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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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and pleasantly situated. Before the deslrnction oftil is town by the British in 1775, several brandiesof mannfadures were carried on to great advan-tage, some of which have been since revived : par-ticularly tlic manufacture of pot and pearl ashes,ship-building, rum, leather in all its branches,silver, tin, brass, and pewter. Three rope-walkshave lately been erected in this town, and tlie in-crease of its houses, population, trade, and naviga-tion, have been very great within a few' years past.This town is a port of entry in conjunction withBoston. At the head of the neck there is a bridgeover Mystic river, which connects Charlestown withMalden.)
CHARLESTOWN, another city of the island ofNevis, one of the Caribes, in the Antilles ; in w Inchthere are beautiful houses and shops well providedwith every thing ; is defended by a fort calledCharles. It has a market every Saturday, begin-ning at sun-rise and finishing at mid-day, whitherthe Negroes bring 'maize, names, garden-herbs,fruits, &c. In the parish of San Juan is a pieceof sulphureous land, in the upper extremity of anopening of the land, called Solfatara, or Sulphurgut, which is so hot as to be telt through the solesof the shoes when being trodden upon. At thefoot of the declivity of this same part of the city,is a small hot stream, called the Bath, which beingsupposed to rise from the aforesaid spot, loses itselfshortly in the sand. Towards the side lying nextthe sea are two fountains, one of hot water, theother of cold, and of these two are formed the lakeof Blackrock, the waters of which are of a moderatewarmth, and which lies to the n. of the city, beingnearly a quarter of a mile’s distance from the placewhere are caught eels and silver-fish, resemblingthe cod and slimgut in flavour, the latter of whichlias a head disproportioned to its body. [A prodi-gious piece ol Nevis mountain falling down in anearthquake several years ago, left a large vacuity,which is still to be seen. The altitude of thismountain, taken by a quadrant from Charlestownbay, is said to be a mile and a half perpendicular ;and from the said bay to the top, four miles. Thedeclivity from this mountain to the town is verysteep half-way, but afterwards easy of ascent.] InLat. 17° 8' u. and long. 62° 40' w.
Charlestown, another city of the island ofBarbadoes ; the situation of which is two leaguesfrom that of San Miguel. It has a good port de-fended by two castles ; the one beyoml the other,and both commanding the city and the road: inthe middle of them is a platform. Tlse inhabitantscarry on a great trade with the other islands.
county. New York, on the s. side of Mohawk river,about 32 miles w. of Schenectady. By the statecensus of 1796, 456 of the inhabitants are elec-tors.)
(Charlestown, a township in Mason county,Kentucky ; situate on the Ohio, at the mouth ofLauren’s creek. It contains but few houses, andis six miles n. of Washington, and 60 n. e. of Lex-ington. Lat. 38° 28' n.)
(Charlestown, a post town in Cheshire county,New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecticutriver, 30 miles s. of Dartmouth college, upwards of70 n. of Northampton, 116 n. of w. of Boston, 120w. by 71. of Portsmouth, and 431 n. n. e. of Phila-delphia. It was incorporated in 1753, and con-tains 90 or 100 houses, a Congregational church,a court-house, and an academy. The road fromBoston to Quebec passes through this town. Lat.43° 16' n. Long. 72° 23' w. A small internaltrade is carried on here.)
(Charlestown, a post town in Cecil county,Maryland, near the head of Chesapeak bay ; sixmites e. n. e. from the mouth of Susquehannahriver, 10 zo. s. w. from Elktown, and 50 s. w. by zb.from Philadelphia. Here are about 20 houses,chiefly inhabited by fishermen employed in theherring fishery. Lat. 39° 36' w.)
(Charlestown, a district in the lower countryof S. Carolina, subdivided into 14 parishes. Thislarge district, of which the city of Charleston is thechief town, lies between Santee and Combaheerivers. It pays 21,473/. 14s. 6d. sterling, taxes. Itsends to the state legislature 48 representatives and13 senators, and one member to congress. It con-tains 66,986 inhabitants, of whom only 16,352 arefree.)
(Charlestown, a township in Washingtoncounty, Rhode Island state, having the Atlanticocean on the s. and separated from Richmond on the71. by Charles river, a water of Fawcatiick. Some ofits ponds empty into Fawcatiick river, otliers intothe sea. It is 19 miles /L ti:;. of Newport, andcontains 2022 inhabitants, including 12 slaves. Afew years ago there w'ere about 500 Indians in thestate ; the greater part of them resided in tin's town-ship. They are peaceable and well disposed togovernment, and s|5cak the English language.)
raense advantage to the neighbouring states, parti-cularly to Virginia. Of that state it has been ob-served, with some little exaggeration, however,that “ every planter has a river at his door.”)
