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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ACACUNA, a mountain of Peru, in the province and corregimiento of Arica in Peru. It is very lofty, and is four leagues distant from the S. sea; is very barren, and situate between the promontory of Ilo and the river Sama. Lat. 70° 29' S [Long. 18° 35' W.]
ACADIA, a province and peninsula of N. America, on the E coast of Canada, between the island or bank of Newfoundland and New England, by which it is bounded on the w. It is more than 100 leagues in length from N W S E and nearly 80 in width, from NE to SW from the gulph of St. Lawrence to the river Santa Cruz. It was discovered in 1497 by Sebastian Cabot, sent thither from England by Henry VII. The French, under the command of Jacob Cartier, of St. Maloes, established themselves here in 1534, in order to carry on a codfishery on the bank of Newfoundland; and in 1604, Peter Guest, a gentleman of the household of Henry IV of France, was sent by that king to establish a colony, which he founded at Port Royal. The English entered it under Gilbert Humphry, in consequence of a grant which had been made to this person by Queen Elizabeth, and gave it the title of Nova Scotia. In 1621 King James I made a donation of it to the Earl of Stirling; and in 1627 the French, commanded by Kirk de la Rochelle, made themselves masters of it, destroying all the establishments of the English, who were obliged to surrender it up, in 1629, by the treaty of St. Germains. The French shortly afterwards lost it; a Governor Philip having taken possession of it; but they, however, regained it in 1691, through the conduct of Mr. De Villebon. In order to settle the pretensions of the rival courts, commissioners were, by mutual consent, appointed in the peace of Riswick, in 1697, to consider which should be the limits of Nova Scotia and New England; and in the peace of Utrecht, it was entirely ceded to the English, who afterwards returned to it. This beautiful country contains many rivers and lakes; the principal of these is the Rosignol, well stocked with fish: there are also many woods, full of excellent timber, and thronged with very singular birds; as, for instance, the Colibri, or hummingbird, and various others. The same woods abound in many kinds of fruits and medicinal herbs. It is very fertile in wheat, maize, pulse of all sorts, and also produces cattle of various kinds, animals of the chase, and abundance of fine fish. Its principal commerce is in skins and salt fish. The winter is longer and colder than in Europe. The capital is Port Royal.— [The name of Acadia was first applied to a tract from the 40th to the 46th degree of N lat. granted to De Mons, Nov. 8, 1603, by Henry IV of France. For the present state of this country, see NOVA SCOTIA.]
ACAGUATO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldía mayor of Tancitaro. It is so reduced as to consist of no more than 15 families of Indians, who maintain themselves by sowing some maize, and other vegetable productions. — Eight leagues S of the capital.
ACAMBARO, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Zelaya, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán. It contains 490 families of Indians, 80 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and a convent of the order of St. Francis. In its district there are other small settlements or wards.— Seven leagues S of its capital.
ACAMISTLAHUAC, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tasco, annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it is distant two leagues to the E N E. It contains 30 Indian families.
ACAMUCHITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Texopilco, and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec. It contains 60 Indian families, whose commerce is in sugar and honey. It produces also maize, and cultivates many vegetable productions. — Five leagues N of its head settlement.
ACANTEPEC, the head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlapa. It is of a cold and moist temperature, contains 92 Indian families, among which are included those of another settlement in its vicinity, all of whom maintain themselves by manufacturing cotton stuffs.
ACANTI, a river of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains which lie towards the N and empties itself into the sea between Cape Tiburon and the bay of Calidonia.
ACAPALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldía mayor of Chiapa, in the kingdom of Guatemala. Lat. 16° 53' N Long. 93° 52' W [It is situate on the Tobasco river, near the city of Chiapa, and not far from a bay in the S. sea, called Teguantipac.]
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It was conquered and united to the empire byInca Roca, the sixth Emperor.
CHALLAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxamarquilla or Pataz in Peru,in the district of which is an estate called Huasil-las, where there is a house of entertainment be-longing to the religion of St. Francis, in whichreside the missionaries who assist in the conversionof the infidel Indians of the mountains.
CHAMA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Maracaibo. It rises at the foot of thesnowy sierra, runs, making the form of two SS, tothe e. and rt;. and passing by to the s. of the cityof Merida, returns n. and enters the great lake ofMaracaibo at the side opposite its mouth.
CHAMACON, a river of the province and go-vernment of Darien in the kingdom of TierraFirme ; it rises in the mountains of the e. coast,and runs from s. e. to n. w. until it enters the largeriver Atrato near its mouth.
CHAMACUERO, San Francisco de, a set-tlement and head settlement of the district of thealcaldia mayor of Zelaya in the province and bi-shopric of Meohoacan. It contains 690 families ofIndians, and more than 30 of Spaniards, Mustees,and Mulaltoes, with a convent of the order of St.Francis ; is five leagues to the n. of its capital.
