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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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out various ways, and watering, from the place in which it rises, the extensive vallies of Curimon, Aconcagua, Quillota, and Concon; in which are cultivated large crops of wheat, flax and hemp; and it, moreover, enters the sea in as large a stream as if it had never undergone the like ramifications: its mouth is in 33° lat.

Aconcagua, a settlement of the same province, which was formerly its capital, until the foundation of the city of S. Felipe. It is very thinly peopled, and is situate in the valley of this name.

Aconcagua, a volcano of the same province.

ACONCHI, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva España.

ACONICHI, a settlement of Indians of N. Carolina, situate on the shore of the river Eno.

ACONICHI, an Island in the middle of the river Dan, in the same province.

ACONQUIJA, the most lofty mountain of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district of the city of Catamarca, and very near it. It is perpetually covered with snow, and abounds with minerals of gold. Its jurisdiction is disputed by the province of Atacama.

ACOPIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Sangarara.

ACORA, a settlement of the province and government of Chucuito in Peru, situate on the shore of the Gran Laguna (great lake). Lat. 16° 40' 30" S. Long. 70° 15' W.

ACORI, a small river of the province and capitainship of Pará in Brazil. It runs N between the Pacajes and Yavarais, and enters the river of the Amazonas, in the arm formed by the island of Marajo.

ACORIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru.

ACORO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Tambillo.

ACOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Jauja in Peru.

another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi, annexed to the curacy of Acomayo.

ACOSTA, a settlement of the province and capitainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situate onthe N shore of the large river of San Francisco, near where it enters the sea.

ACOSTAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Castro-virreyna in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Pilpichacha.

ACOSTAMBO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Huaribaraba.

ACOTAMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chancay in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Iguari.

ACOTITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Autlan. It contains 15 Indian families, who employ themselves in breeding the larger sort of cattle, in making sugar and honey, in dressing seeds, and extracting oil of cacao, which abounds greatly, from the number of trees yielding this fruit. It is annexed to the curacy of Tecolotlan, from whence it is two leagues to the S W.

[ACOUEZ, an Indian nation in Canada.]

ACOXCHIAPA, a settlement of the head settlement of Xonacatepec, and alcaldía mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva España.

==ACQUACKNACK, a town on the W side of Passaic river, in Essex county, New Jersey, ten miles N of Newark, and 17 N W from New York. Lat. 40° 47' N. Long. 74° 10' W.

ACTIPA, San Mateo de, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tezeoro in Nueva Espana, annexed to the curacy of Capulalpa.

ACTIPAQUE, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Toluca in Nueva España, four leagues to the S of its capital, and situate on the shore of the lake Tezcoco.

[ACTON, a township in Middlesex county, Massachusetts, containing 853 inhabitants ; 24miles N W of Boston.]

ACTOPAN, the district and alcaldía mayor of Nueva España, commonly called Octupan. Its productions and commerce are as follows: They consist in seeds, rigging, saltpetre, and the feeding of goats and sheep, chiefly prized on account of their skins and their fat. It is of a mild temperature; but the ground is infested with prickly plants, thorns, and teasels. There are some estates here of about eight or ten labouring families each. In this district, and in its environs, are many singing birds, which, in the Mexican language, are called zenzontla; and among otlicrs is the nightingale. The capital bears the same name, and in it there are no less than 2750 families of Othomies Indians, divided into two parties, and separated by the church, which is a convent of the order of St. Augustin, and a very ancient piece of architecture. It also contains 50 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees. 23 leagues N N E of Mexico. Long. 98° 49' W. Lat. 20° 19'30" N.

ACTUPAN, San Pedro de, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Xochimilco, in the same kingdom. It contains 210 Indian families, including those of its wards.

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but very little known, of Indians, of the NuevoReyno de Granada, bordering upon the riverFusagasuga. They are few, and live dispersed inthe woods, having a communication with the Faecesand Fusungaes.

[CHYENNES, Indians of N. America, theremnant of a nation once respectable in point ofnumber. They formerly resided on a branch ofthe Red river of Lake Winnipie, which still bearstheir name. Being oppressed by the Sioux, theyremoved to the w, side of the Missouri, about15 miles below the mouth of Warricunne creek,where they built and fortified a village ; butbeing pursued by their ancient enemies the Sioux,they fled to the Black hills, about the head of theChyenne river, where they wander in quest of thebuffalo, having no fixed residence. They do notcultivate. They are well disposed towards thewhites, and might easily be induced to settle on theMissouri, if they could be assured of being pro-tected from the Sioux. Their number annuallydiminishes. Their trade may be made valuable.]