(CHESHIRE county, in New Hampshire, lies inthe s. w. part of the state, on the e. bank of Con-necticut river. It has the state of Massachusettson the s. Grafton county on the n. and Hillsbo-rough county e. It lias 34 townships, of whichCharlestown and Keene are the chief, and 28,772inhabitants, including 16 slaves.)
(Chester, a large, pleasant, and elegant town-ship in Rockingham county. New Hampshire.It is 21 miles in length ; and on the w. side is apretty large lake, which sends its waters to Merri-mack river. It was incorporated in 1722, andcontains 1902 inhabitants, who are chiefly farmers.It is situated on the e. side of Merrimack river,14 miles n. w. of Haverhill, as far w. of Exeter,35 tflTby s. of Portsmouth, six n. of Londonderry,and 306 from Philadelphia. From the compactpart of this town there is a gentle descent to thesea, which, in a clear day, may be seen fromthence. It is a post-town, and contains about 60
houses and a Congregational church. Rattlesnakehill, in this township, is a great curiosity; it ishalf a mile in diameter, of a circular form, and400 feet high. On the side, 10 yards from itsbase, is the entrance of a cave, called the Devil’sDen, which is a room 15 or 20 feet square, andfour feet high, floored and circled by a regularrock, from the upper part of which are depend-ent many excrescences, nearly in the form andsize of a pear, which, when approached by a torch,throw out a sparkling lustre of almost every hue;It is a cold, dreary place, of which many fright-ful stories are told by those who delight in themarvellous.)
(Chester, a borough and post-town in Penn-sylvania, and the capital of Delaware county;pleasantly situated on the w. side of Delaware ri-ver, near Marcus hook, and 13 miles n. e. of Wil-mington. It contains about 60 houses, built on aregular plan, a court-house, and a gaol. FromCliester to Philadelphia is 20 miles by water, and15 n. e. by land ; here the river is narrowed byislands of marsh, which are generally banked,and turned into rich and immensely valuable mea-dows. The first colonial assembly was convenedhere, the 4th of December 1682. The place af-fords genteel inns and good entertainment, and isthe resort of much company from the metropolisduringthe summer season. It was incorporated inDecember 1795, and is governed by two bur-gesses, a constable, a town-clerk, and three assist-ants ; whose power is limited to preserve the peaceand order of the place.)
(Chester County, in Pennsylvania, w. of Dela-ware county, and s. w. of Philadelphia ; about 45miles in length, and 30 in breadth. It contains33 townships, of which West Chester is the shiretown, and 27,937 inhabitants, of whom 145 areslaves. Iron ore is found in the n. parts, whichemploys six forges : these manufacture 'about1000 tons of bar-iron annually.)
(Chester River, a navigable water of thee. side of Maryland, which rises two miles withinthe line of Delaware state, by two sources, Cyprusand Andover creeks, which unite at Bridgetown ;runs nearly s. w. ; after passing Chester it runs s.nearly three miles, when it receives South-Easterncreek ; and 15 miles farther, in a s. w. direction, it
empties into Chesapeak bay, at Love point. It formsan island at its mouth, and by acbannel on the e. sideof Kent island, communicates with. Eastern bay.It is proposed to cut a canal, about 1 1 miles long,from Andover creek, a mile and a half fromBridgetown to Salisbury, on Upper Duck creek,which falls into Delaware at Hook island.)
(Chester, a small town in Shannandoah county,Virginia, situate on the point of land formed bythe junction of Allen’s or North river and Southriver, which form the Shannandoah ; 16 miles s.by w. of Winchester. Lat. 39° 4' n. Long.78° 25' w.)
(Chester County, in Pinckney district, SouthCarolina, lies in the s.e. corner of the district, onW ateree river, and contains 6866 inhabitants ; ofwhom 5866 are whites, and 938 slaves. It sendstwo representatives, but no senator, to the statelegislature.)
(Chesterfield, a township in Cheshire county.New Hampshire, on the e. bank of Connecticutriver, having Westmoreland n. and Hinsdale s.It was incorporated in 1752, and contains 1905 in-habitants. It lies about 25 miles s. by w. ofCharlestown, and about 90 or 100 w. of Ports-mouth. About the year 1730, the garrison offort Dummer was alarmed with frequent explosions,and with columns of fire and smoke, emitted fromW est River mountain in th is township , and four milesdistant from that fort. The like appearances havebeen observed at various times since ; particularly,one in 1752 was the most severe of any. Thereare two places where the rocks bear marks of hav-ing been heated and calcined.)
Chester river, 16 miles s.w. of Georgetown, 38e. by s. from Baltimore, and 81 s.w. of Philadel*phia. It contains about 140 houses, a church,college, court-house, and gaol. The college wasincorporated in 1782, by the name of Washing-ton. It is under the direction of 24 trustees, whoare empowered to supply vacancies and hold,estates, whose yearly value shall not exceed 6000/.currency. In 1787 it had a permanent fund of1250/. a year settled upon it by law. Lat. 39° 12'n. Long. 76° 10' cc;.)