CHAMAL, a settlement of Indians of the Chi-chimeca nation, in the head settlement of the dis-trict of Tamazunchale, and alcaldia mayor of Valles,in Nueva Espana ; situate in a valley of the samename. Its inhabitants having been reduced atthe beginning of the 18th century, and having re-quested a priest, one was sent them of the religionof St. Francis ; but no sooner did he arrive amongstthem than they put him to death, eating his body,and at the same time destroying the settlement.They were, however, afterwards reduced to thefaith, rather through the hostilities practised against
them by their neighbours than a desire of embrac-ing it. It is five leagues from Nuestra Senorade la Soledad.
CHAMANGUE, a river of the province andgovernment of Quixos y Macas in the kingdom ofQuito. It runs through the territory of the city ofAvila from n. w. to s. e. and enters the river Coca,on the w. side, in lat. 46° s.
CHAMARIAPA, a settlement of the provinceof Barcelona, and government of Curaana, in thekingdom of Tierra Firme ; one of those which areunder the care of the religious observers of St.Francis, the missionaries of Piritu. It is to thew. of the mesa (table land) of Guanipa.
CHAMBA, a river of the province and corregi-miento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, towardsthe s. It runs from e. to w. passes near the settle-uient of Vilcabamba, and then enters the river Ma-lacatos.
(CHAMBERSBURG, a post town in Pennsyl-vania, and the chief of Franklin county. Itis situated on the e. branch of Conogocheaguecreek, a water of Potow.mac river, in a rich andhighly cultivated country and healthy situation-.Here are about 200 houses, two Presbyterianchurches, a stone gaol, a handsome court-housebuUt of brick, a paper and merchant mill. It is58 miles e. by s. of Bedford, 11 w. zo. of Shippens-burg, and 157 w. of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 57'n. Long. 77° 40' a-'.)
CHAMBIRA, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Maynas in the kingdom of Quito ;situale at the source of the river of its name. Itrises to the e. of the settlement of Pinches, betweenthe rivers Tigre and Pastaza, and runs nearly pa-rallel to the former, where it enters, with a muchincreased body, into the Maranon.
(CHAMBLEE River, or Sorell, a water ofthe St. Lawrence, issuing from lake Champlain,300 yards wide when lowest. It is shoal in dryseasons, but of sufficient breadth for rafting lumber,&c. spring and fall. It was called both Sorcll andRichlieu when the French held Canada.)
CHAMBLI, a French fort in the province and
canons in Salamatica, passed over to the Indies asvicar of the province of Santa Cruz in the Spapishisland, came to Spain at the general capitulation,and was elected bishop of Cuba in 1602 ; he at-tempted to translate the cathedral to the Havana,but did not succeed ; visited Florida, and waspromoted to the mitre of Guatemala in 1610.
12. Dm Fray Alonso Enriquez de Armendariz,of the order of Nuestra Senora de la Merced, na-tive of Navarra; was comendador of Granada,titular bishop of Sidonia, and nominated to Cubain 1610; he wrote, by order of the king, aspiritual and temporal relation of his bishopric,and w’as promoted to that of Mechoacan in 1624.
13. Don Fray Gregorio de Alarcon, of theorder of St. Augustin ; elected in the same year ;died in the voyage.
14. Don Leon de Cervantes, native of Mexico ;he studied in Salamanca, and was collegiate inthe university of Sigiienza, school-master in thechurch of Santa Fe, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada, bishop of Santa Marta, and promoted to thissee in 1625, and from this to that of Guadalaxara,in 1631.
15. Don Fray Geronimo Manrique de Lara,of the order of Nuestra Sefiora de la Merced, twicecomendador of Olmedo, difinidor of the provinceof Castille, and master in sacred theology ; electedbishop of Cuba in 1631 ; he died in 1645.
16. Don Martin de Zelaya Ocarriz, in 1645.
17. Don Nicolas de la Torre, native of Mexico,first professor of theology in its university, fourlimes rector of the same, canon of that metropo-litan church, first chaplain of the college ofNuestra Senora de la Caridad, examiner-generalof the archbishopric, and visitor-general of theconvents ; presented to the bishopric of Cuba in1646 ; died in 1652.
18. Don Juan de Montiel, until 1656.
19. Don Pedro de Reyna Maldonado, nativeof Lima, a celebrated writer, who governed un-til 1658.
20. Don Juan de Santa Matia Saenz de Ma-nosca, native of Mexico, inquisitor of that capi-tal ; elected in 1661, promoted to the church ofGuatemala in 1667.
21. Don Fray Bernardo Alonso de los Rios, ofthe order of La Trinidad Calzada, until 1670.
22. Don Gabriel Diaz Vara and Caldron, until1674.
23. Don Juan Garcia de Palacios, until 1680.
24. Don Fray Baltasar de Figueroa y Guinea,a Bernard ine monk, until 1683.
,25. Don Diego Ebelino dc Compostela, in 1685.
26. Don Fray Geronimo de Valdes, Basilicanmonk; elected, in 1703, bishop of Portorico, andpromoted to this in 1706.
27. Don Fray Francisco de Yzaguirre, of thereligious order of St. Augustin ; he governed until1730.
28. Don Fray Gaspar de Molina y Oviedo, ofthe order of St. Augustin ; elected in 1730, pro-moted before he took possession of the bishopricof Malaga to the government of the cogncil, andafterwards to the purple.