[CIACICA. See Cicasica.]

CIBAMBE, a settlement of the district and cor-regimiento of Alausi in the kingdom of Quito.

CIBAYA, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Arica in Peru.

[CIBOLA, or Civola, the name of a town in,ana also the ancient name of, New Granada inTierra Firroe, S. America. The country here,though not mountainous, is very cool ; and theIndians are said to be the whitest, wittiest, mostsincere and orderly of all the aboriginal Americans.When the country was discovered, they had eachbut one wife, and were excessively jealous. Theyworshipped water, and an old woman that was amagician ; and believed she lay hid under one oftlicir

CIBOO, Minas de, some rough and craggymountains, nearly in the centre of the island of St. Domingo, where some gold mines are worked, andfrom whence great wealth was procured at the be*ginning of the conquest.

CIBOUX, a small island near the e. coast ofthe Isla Real, or Cape Breton, between the portDelfin and the entrance of the lake of Labrador.

CICASICA, a province and corregimiento ofPerú ; bounded n. and n. e. by the mountains ofthe Andes, and the province of Larecaxa ; e. bythe province of Cochabamba ; s. e. by that of Pariaand coTTCgirnicnto of Oruro ; on the s . it is touchedby the river of Desaguadero ; s. w, by the provinceof Pacages ; and n. w.. and w. by the city of La Paz.It is one of the greatest in the whole kingdom,since the corregidor is obliged to place here 12lieutenants for the administration of justice, on ac-count of its extent. It is five leagues from n. to j.and 80 from e. to w. Its temperature is various ;in some parts there are some very cold serrantasyin which breed every species of cattle, in proportionto the number of estates found there. That partwhich borders upon the Andes is very hot andmoist, but at the same time fertile, and aboundingin all kinds of fruits and plantations of sugar-cane,and in cacao estates, the crops of which are verygreat, and produce a lucrative commerce ; the useof this leaf, which was before only common to theIndians, being now general amongst the Spaniardsof both sexes and all classes ; so that one basket-ful, which formerly cost no more than five dollars,will now fetch from 10 to 11 ; vines are also culti-vated, and from these is made excellent wine. Thisprovince is watered by the river La Paz, which isthe source of the Beni ; also by a river descendingfrom the branches of the cordillera, and which, inthe wet season, is tolerably large. At the riverCorico begins the navigation by means of rafts tothe settlement of Los Reyes. Amongst the pro-ductions of this province may be counted Jesuitsbark, equal to that of Loxa, according to the ex-periments made at Lima. This province begins atthe river Majaviri, which divides the suburbs ofSanta Barbara from the city of La Paz, and hereis a little valley watered by the above river, and init are a few houses or country-seats belonging tothe inhabitants of the above city. This valley,which is of a delightful temperature, extends asfar as the gold mine called Clmquiahuilla, onthe skirt of the cordillera, where was foundthat rich lump of gold which weighed 90 marks,the largest ever seen in that kingdom, with the pe-culiarity, that upon assaying it, it was found tohave six different alloys ; its degrees of perfec-tion differing from 18 to 23 j ; and that beingvalued in Spanish money, it proved to be worth11,269 dollars reals. This prize was carried tothe royal treasury, and upon this occasion theMarquis of Castelfuerte, then viceroy, receivedthe thanks of his majesty. In the territory ofCinco Curatos (or Five Curacies) of the Andes arefound in the forests excellent woods, such as cedars,corcoholos, &c. and many fine fruits, also tobacco.It had formerly very rich mines of gold and silver,which are still known to exist in other mountainsbesides that of Santiago, but the natives have no in-clination to work them. The aforementionedmountain has the peculiarity of abounding in eithersort of the said metals. In the asiento of the minesof Arica, there is a gold mine which produces butlittle. From the wo^ of the flocks are made sora«

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mills. The whole of the district of its territory iscovered with estates and country-seats, whichabound in all kinds of fruits, at once rendering ita place pleasing and advantageous for residence.