CHETIMACHAS, a river of the province andgovernment of Louisiana. It is an arm of theMississippi, which runs s. e. and enters the sea onthe side of the bay of Asuncion or Ascension. [Onthe Chetiraachas, six leagues from the Mississippi,there is a settlement of Indians of the same name ;and thus far it is uniformly 100 yards broad, andfrom two to four fathoms cleep, vfhen the water islowest. Some drifted logs have formed a shoal atits mouth on the Mississippi ; but as the water isdeep under them they could be easily removed;and the Indians say there is nothing to impede na-vigation from their village to the gulf. The banksare more elevated than those of the Mississippi, andin some places are so high as never to be over-flowed. The natural productions are the same ason the Mississippi, but the soil, from the extraordi-nary size and compactness of the canes, is supe-rior. If measures were adopted and pursued witha view to improve this communication, there wouldsoon be on its banks the most prosperous and im-portant settlements in that colony.)
(Chetimachas, Grand Lake of, in Loui-.siana, near the mouth of the Mississippi, is 24miles long, and nine broad. Lake de Portage,which is 13 miles long, and If broad, commu-nicates with this lake at the n. end, by a straita quarter of a mile wide. The country bor-dering on these lakes is low and flat, timbered withcypress, live and other kinds of oak ; and on the€. side, the land between it and the Chafalaya riveris divided by innumerable streams, which occa-sion as many islands. Some of these streams are*navigable. A little distance from the s. e. short?of the lake Chetimachas, is an island where per-sons passing that way generally halt as a restingplace. Nearly opposite this island there is anopening which leads to the sea. It is about 150yards wide, and has 16 or 17 fathoms water.)
(CONWAY, a township in the province ofNew Brunswick, Sudbury county, on the w. bankof St. John’s river. It has the bayofFundyonthe and at the westernmost point of the townshipthere is a pretty good harbour, called Musquashcove.)
(COOK’S River, in the n. w. coast of N. Ame-rica, lies n. w. of Prince William’s sound, and1000 miles n. w. of Nootka sound. It promises tovie with the most considerable ones already known.It was traced by Captain Cook for 210 miles fromthe mouth, as high as lat. 61° 30' n. and so far asis discovered, opens a very considerable inlandnavigation by its various branches ; the inhabi-tants seemed to be of the same race with those ofPrince William’s sound, and like them had glassbeads ami knives, and were also clothed in finefurs.)
(Cooper, a large and navigable river whichmingles its waters with Ashley river, below Charles-ton ^ity in S. Carolina. These form a spaciousand convenient harbour, which communicates withthe ocean, just below Sullivan’s island, which itleaves on the n. seven miles s. e. of the city. Inthese rivers the tide rises 6| feet. Cooper river isa mile wide at the ferry, nine miles above Charles,town.)
(Cooper’s Town, a post-town and townshipin Otsego county. New York, and is the compactpart of the township of Otsego, and the chief townof the country round lake Otsego. It is pleasant-ly situated at the s. w. end of the lake, on its banks,and those of its outlet ; 12 miles n. w. of Cherryvalley, and 73 w. of Albany. Here are a court-house, gaol, and academy. In 1791 it contained292 inhabitants. In 1789 it had but three housesonly ; and in the spring 1795, 50 houses had beenerected, ofwhich above a fourth part were respect-able two-story dwelling-houses, with every pro-portionable improvement, on a plan regularly laidout in squares. Lat. 42° 36' n. Long. 74° 58' M.][Cooper’s Town, Pennsylvania, is situated onthe Susquehannah river. This place in 1785 wasa wilderness ; nine years after it contained 1800 in-habitants, a large and handsome church, with asteeple, a market-house and a bettering house, alibrary of 1200 volumes, and an academy of 64scholars. Four hundred and seventy pipes werelaid under ground, for the purpose of bringingwater from West mountain, and conducting it toevery house in town.)
(COOS, or Cohos. The country called Upperand Lower Coos lies on Connecticut river, be-tween 20 and 40 miles above Dartmouth college.Upper Coos is the country of Upper Amonoo-suck river, on John and Israel rivers. LowerCoos lies below the town of Haverhill, s. of th«Lower Amonoosuck. The distance from UpperCoos, to the tide in Kennebeck river, was measuredin 1793, and was found to be but 90 miles.)
(COOSA Hatchee, or Coosaw, a river of S.Carolina, which rises in Orangeburg district, andrunning a 5. m. course, em.pties into Broad riverand Whale branch, which separate Beaufort islandfrom the mainland.)
