The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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mines have as yet been discovered here. Theseislands have some ports, but such as are small, in-secure, and without any defence, with the excep-tion of that of Chacao. The inhabitants shouldamount to 22,000 souls, and these are dividedinto 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed bythe reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis,and consisting at the present day, for the mostpart, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is thecity of Santiago de Castro, in the large island ofChiloe. [For further account, see index to addi-tional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]
CHILON, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ;situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile,and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leaguesfrom the settlement of Samaypata.
CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province andcorregimiento of Peru, bounded by the provinceof Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ;s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that ofAbancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperatureis various, the proportion of heat and cold beingregulated by its different degrees of elevation ; sothat in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm,and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered bythree rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passingthrough the valley of this name, the Velille, andthe Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extendedseven bridges, which form a communication withthe other provinces. It has likewise eight smalllakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl.The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; inwheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stockedwith some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer.Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the coun-try ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, bymeans of chorillos, or running streams, as theyhave no mills for fulling, since a royal licence isnecessary for the making use of the same. Al-though the appearance of mines has in manyplaces been discovered amongst the mountains,yet no mines have as yet been worked, and twoonly have been known to have been opened informer times. This province has suffered muchfrom earthquakes ; and the greatest of these hap-pened in 1707, when many settlements were madedesolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, andthese contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital isParuro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimientoused to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamlaThe other settlements are.
to 676 dollars per ann.Colcha,
CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its tem-perature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdic-tion. It is situate in the middle of a plain, ex-tending over the top of a hill, on two sides ofwhich are large chasms, so immensely deep, thatit is really astonishing to observe how the Indianscontrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges.It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leaguesto thes. of its head settlement.
CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito,in the government and corregimiento of Chirnboor Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asan-coto. It is entirely covered with woods and withstreams, which flow down from the heights intothe plains of Babahoyo. The river named De laChima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol.A way has been opened through this mountainwhich leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it ispassable in the summer only. There is also an-other pass equally difficult and dangerous, calledAngas. The cold is great at the top of the moun-tain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.sin lat. 44' s.
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as to render it impracticable to cross them. In theroad they usually take lies the steep declivity ofSan Antonio, extremely difficult to be passed.The mules however are so well versed in the man-ner of letting themselves slide down it, that therehas never been an instance of these animals falling.The 'vegetable productions of this province areconfined to bark, and from this no emolument isderived, although it was discovered, after muchsearch and solicitude, by the Lieutenant-colonelDon Miguel de Santistevan. It accordinglj'- pro-vides itself with all that it may require in this wayfrom the adjoining provinces of Riobamba andTacunga. It is of a very cold temperature, fromits being so near to the mountainous desert ofChimborazo. Its natives amount to 2000 souls,the greater part of them being Mustees, and the■whole are divided into seven settlements, of whichthe capital bears the same name ; and althoughthis was formerly the residence of the corregidor,yet has it of late been deserted for the settlementof Guaranda. The seven settlements are,
San Lorenzo, Guaranda,
CHIMBORAZO, a verylofty mountain or desert of the cordillera of theprovince and corregimiento of Riobamba, in thekingdom of Quito; which, in the language ofthe country, signifies mountain of the other side.It is covered with everlasting snow, and is theloftiest mountain in the known world, since itsheight, taken by the academicians of the sciencesof Paris, is 3220 toises from the level of the seato its top, which terminates in a cone or truncatedpyramid. Its sides are covered with a kind ofwhite sand or calcined earth with loose stones,and a certain herb called pajon, which affords pas-ture for the cattle of the neighbouring estates.The warm streams flowing from its n. side shouldseem toAvarrantthe idea that within it is a volcano.From its top flow down many rivers, which takedifferent winding courses; thus the Guarandaruns 5. the Guano s. e. and the Machala e. Onits skirt lies the road which" leads from Quito toGuayaquil ; and in order to pass it in safety, it isrequisite to be more cautious in choosing the properseason than were the Spanish conquerors of thisprovince, who were here frozen to death. Northof the town of Riobamba, in lat. 1° 21' 18" s. ac-cording to the observations of M. La Condamine.fThis mountain was visited, on the 23d of June1797, by Humboldt; who with his party reachedits €. slope on that day, and planted their instru-
ments on a narrow ledge of porphyritie rock Avhichprojected from the vast field of unfathomcd snow.A chasm, 500 feet wide, prevented their furtherascent. The air was reduced to half its usualdensity, and felt intensely cold and piercing.Respiration was laborious and blood oozed fromtheir eyes, their lips and their gums. They stoodon the highest spot ever trod by man. Its height,ascertained from barometrical observation, was3485 feet greater than the elevation attained in1745 by Condamine, and 19,300 feet above thelevel of the sea. From that extreme station, thetop of Chimborazo was found, by trigonometricalmeasurement, to be 2140 feet still higher.
