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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]



[AARONSBURGH lies at the head of Penn's Creek, Northumberland county, Pennsylvania; about 30 miles W from Lewisbursrh, and 40 W by N from Sunbury. Lat. 40° 52' 30" N Long. 77° 31' 30" W.]

ABACACTIS, a settlement of Indians, of this name, in the province of the Amazonas, and in the part or territory possessed by the Portuguese. It is a reduccion of the religious order of the Carmelites of this nation, situate on the shores of a lake of the same name. It lies between this lake and a river, which is also so called, and which is a large arm of the Madeira, which, passing through this territory, afterwards returns to that from whence it flowed, forming the island of Topinambes.

[ABACO, one of the largest and most northern of the Bahama islands, situate upon the SE end of the Little Bahama bank. The Hole in the Rock, or (as it is most commonly called) the Hole in the Wall, is the most southern point of the island, and bears about 18 leagues north from the island of New Providence, about 9 or 10 leagues in a NW direction from Egg Island, and about 10 or 12 in a NW direction from the Berry Islands. About 10 leagues to the N of the Hole in the Wall, on the E side of the island, is Little Harbour, the entrance to which is between the main land of Abaco and Ledyard's Key, and within which there is good anchorage. There is also an anchorage to the W of the Hole in the Wall. The island of Abaco is at present uninhabited. In 1788 it contained about 50 settlers and 200 Negroes. The lands granted by the crown, previous to May 1803, amounted to 14,058 acres, for the purpose of cultivation; but the settlers who occupied it have since removed. It contains great quantities of the various kinds of woods which are common to almost all the Bahama islands.] To the northward of Abaco, is a long chain of small islands or keys, (including Elbow Key, Man of War Key, Great Guana Key, the Galapagos, &c. &c.) reaching, in a NW direction, almost to the Matanilla reefs on the Florida stream; from whence the Little Bahama bank extends, in a southerly direction, to the west point of the island of the Grand Bahama. [Lat. 26° 22' N Long. 77° 14' W See Bahamas.]

ABACOOCHE, a large river, rising in the SW territory, passing into Georgia, through the Cherokee into the Creek country, where it unites with the Oakfuskee, and forms the Alibama.]

ABACQUA, a settlement of the province and government of Buenos Ayres, situate on the shore of the river Paraná, near the spot where it enters the Paraguay, to the E of the city of Corrientes,

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finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.

ABERCORN, a town of the province and colony of New Georgia, on the shore of the river Savannah, near where it enters the sea, and at a league's distance from the city of this name. [It is about 30 miles from the sea, 5 miles from Ebenezer, and 13 N W of Savannah.]

ABIDE, mountains, or serrania, of the province and government of Cartagena. They run from W to N E from near the large river of Magdalena to the province of Chocó, and the S. Sea. Their limits and extent are not known, but they are 20 leagues wide, and were discovered by Capt. Francisco Cesar in 1536; he being the first who penetrated into them, after a labour of 10 months, in which time he had to undergo the most extreme privations and excessive perils ; not that these exceeded the hardships which were endured by the licentiate Badillo, who entered upon its conquest with a fine army.

ABIGIRAS, a settlement of Indians, one of the missions, or a reduction, which belonged to the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in the year 1665, by the father Lorenzo Lucero, on the shore of the river Curarari, 30 leagues from its mouth, and 240 from Quito.

[Abineau Port, on the N side of lake Erie, is about 13 miles W S W from fort Erie. Lat. 42° 6' N Long. 79° 15' W. ]

[ABINGDON, a town at the head of the tide waters of Bush river, Harford county, Maryland, 12 miles SW from Havre-de-Grace, and 20 NE from Baltimore. Cokesbury college, instituted by the methodists in 1785, is in this town. Lat. 39° 27' 30" N Long. 76° 20' 35" W.]

[another, the chief town of Washington county, Virginia, contained but about 20 houses in 1788, and in 1796 upwards of 150. It is about 145 miles from Campbell's station, near Holston; 260 from Richmond in Virginia, in a direct line, and 310 as the road runs, bearing a little to the S of W Lat. 36° 41' 30" N Long. 81° 59' W.]

[ABINGTON, a township in Plymouth county, Massachusetts; 22 miles SE from Boston, and contains 1453 inhabitants. Lat. 42° 4' 30". ]

[another, a parish in the town of Pomfret in Connecticut. Lat. 42° 4' 30". Long. 70° 51' 30".]

[another, a village in Pennsylvania, 32 miles N of Philadelphia.]

Abipi, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of Muzo, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, producing some wheat, maize, yucas, plantains, and canes ; it has been celebrated for its rich mines of emeralds, which are, however, at present abandoned from want of water; it is nearly three leagues distant from the large mine of Itoco.