Concepcion, another, of the province and cor-regimiento of Pacajes in Peru ; situate on the shoreoflhe lake Titicaca, and at the mouth of the riverDesa<;uadero.

Concepcion, anotlier, of the province and go-vernment of the Chiquitos Indians, in the samekingdom ; a reduccion of the missions which wereheld in this province by the regulars of the com-pany of the Jesuits ; situate between the source ofthe river Verde and the river Ubay.

Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito ;■situate between the rivers Guandes and Y laibi, andnearly in the spot where they join.

Concepcion, another, of the former provinceand government ; situate on the shore of the riverItenes.

Concepcion, another, of the province andcountry of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese pos-sessions ; a reduccion of the missions which are heldby the Carmelite fathers of this nation ; situate onthe shore of a pool or lake formed by the riverUrubu. . .

Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits in California ; situate near the sea-coast andthe Puerto Nuevo, or New Port.

Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru, and district ofChaco ; being a reduccion of the Abipones Indians,of the mission held by the regulars of the companyof Jesuits, and to-day under the charge of the reli-gious order of S. Francisco.

Concepcion, another, which is also called hu-enclara or Canada, of the missions held by the re-ligion of St. Francis, in the kingdom of NuevoMexico.

Concepcion, another, which is the real oi inesilver mines of the province and government ofSonora in Nueva Espana.

Concepcion, another, of the province and cap-iahiship ot Rio Janeiro in Brazil 5 situate on thecoast, opposite the Isla Grande.

Concepcion, another, of the province and cap-iainship of S. Vincente in the same kingdom.

Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Buenos Ayres; situate at the mouth ofthe river Saladillo, on the coast which lies betweenthe river La Plata and the straits of Magellan.

Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-

suits, in the province and government of BuenosAyres ; situate on the w. shore of the river Uru-guay. (Lat. 27° 58' 43". Long. 53° 27' 13" re.)

Concepcion, another, of the missions whichwere held by the regulars of the company of Je-suits, in the country of the Chiquitos Indians, inthe kingdom of Peru ; situate to the e. of that ofSan Francisco Xavier.

Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana.

Concepcion, another, of the province and go-vernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom ofQuito, which produces nothing but maize, yucas^plantains, and quantities of aloes, with the whichthe natives pay their tribute, and which are muchesteemed in Peru.

Concepcion, a town of the province and go-vernment of Tucumán in Peru, in the jurisdictionof the city of Santiago del Estero, between therivers Bermejo and Salado. It was destroyed bythe infidel Indians.

Concepcion, a bay of the kingdom of Chile,at the innermost part of which, and four leaguesfrom its entrance, is found a bed of shells, fromwhich is made excellent lime.

Concepcion, another bay, in the gulf of Cali-fornia, or Mar Roxo de Cortes. It is very largeand capacious, having within it various islands.Its entrance is, however, very narrow.

Concepcion, a river in the province and go-vernment of Costarica, which runs into the sea be-tween that of San Antonio and that of Portete.

Concepcion, another, of the kingdom of Bra-zil, which rises to the w. of the town of Gorjas,runs s. 5 . K). and unites itself with that of the Re-medies, to enter the river Prieto or La Palma.

Concepcion, another, which is an arm of theriver Picazuru, in the province and government ofParaguay.

Concepcion, another, of the kingdom of Chile,which runs through the middle of the city ofConcepcion, and enters the sea in the bay of tliisname.

(Concepcion, a large bay on the c. side ofNewfoundland island, whose entrance is betweencape St. Francis on the s. and Flamborough headon the n. It runs a great way into the land in a s.direction, having numerous bays on the w. side,on which are two settlements, Carboniere andHavre de Grace. Settlements were made here in1610, by about 40 planters, under Governor JohnGuy, to whom King James had granted a patentof incorporation.)

