata and the straits of Ma-gellan, between the capes San Antonio and SaaAndres.
(CORTLANDT, a township in the n. part ofthe county of W. Chester, on the e. bank of Hud-son river. New York, containing 1932 inhabitants,of whom 66 are slaves. Of its inhabitants, in 1796,305 were electors.)
CORUPA, another river. See Curupa.
known by the name of Carenas. It is of a kind,warm, and dry temperature, and more mild thanthe island of St. Domingo, owing to the refreshinggales which it experiences from the n. and e. Itsrivers, which are in number 15S, abound in richfish ; its mountains in choice and vast timber ;namely cedars, caobas^ oaks, ('ranadillos, guaya-canes^ and ebony-trees ; the fields in singing birds,and others of the chase, in flourishing trees andodoriferous plants. The territory is most fertile,so that the fields are never without flowers, and thetrees are never stripped of their foliage. Some ofthe seeds produce two crops a year, the one ofthem ripening in the depth of winter. At the be-ginning of its conquest, much gold was taken fromhence, and principally in the parts called, at thepresent day, lagua, and the city of Trinidad ; andthe chronicler Antonio de Herera affirms that thismetal was found of greater purity here than in theisland of St. Domingo. Some of it is procured atthe present day at Holguin. Here are sorne veryabundant mines of copper and load-stone; andartillery was formerly cast here, similar to thatwhich was in the fortified places of the Havana,Cuba, and the castle of the Morro. Here was es-tablished an asiento of the mines, under the reign ofthe King Don J uan de Eguiluz, when no h ss aquan-tity than lOOG quintals of gold were sent yearly toSpain. In the jurisdiction of the Havana, an ironmine has been discovered some little time since, ofan excellent quality, and the rock crystal foundhere is, when wrought, more brilliant than thefinest stones. In the road from Bayamo to Cuba,are found pebbles of various sizes, and so perfectlyround that they might be well used for cannon-balls. The baths of medical warm waters are ex-tremely numerous in this island. It contains 1 1large and convenient bays, very secure ports, andabundant salt ponds, also 480 sugar engines, fromwhich upwards of a million of arrobas are em-barked every year for Europe, and of such anesteemed and excellent quality, as without beingrefined, to equal the sugar of Holland or France ;not to mention the infinite quantity of this articleemployed in the manufacturing of delicious sweet-meats ; these being also sent over to Spain andvarious parts of America. It contains also 982herds of large cattle, 617 inclosures for swine, 350folds for fattening animals, 1881 manufactories, and5933 cultivated estates ; and but for the want ofhands, it might be said to abound in every neces-sary of life, since it produces in profusion yiicas,sweet and bitter, and of which the cazave bread ismade, coffee, maize, indigo, cotton, some cacaoand much tobacco of excellent quality ; this being
one of the principal sources of its commerce, anrJthat which forms the chief branch of the royalrevenue. This article is exported to Europe inevery fashion, in leaf, snuff, and cigars, and is heldsuperior to the tobacco of all the other parts ofAmerica. The great peculiarity of this climateis, that we find in it, the whole year round, themost Belicate herbs and fruits, in full season, nativeeither to Europe or these regions ; and amongstthe rest, the pine is most delicious. The fields areso delightful and so salutary, that invalids go to-reside in them to establish their health. Throughoutthe Avhole island there is neither wild beast or ve-nomous animal to be found. Its first inhabitantswere a pacific and modest people, and unacquaintedwith the barbarous custom of eating human flesh,and abhorring theft and impurity. These haveb-3corne nearly extinct, arid the greater part ofthem hung themselves at the beginning of the con-quest, through vexation at the hardships inflictedupon them by the first settlers. At the presentday, the natives are the most active and industriousof any belonging to the Antilles islands. Thewomen, although they have not the complexion ofEuropeans, are beautiful, lively, affable, of acutediscernment, lovers of virtue, and extremely hos-pitable and generous. The first town of this islandwas Baracoa, built by Diego Velazquez in 1512.,It is divided into two governments, which are thatof Cuba and that of the Havana : these are sub-div'ided into jurisdictions and districts. The go-vernor of the Havana is the captain-general ofthe whole island, and his command extends as faras the provinces of Louisiana and Movila ; and hisappointment has ever been looked upon as a si-tuation of the liighest importance and confidence.He is assisted by general officers of the greatestabilities and merits in the discharge of his office.When the appointment becomes vacant, the vice-roy of the Havana, thfbugh a privilege, becomesinvested with the title of Captain-General in thegovernment. The whole of the island is onediocese; its jurisdiction comprehending the pro-vinces of Louisiana, and having the title of thoseof Florida and the island of Jamaica. It is suf-fraganto the archbishopric of St. Domingo, erectedin Baracoa in 1518, and translated to Cuba bybull of Pope Andrian VI. in 1522. It numbers21 parishes, 90 churches, 52 curacies, 23 convents,3 colleges, and 22 hospitals. In 1763 some swarmsof bees were brouglit from San Agnstin de LaFlorida, which have increased to such a degree,that the wax procured from them, after reservingenough for the consumption of all the superiorclass, and independently of that used in the
canons in Salamatica, passed over to the Indies asvicar of the province of Santa Cruz in the Spapishisland, came to Spain at the general capitulation,and was elected bishop of Cuba in 1602 ; he at-tempted to translate the cathedral to the Havana,but did not succeed ; visited Florida, and waspromoted to the mitre of Guatemala in 1610.