CHIMBUZA, a large lake of the province andgovernment of Barbacoas, of the kingdom ofQuito, to the s. w. of the river Patia, formed by anarrow canal, through ■which the Avater of thisriver enters, and so forms the same lake into asheet of water of an oblong figure, two leagues inlength, and half a league in breadth. This lakehas another narrow canal, through which the wa-ter issues, and re-unites itself with the sameriver.
CHIMICA, a small province of the governmentof Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada. It is almost as it were desert and aban-doned, notwithstanding that it produces a goodquantity of maize. The climate is hot and un-healthy ; and although it was formerly peopled bythe Chimicas Indians, none of these are now foundto reside here.
CHIMILAS, a barbarous nation of Indians ofthe Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the province ofSanta Marta. They inhabit the Avoods to the e.of the large river Magdalena, go naked, and haveno fixed abodes. They are cruel and treacherous,and are bounded by the nation of the Guaxiros.
CHIMIRAL, a river of the province and corregimiento of Copiapo in the kingdom of Chile.It rises in the SnoAvy sierra, runs w. and enters thesea in the point of its name. It in many partsruns in so inconsiderable a stream as frequently tobe in all appearance lost before it enters the sea.
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the river Marailon has its rise in tins lake ; its realorigin being in the lake Lauricociia, as may beseen under that article.
CHINCHERO, a settlement of the provinceand correghniado of Calca y Lares in Perú. Thecemetery of its church is composed of some large,thick Avails of Avrouglit stone, well fitted together,and having in them certain niches similar to sentryboxes ; so that they appear as having formerly be-longed to some fortress.
Same name, a river of this province, whichrises from the mountain desert or paramo of La Sabanilla. It Avashes the city and territory of Val-ladolid, and on its c. side receives the rivers Nnm-balla, Vergel, Patacones, Sangalla, San Francisco,and Nambacasa ; and on its zs. side those of Pa-landa, Simanchi, Namballe, and Guancabamba ;when, being sAA'^elled to a considerable size by all ofthese, it enters the Maranon on the n. shore, to thew. w. of the settlement of Tompenda.
CHINCHULAGUA, a very lofty desert mountainor paramo, covered with eternal snow, in theprovince and corregimiento of Tacunga in thekingdom of Quito. It lies five leagues to the n. ofTacunga, Avith a slight inclination to the n. c.
CHINCONTLA, a settlement of the head set-tlement of Olintla, and alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan,in Nueva Espana ; situate in a delightful defile ornarroAV tract, watered by various rivers. Eightleagues from its head settlement.
CHINGA, a fortress of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; one of the six Avhich were held by the%ipas or kings of Bogota, against the Punches na-tion, who border upon their country ; 10 leaguesto the s. w. of Bogota.
CHINU, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cartagena in the kingdom ofTierraFirme ; founded in the sahanas, and formed by are-union of other settlements, in 1776, by the G'o-A^ernor Uon Juan Piraiento.
CHIPALZINGO, a settlement and head ettlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tixtlanin Nueva Espana. It contains 353 families ofIndians, and of Spaniards, Mustces, and Mn-lattoes, and lies three leagues from the sett lemcn!,of Zurnpango.
CHIPANGA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom oiQuito. It rises in the sierra, Avhich divides thedistrict of Macas from the province of Mainas, runsfrom n. to s. and enters the Morona.
CHIPAQUE, a settlement of the corregimientoof Ubaque in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Itis of a mild temperature, and abounds in fruits andseeds peculiar to a warm climate. It consists of150 housekeepers, and of as many Indians. It isso infested with snakes, that it is impossible to findany part of it clear of them. Eight leagues .9. .of Santa Fe, in the road which leads to San Juande los Llanos.
CHIPASAQUE, a settlement of the corregimiento of Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.It is of an hot temperature, lying 24 leagues to thes. e. of Santa Fe, and close to the settlement ofChaqueta, in the road Avhich leads to San Juan dc
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papas; likewise in cattle, from the fleeces of whichgreat quantities of woven clotlis are made. Its'population amounts to 150 house-keepers and 100Indians. Four leagues to the s. w. of its capital,and near to the settlement of Turmeque.
==CHISCAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada ; situate at the foot of the Snowy sierra^and therefore of a cold and unpleasant temperature.Its productions correspond with those of a similarclimate ; it contains about 80 Indians, with a veryfew whites. Thirty-two leagues n. e. of Tunja.
CHISPAS, Punta de las, a point on the s.coast and w. head of the island of St. Domingo,in the territory possessed by the French ; lyingbetween the settlement and parish of the English,and the point of Burgados.
[CHISSEL, a fort in the state of Tennessee,two miles and a half from English ferry, on Newriver, 43 from Abingdon, and 107 from Longisland, on Holston.]