(Concepcion of Salaye, a small town of N.America, in the province of Mechoacán in Mexico

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[tion for privateers, and in the war of 1780 thecruisers from Cura^oa greatly annoyed the Eng-lish W. India trade ; so that tliere was a balanceaccounted for by the treasury of 190,000 francs,(about 17,275/.), arising from the duties on theprize-cargoes. This had been invested on mort-gage for the benefit of the company. The governorshould be a milhary man ; the mixed nature ofthe inhabitants renders a strict and more arbitraryform of government necessary here than in theotlier colonies. Excepting a tew merchants, thereare scarcely any white inhabitants at the chieftown, Williamstad, or on the opposite side of theharbour; such as have any lands live upon them,and the public officers and servants of the com-pany reside in or near the fort. The town’s peopleare a mixture of Jews, Spaniards, sailors, freeMulattoes, free Negroes, Musquito and otherIndians. I'he licentiousness of the Negro slavesis very great here, and attributable to variouscauses ; they are nevertheless worse off than inother colonies, as, in case of a scarcity of provi-sions, the distress falls chiefly on them. Themanumission of slaves, as practised here, is verypreposterous ; for it is generally when they aretoo old to work, that their proprietors pay a smallfine to government to emancipate them, and thenthey must either acquire a precarious subsistenceby begging, or are exposed to perish by want, asthere is no provission for such objects. There arestill at Bonaire a few remaining of the original in-habitants, and three or four aged people at Cura-50 a ; with these exceptious the natives have be-comeextinct. There are hardly half a dozen familiesof whites who have not intermarried with Indiansor Negroes on the intermediate coasts. AtWilliamstad there is a Dutch reformed church, aLutheran church, a Roman Catholic chapel, and^ Jewish synagogue ; houses are built so near thewalls of the fort, that a ladder from the upperstories would be sufficient to get within the] walls.A remarkable blunder of the engineer is noticed,who, in building a stone battery, turned the em-brasures inwards instead of outwards. In thefront of that battery of the fort which is intendedto command the entrance of the harbour, a rangeof warehouses has been built, which are not onlythemselves exposed to the fire of an enemy, butimpede the use of the guns of the fort, whichwould first have to level those warehouses to acertain height before their shot could reach ahostile force. The powder magazine was placedat a distance from the fort, and in such a situa-tion as to expose the road or access to it, to thefire of any ship coming round on that side. The

town, harbour, and fort, are however capable ofbeing made impregnable by any force attackingthem from the sea-side ; yet they would be greatlyexposed on the land-side, and there are severalplaces on the shores of the island where an enter-prising enemy might find means to effect a landingwith small craft ; these spots ought, therefore,likewise to be fortified, and a garrison ought to bemaintained, numerous enough to dispute theground foot by foot, which, in such a rockyisland, abounding with difficult passages and de-files through the broken rocks, could easily bedone; and an enemy, however strong at theirlanding, if they should effect it, would be exhaust-ed by a well contested retreat, before they couldreach the chief settlement. Cura 9 oa is in lat. 12 °6 '. Long. 69° 2'.]

CURAÇOA. This beautiful city is well situated ;its buildings are large, convenient, and magnificent ;is full of store-houses and shops well provided withevery species of merchandise, and of all kinds of ma-nufactories ; so that you may see at one glance avessel building, the sails and rigging, and all itsother necessary equipments preparing, and eventhe articles being macufactured with which it is tobe laden. It has a good port, in which vesselsfrom all parts are continually lying ; its entranceis defended by a castle, but dangerous and difficultto be made, and to effect it, it is necessary to makefast a cable to the same castle, although a vessel,when once in, will lie very safe. It has a synagoguefor the convenience of the many Jews who inhabitthe city, and who are the principal merchants. TheFrench, commanded by M. Caissar, bombarded itin 1714: ; but the commanding ship of his squa-dron was wrecked upon the coast.

CURAGUATE, a river of the island and go-vernment of Trinidad. It runs to the w. extremity,and enters the sea in the n. coast, near the capital,San Joseph de Oruna.

CURAGUATA, a point of the n. coast of the sameisland (Trinidad), close to the port Maracas.

CURAGUE, a small river of the island of LaLaxa in the kingdom of Chile. It runs n. n. w. andenters the Huaque, opposite the mouth of the Ra-ninco. On its shores the Spaniards have built ^fort, called De los Angeles, to restrain the incur-sions of the Araucanos Indians.

CURAHUARA de Carangas, a settlementof this province and corregimiento (Chile), and of the arch-bishopric of Charcas in Peru.

CURAHUARA DE Carangas, another settle-ment, with the additional title of Pacajes, to dis-tinguish it from the former; belonging to the aboveprovince and corregimiento (Chile).

Last edit almost 2 years ago by JoshuaOB
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