12. Dm Fray Alonso Enriquez de Armendariz,of the order of Nuestra Senora de la Merced, na-tive of Navarra; was comendador of Granada,titular bishop of Sidonia, and nominated to Cubain 1610; he wrote, by order of the king, aspiritual and temporal relation of his bishopric,and w’as promoted to that of Mechoacan in 1624.
13. Don Fray Gregorio de Alarcon, of theorder of St. Augustin ; elected in the same year ;died in the voyage.
14. Don Leon de Cervantes, native of Mexico ;he studied in Salamanca, and was collegiate inthe university of Sigiienza, school-master in thechurch of Santa Fe, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada, bishop of Santa Marta, and promoted to thissee in 1625, and from this to that of Guadalaxara,in 1631.
15. Don Fray Geronimo Manrique de Lara,of the order of Nuestra Sefiora de la Merced, twicecomendador of Olmedo, difinidor of the provinceof Castille, and master in sacred theology ; electedbishop of Cuba in 1631 ; he died in 1645.
16. Don Martin de Zelaya Ocarriz, in 1645.
17. Don Nicolas de la Torre, native of Mexico,first professor of theology in its university, fourlimes rector of the same, canon of that metropo-litan church, first chaplain of the college ofNuestra Senora de la Caridad, examiner-generalof the archbishopric, and visitor-general of theconvents ; presented to the bishopric of Cuba in1646 ; died in 1652.
18. Don Juan de Montiel, until 1656.
19. Don Pedro de Reyna Maldonado, nativeof Lima, a celebrated writer, who governed un-til 1658.
20. Don Juan de Santa Matia Saenz de Ma-nosca, native of Mexico, inquisitor of that capi-tal ; elected in 1661, promoted to the church ofGuatemala in 1667.
21. Don Fray Bernardo Alonso de los Rios, ofthe order of La Trinidad Calzada, until 1670.
22. Don Gabriel Diaz Vara and Caldron, until1674.
23. Don Juan Garcia de Palacios, until 1680.
24. Don Fray Baltasar de Figueroa y Guinea,a Bernard ine monk, until 1683.
,25. Don Diego Ebelino dc Compostela, in 1685.
26. Don Fray Geronimo de Valdes, Basilicanmonk; elected, in 1703, bishop of Portorico, andpromoted to this in 1706.
27. Don Fray Francisco de Yzaguirre, of thereligious order of St. Augustin ; he governed until1730.
28. Don Fray Gaspar de Molina y Oviedo, ofthe order of St. Augustin ; elected in 1730, pro-moted before he took possession of the bishopricof Malaga to the government of the cogncil, andafterwards to the purple.
29. Don Fray J uan Laso de la Vega y Cansino.of the religious order of St. P'rancis ; elected in thesame year, 1730.
30. Don Pedro Agustin Morel de Santa Cruz ;he governed until 1753.
31. Don Santiago de Echavarria y Elquezaga,native of Cuba ; promoted to the bishopric of Ni-caragua in 1753.
Governors and Captains-general who have presidedin the island of Cuba.
1. Don Diego Velazquez, native of Cuellar,knight of the order of Santiago, a conqueror andsettler of this island, nominated by the AdmiralChristopher Columbus in 1511; he governedAvith great applause until his death, in 1524.
2. Manuel de Roxas, native of the same townas was his predecessor, on account of whose deathhe was nominated to the bishopric, and in remem-brance of the great credit he had acquired in theconquest of the island, receiving his appointmentat the hands of the audience of St. Domingo, andbeing confirmed in it by the emperor in 1525 ; hegoverned until 1538.
3. Hernando de Soto, who governed until1539.
4. The Licentiate Juan de Avila, until 1545.
5. The Licentiate Antonio de Chaves, until1547.
6. The Doctor Gonzalo Perez Angulo, until1549.
7. Diego Mazariegos, until 1554.
8. Garcia Osorio, until 1565.
9. Pedro Melendez de Aviles, until 1568.
10. Don Gabriel de Montalvo, until 1576.
11. The Captain Francisco Carreno, until1578.
12. The Licentiate Gaspar de Toro, until1580.
13. Gabriel de Lujan, until 1584.
14. The militia colonel Juan de Texeda, until1589.
15. Don Juan Maldonado Barrionuevo, until1596.