(Coosa|COOSA, or Coosa Hatcha]]==, a river which3 u
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bounded ??. and 71 . w. by Mifiiin ; e. and n.e. bySusqiiehaiinah river, which divides it from Dau-phin ; i-. by York, and s.w. by Franklin county.It is 47 miles in length, and 42 in breadth, and has10 townships, of which Carlisle is the chief. Thecounty is generally mountainous; lies between^North and Soutli mountain ; on each side of Cone-dogwinet creek, there is an extensive, rich, andwell cultivated valley. It contains 18,243 inhabi-tants, of whom 223 are slaves.]
[Cumberland, a post-town and the chieftownship of Alleghany county, Maryland, lies onthe «. bank of a great bend of Potowmack river,and on both sides of the mouth of Will’s creek.It is 148 miles w. by n. of Baltimore, 109 mea-sured miles above Georgetown, and about 105». w. of Washington City. Fort Cumberlandstood formerly at the w. side of the mouth of Will’screek.]
[Cumberland County, in Virginia, on the«, side of Appamatox river, which divides it fromPrince Edward. It contains 8153 inhabitants, ofwhom 4434 are slaves. The court-house is 28miles from Pawhatan court-house, and 52 fromRichmond.]
[Cumberland Mountain occupies a part ofthe uninhabited country of the state of Tennessee,between the districts of Washington and Hamiltonand Mero district, and between the two firstnamed districts and the state of Kentucky. Theridge is about SO miles broad, and extends fromCrow creek, on Tennessee river, from s. w. ion. e.The place where the Tennessee breaks through theGreat ridge, called the Whirl or Suck, is 250miles above the Muscle shoals. Limestone isfound on both sides the mountain. The moun-tain consists of the most stupendous piles of craggyrocks of any mountain in the w. country ; inseveral parts of it, it is inaccessible for miles, evento the Indians on foot. In one place particularly,near the summit of the mountain, there is a mostremarkable ledge of rocks, of about SO miles inlength, and 200 feet thick, shewing a perpen-dicular face to the s. e. more noble and grand thanany artificial fortification in the known world, andapparently equal in point of regularity.]
[Cumberland River, called by the Indians“ Shawanee,” and by the French “ Shavanon,”falls into the Ohio 10 miles above the mouth ofTennessee river, and about 24 miles due e. fromfort Massac, and 1113 below Pittsburg. It isnavigable for large vessels to Nashville in Ten-nessee, and from thence to the mouth of Obed’s orObas river. The Caney-fork, Harpeth, Stones,Red, and Obed’s, are its chief branches ; some ofthem are navigable to a great distance. TheCumberland mountains in Virginia separate thehead waters of this river from those of Clinchriver ; it runs s. w. till it comes near the s. line ofKentucky, when its course is w. in general,through Lincoln county, receiving many streamsfrom each side ; thence it flows s. w. into the stateof Tennessee, where it takes a winding course, in-closing Sumner, Davidson, and Tennessee coun-ties ; afterwards it takes a n. w. direction, and re-enters the state of Kentucky ; and from thence itpreserves nearly an uniform distance from Tennes-see river to its mouth, where it is 300 yards wide.It is 200 yards broad at Nashville, and its wholelength is computed to be above 450 miles.]
CUMBINAMA. See Loyola.
[CUMMASHAWAS, or Cummasuawaa, asound and village on the e. side of Washingtonisland, on the n. w. coast of N. America. Theport is capacious and safe. In this port CaptainIngraham remained some time, and he observes,in his journal, that here, in direct opposition tomost other parts of the world, the women main-tained a precedency to the men in every point ;insomuch that a man dares not trade without theconcurrence of his wife, and that he has often beenwitness to men’s being abused for parting withskins before their approbation was obtained ; andthis precedency often occasioned much disturbance.
CUMPAYO, a settlement of the province of
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 2]
GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL
AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES.
Dabaiba, an imaginary and fabulous river, which some travellers would fain have to be in the mountains of Abide. Amongst the many rivers, however, which flow down from that cordillera, we find no one of this name in the ancient or mo- dern charts of the best geographers.
DACADMA, a lake of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the territory pos- sessed by the Portuguese. It is formed by an arm or waste- water of the river Marañon, which returns to enter that river, leaving this lake; and at a small distance from it is another, called Cudaja.
[DALTON, a fine township in Berkshire county, Massachusetts, having Pittsfield on the w. ; and contains 554 inhabitants. The stage road from Boston to Albany runs through it. Dalton was incorporated in 1784, and lies 135 miles ay. by n. of Boston, and about 35 the same course from Northampton.]
[Dalton, a township in Grafton county. New Hampshire, first called Apthorpe, ivas incorporated in 1784, and has only 14 inhabitants. It lies on the e. bank of Connecticut river, at the Fifteen- mile falls, opposite Concord, in Essex county, Vermont.]