29. Don Fray J uan Laso de la Vega y Cansino.of the religious order of St. P'rancis ; elected in thesame year, 1730.
30. Don Pedro Agustin Morel de Santa Cruz ;he governed until 1753.
31. Don Santiago de Echavarria y Elquezaga,native of Cuba ; promoted to the bishopric of Ni-caragua in 1753.
Governors and Captains-general who have presidedin the island of Cuba.
1. Don Diego Velazquez, native of Cuellar,knight of the order of Santiago, a conqueror andsettler of this island, nominated by the AdmiralChristopher Columbus in 1511; he governedAvith great applause until his death, in 1524.
2. Manuel de Roxas, native of the same townas was his predecessor, on account of whose deathhe was nominated to the bishopric, and in remem-brance of the great credit he had acquired in theconquest of the island, receiving his appointmentat the hands of the audience of St. Domingo, andbeing confirmed in it by the emperor in 1525 ; hegoverned until 1538.
3. Hernando de Soto, who governed until1539.
4. The Licentiate Juan de Avila, until 1545.
5. The Licentiate Antonio de Chaves, until1547.
6. The Doctor Gonzalo Perez Angulo, until1549.
7. Diego Mazariegos, until 1554.
8. Garcia Osorio, until 1565.
9. Pedro Melendez de Aviles, until 1568.
10. Don Gabriel de Montalvo, until 1576.
11. The Captain Francisco Carreno, until1578.
12. The Licentiate Gaspar de Toro, until1580.
13. Gabriel de Lujan, until 1584.
14. The militia colonel Juan de Texeda, until1589.
15. Don Juan Maldonado Barrionuevo, until1596.
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country of Las Amazonas. It flows in the territoryof the Carigueres or Mutuanis Indians, runs c.and enters the Madera opposite the great cataract.
CUIAPAN, a settlement of the head settlementof Atoyaque, and alcaldia mayor of Zayula, inNueva Espana. It contains 70 families of In-dians, who live by agriculture and making coarsestuffs. It is one league to the s. of its head settle-ment.
CUIAUTEPEC, Santiago de, a settlementof the head settlement of Olinala, and alcaldiamayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains32 families of Indians, and is two leagues to then. c. of its head settlement.
CUIAUTEPEC, another settlement of the headsettlement of Ayotitlan, and alcaldia mayor ofAmola, in the same kingdom. It contains 13 fa-milies of Indians, who live by agriculture andbreeding cattle; is 10 leagues to the w, of itshead settlement.
CUICATLAN, the alcaldia mayor of the pro-vince and bishopric of Mechoacan. It is 19leagues in length from e. to w. and 1 1 in widthn. s. It is of a hot temperature, abounds in salt-petre, scarlet-dye, and cotton, of which beautifulornamental dresses are made ; these being the prin-cipal source of its commerce. The capital is thesettlement of the same name, inhabited by 125 fa-milies of Cuicatecos Indians, who cultivate greatquantities of maize, French beans, and cotton. Itis 70 leagues to the e. with a slight inclination tothe s. of Mexico. The other settlements of thisdistrict are,
Nacantepec==, Santa Ana]],
==CUICEO=, (Of the lake), the alcaldia mayor of
the province and bishopric of Mechoacan ; boundedc. by the province of Acambaro ; n. by that ofZelaya; nc. by that of Pasquaro ; and s. by thatof Valladolid. It is in length eight leagues frome. to w. and five in width «. s. It is surroundedby a lake of wholesome water, which gives itsname to the jurisdiction, and which, towards then. part, becomes dry in the summer season, itswaters being supplied from certain drains fromanother large lake which lies on its s. side. Thetemperature here is, for the most part, mild anddry, and the place abounds with salutary waters,which bubble out from a fountain in an island ofthe above mentioned lake. Its commerce is verysmall, since it produces only maize, French beans,and Chile pepper, and a kind of fish found in greatabundance in both the lakes, called charaes.
The capital is the settlement of the samename ; situate in front of the island formed bythe lake.. It contains a convent of the religiousorder of St. Augustin, and 190 families of Indians,including those of the wards of its district, 72 ofSpaniards, 11 of Mulattoes, and 43 of Mustees.It is 50 leagues to the w, of Mexico. The othersettlements are,
CUICOCHA, a large lake of the province andcorregimiento of Octavalo in the kingdom ofQuito, surrounded by living stone. To the e. ithas a rock, where it forms a streamlet, which after-wards enters the river Blanco. It does not appearto receive its waters from any source, and i«thought to be filled through subterraneous aque-ducts from the mountain of Cota-cacbe, which iscovered with eternal snow. In the middle of thislake rise two hills, which have the appearance oftwo beautiful isles, the one being covered withtrees, and filled with stags and mountain goats, andthe other being bedecked with a herb calledp^jow,amongst which thrive many Indian rabbits, which,in the language of the country, are called cuy^ andfrom thence the name of Cuy-cocha, which meansthe lake of Indian rabbits. The water which runsbetween the two islands, forms a channel of 3000fathoms. This lake belongs to the noble familyof the Chiribogas of Quito.