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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


320 CAR

close to those of Perlas and Mosquitos ; they arethree in number, small and desert.

CARNERO, Punta del, a point on the coastof the S. sea, and of the province and governmentof Guayaquil ; one of the two which form thegreat bay of Tumbez. It is close to the point ofSanta Elena.

Carnero, Punta del, another, on the coastof the kingdom of Chile ; it is very low, extend-ing itself with a gentle slope towards the sea. Thee. winds are prevalent here, rendering it dangerousto be passed.

Carnero, Punta del, another point of landon the coast of the same kingdom.

Carnero, Punta del, a port of the coast ofthe kingdom of Chile, between tlie mouth of theriver Lebo and the point of Rumena.

(CARNESVILLE, the chief town of Franklincounty, Georgia, 100 miles n. w. of Augusta. Itcontains a court-house, and about 20 dwelling-houses.)

CAROLINA, a province of N. America, andpart of that extensive country anciently calledFlorida, bounded n. by Virginia, s. by the trueFlorida, w. by Louisiana, and e. by the Atlantic.It is divided into N. and S. Carolina. Its ex-tent is 135 leagues in length, nearly from s. w. ton. e. and 75 in width from e. to w. from 30®to 36° 30' of lat. It was discovered by JuanPonce de Leon in 1512, though it was not settledby the Spaniards then, but abandoned until thereign of Charles IX. king of France, when theFrench established themselves in it, under thecommand of admiral Chatilon, protector of theProtestants. He founded a colony and a fort call-ed Charles fort, and gave the name of Carolina tothe country, in lionour to his monarch. This es-tablishment, however, lasted but a short time, forit was destroyed by the Spaniards, who put tothe sword the new colonists, and went away underthe impression that they had now left the countryin a perfectly abandoned state. But the English,at this time, were maintaining a footing here, un-der the command of Sir Walter Raleigh, thoughthey were not under any formal establishmentuntil the reign of Charles II. in 1663, when thecountry was granted as a property to the followingnobility, viz. the Count of Clarendon, Duke ofAlbemarle, Count of Craven, John Berkley, JohnAshley, afterwards Count of Shaftsbury, GeorgeCarteret, John Colleton, and William Berkley;by these it was divided into as many counties,and by them names were given to the rivers, settle-ments, &c. Their privilege of proprietorship and


jurisdiction extended from lat. 31° to 36° «. andthey had an absolute authority to form establish-ments and governments, according to the laws andstatutes laid down by that famous and renownedphilosopher John Locke ; accordingly the govern-ment partook largely of the despotic, and therulers had the power of acknowledging or renounc-ing laws, of conferring titles, employments, pro-motions, and dignities, according to their owncaprice. They divided the population into threeclasses: The first was composed of those entitledthe Barons, and to these were given 120,000 acresof land; the second were two lordships, with thetitle of Counts, to whom were given 240,000 acres ;and the third, who were called Landgraves, a titlecorresponding to Dukes, had a portion of 480,000acres. This last body formed the high council-chamber, and the lower was composed of the re-presentatives of the counties and cities, both ofthese together forming the parliament, this beingthe real title, and not assembly, as in the othercolonies. The first establishment was the city ofCharlestown, between two navigable rivers calledAshley and Cowper ; the same offered an asylumto the Europeans, who on account of religiousdisturbances fled from Europe, and who havingsuffered great distresses there, had afterwards toencounter a very unfriendly reception from theIndians. Such was the state of affairs until 1728,when this city was taken under the protection ofthe English crown ; a corresponding recompencehaving been paid to the lords, the proprietors, whoyielding it up, thus made a virtue of necessity ;the Count Grenville, however, persisted in keep-ing his eighth share. From that time it was divid-ed into two parts, called North and South. The cli-mate differs but little from that of Virginia, al-though the heat in the summer is rather morepowerful here ; the winter, however, is shorterand milder ; the temperature is serene and theair healthy ; tempests and thunder storms are fre-quent, and this is the only part of this continentwherein have been experienced hurricanes; althoughthey are but rare here, and never so violent as in theislands. The half of March, the whole of April,May, and the greater part of June, the season ismild and agreable ; in July, August, and nearlyall September, the heat is intense ; but the winteris so mild, especially when the wind prevails,that the water is seldom frozen. It is extremely fer-tile, and abounds in wheat, barley, rice, and allkinds of pulse, flowers, and fruits of an exquisiteflavour; and the soil, which is uncultivated, iscovered with all kinds of trees. The principal

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