CHITA, a province and corregimienlo of theNuevo Reyno de Granada, and vice-royalty ofSanta Fe. It was formerly called Chisca. It isbounded w. by the province of Bogota, and n. bythe country bt the Laches Indians, or province ofCochuy, and e. and s. by the llanuras of theOrinoco. It was discovered by George Spira, aGerman, and he was the first who entered it withhis companions in 1535. This territory is fertile,abounds in wheat and maize, the grain of which isextremely large, as also in other seeds, and hasgoats and neat cattle in plenty. It is of an hotand unhealthy temperature, and has palms similarto those of Palestine and Barbary, producing ex-cellent dates. The capital is of the same name.This is situate at the foot of the mountains of Bo-gota ; it is a large settlement, and was formerly en-titled a city. Its inhabitants consist of upwardsof 700 whites and about 200 Indians. Twenty-four leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.
Same name, another settlement, which is the headsettlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor ofVillalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tempe-rature, contains 90 families of Indians, and is threeleagues and a half to the s. of its capital.
CHITANOS, a barbarous nation of Indians;bounded by that of the Chiscas, but distinct fromit, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. They in-habit the woods to the n. e. of the mountains ofBogota and the shores of the rivers Ele, Cuiloto,and Arauca ; are an intractable and. cruel people,and dreaded by all their neighbours. In 1535,having joined company with the Jiraras, theytook and destroyed the city of Las Palmas.
CHITARAQUE, a settlement of the corregi-mienlo and jurisdiction of Velez in the NuevoReyno de Granada, it is of an hot but healtliytemperature, produces yucas, maize, plantains,cotton, and great quantities of sugar, from whichare made fine and much esteemed conserves.
CHITAREROS, a barbarous and brutal nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada,who inhabit the mountains in the vicinity of Pam-plona ; they are mixed with some families of theLaches. This nation is extremely numerous, andpass a wandering life without any fixed abode ;they go entirely naked, and are much given to sen-sual gratifications ; some of them have embraced2
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the Catholic faith, and are reduced to settlements,though the number of these is very small.
CHITEPEC, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapain Nueva Espaiia. It is of a cold temperature,and contains 39 families of Indians, who live bysowing maize, the only vegetable production oftheir territory. Five leagues w. n. w. of its capi-tal.
CHITO, a settlement of the province and cor-regimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdomof Quito, upon the s. shore of the river Sangalla,and in the royal road of Loxa, which leads to To-mependa. In its vicinity are some gold mines,but which are not worked ; its temperature is hotand moist, and consequently unhealthy.
[CHITTENDEN County, in Vermont, lieson lake Champlain, between Franklin county onthe w. and Addison s. ; La Moille river passesthrough its n. w. corner, and Onion river dividesit nearly in the centre.' Its chief town is Burling-ton. This county contained, by the census of1791, 44 townships and 7301 inhabitants. Sincethat time the n. counties have been taken from it,so that neither its size or number of inhabitants cannow be ascertained.]
[Chittenden, a township in Rutland county,Vermont, contains 159 inhabitants. The roadover the mountain passes through this township.It lies seven miles e. from the fort on Otter creek,in Pittsford, and about 60 n. by e. from Ben-nington.]
[CHITTENENGO, or Canaserage, a con-siderable stream which runs n. into lake Oneida,in the state of New York.]
CHIUAO, a small river of theprovince and colony of Surinam, or the part ofGuayana possessed by the Dutch . It rises in themountain of Sincomay, runs n. and turning w.enters another river which is without a name, andwhere several others unite to enter the Cuyuni onthe s. side.
CHIUATA, a river of the province and go-vernment of Cumana in the kingdom of TierraFirme. It rises from some plains in this territory,runs s. collecting the waters of several otherrivers, particularly that of the Suata, and thenenters the sea, just as it becomes navigable.
CHIUCHIN, a settlement of the province andcorregimienlo of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Canchas. In its district there is amineral hot-water spring, much renowned for thecuring of various kinds of maladies.
CHIUGOTOS, a barbarous na-tion of Indians of the province and government ofVenezuela, bordering upon the settlement of Mara-capana. They are very few, and live retired in themountains ; they are cruel even to cannibalism.
CHIXILA, a settlement and head settlement ofthe district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta inNueva Espana. It is of an hot temperature, con-tains 134 families of Indians, and lies 12 leaguesto the n. of its capital.
CHOCAMAN, a settlement of the head settle-ment of the district of Zacan, and alcaldia mayorof Cordoba, in Nueva Espana. It is of a coldand moist temperature, contains 103 families ofIndians, and is five leagues to the n, n. w. of thecapital.
CHOCO, a large province and government ofthe jurisdiction of Popayan ; by the territory ofwhich it is bounded e. and s. e . ; on the w. by thePacific or S. sea; n. by the barbarous nations ofIndians, and by the province of Darien ; and s. bythat of Barbacoas. The whole of this provinceabounds in woods and mountains, and is crossedby a chain of the Andes, which run as far as theisthmus of Panama. It is watered by several riversand streams, all of which run w. and enter the S.sea. The districts of Citara and Raposo form apart of this province ; very few of their ancientinhabitants remain at the present day ; the greaterpart of them having perished in the war of the