ABIPONES, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and government of Tucuman, inhabiting the S shores of the river Bermejo. Their number once exceeded 100000; but they are certainly at present much reduced. They go naked, except that the women cover themselves with little skins, prettily ornamented, which they call queyapi. They are very good swimmers, of a lofty and robust stature, and well featured: but they paint their faces and the rest of their body, and are very much given to war, which they carry on chiefly against such as come either to hunt or to fish upon their territory. Their victims they have a custom of sticking upon lofty poles, as a landmark, or by way of intimidation to their enemies. From their infancy they cut and scarify their bodies, to make themselves hardy. When their country is inundated, which happens in the five winter months, they retire to live in the islands, or upon the tops of trees: they have some slight notion of agriculture, but they live by fishing, and the produce of the chase, holding in the highest estimation the flesh of tigers, which they divide among their relations, as a sort of precious relic or dainty ; also asserting that it has the properties of infusing strength and valour. They have no knowledge either of God, of law, or of policy; but they believe in the immortality of the soul, and that there is a land of consummate bliss, where they shall dance and divert themselves after their death. When a man dies, his widow observes a state of celibacy, and fasts a year, which consists in an abstinence from fish: this period being fulfilled, an assembly run out to meet her, and inform her that her husband has given her leave to marry. The women occupy themselves in spinning and sewing hides; the men are idlers, and the boys run about the whole day in exercising their strength. The men are much addicted to drunkenness, and then the women are accustomed to conceal their husband's weapons, for fear of being killed. They do not rear more than two or three children, killing all above this number.

Abisca, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, to the E of the Cordillera of the Andes, between the rivers Yetau and Amarumago, and to the S of Cuzco. It is little known, consisting entirely of woods, rivers, and lakes; and hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success: the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.

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manufactures peculiar to the country, such as coarse trowsers, baizes, and blankets. Although it is some years since this province has received any mischief from the infidels who inhabit the mountains of the Andes, yet it has regular advanced detachments or guards stationed for the defence of the frontiers, prepared against a recurrence of the evils experienced in former times. As we have before said, it is the largest province, so also it is the best peopled, since it contains upAvards of 50,000 souls and 33 settlements, the capital of Avhich has the same name. Its repartimiento, or tribute, used to amount to 226,730 dollars, and it used to pay an alcavala of 1814 dollars per annum. The settlements are,

Cicasica, Mecapaca,

Coroico, Pasca,

Yanacache, Ynquisive,

Chulumani, Quimi,

Caza, Collana,

Suri, Huayrapaya,

Cabari, Coripaya,

Mohosa, Chupe,

Capinata, Milluhuay,

Ychoca, Taxma,

Coani, Choxlla,

Yaco, Chirca,

Luribay, Yrupana,

Haichayo, Colqui,

Calamarca, Plaraca,

Zapanqui, Ocavaya.


CICAYARI, a river of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions. It rises in the territory of the Chappoanas Indians, runs n. n. w. and enters the Rio Negro.

[CICERO, a military township in New York, on the s. tv. side of Oneida lake, and between it, the Salt lake, and the Salt springs.]

CICLADAS Grandes, islands of the South sea, discovered by Mr. De Bouganville in 1763.

CICOBASA, a river of the province and government of Quixos y Macas in the kingdom of Quito, and of the district of the latter. It rises in the cordillera of the province of Cuenca, runs s. and enters the river Santiago.

CIENEGA, a settlement and real of the silver mines of the province of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate near the settlement of Parral.

Same name, another settlement, of the province and government of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is situate on the sea-coast, and on the bank of the cknega or marsh which


lies close to it, and which gives it its name. It wag a reduccton of the monks of St. Domingo.

CIENEGA of Oro, another (settlement), with the surname of Oro, in the province and government of Cartagena, of the same kingdom, it is of the district of Tolu, and formed by the re- union of other settlements in the year 1776, effected by the Governor Don Juan Pimienta.

Same name, another (settlement), of the island of Cuba; situate on the n. coast.

CIMA, a valley of the province and govornraent of Antioquia ; bounded by that of Paucura, from which it is divided by the river Cauca just at its source.

CINACANTLAN, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Guatemala.

==CINAGUA Y GUACANA, the alcaldia mayor and jurisdiction of the province and bishopric of Mechoacán in Nueva Espana. It is 80 leagues long from e. to w. and 60 wide from n. to s. Its territory is for the most part mountainous and uneven, and its temperature bad. Its productions are large cattle, wax, maize, and fruits. Tire capital is the settlement of the same name, of a hot temperature, and inhabited by 25 families of Indians, who cultivate maize and melons, upon which this scanty population consists, though it was formerly of some consideration. It has suffered, no doubt, from the iinkindness of the temperature, and from the wantof water. The jurisdiction is 80 leagues to the w. with a slight inclination to the s. of Mexico. The other settlements are, Guacana, Paraquaro,

Ario, Nocupetajo,

Etuquarillo, Acuiyo,

Santa Ana Turicato. Punguco.

CINALOA, a province and government of Nueva España. It is between the w. and «. of Mexico, from whence it is distant 300 leagues. It extends in length as far as proselytes have been made to the gospel, viz. to 140° ; and it extends to 40° in width. On the e. of it are the loftiest sierras of Topia, running towards the n. and on the w. it is embraced by the arm of the sea of California. On the s. it has the town of Culiacan, and to the n. the innumerable nations of Indians, the boundaries of which are unknown. This province lies between lat. 27° and 32° n . ; this being the extent to Avhich the inissonaries have penetrated. The temperature is extremely hot, although the cold is intense during the months of December and January. It rains here very little, especially upon the coast ; and seldom more than 3 p

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C I u


CINCOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Xauxa in Peru.

CINCO-SEÑORES, a settlement of the province of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; one of the missions of the Babosariganes Indians, held there by the regulars of the company of Jesuits. Within eight leagues to the s. of its district is a great unpeopled tract, called De las Manos, (Of the Hands), from the infidel Indians having nailed up against some temples in those parts many hands of some unfortunate Spaniards •whom they had killed, when the latter had entered the country under the idea of making proselytes.

CINGACUCHUSCAS, a barbarous nation of Indians, who inhabit the woods to the s. of the river Marañon. In 1652 they were united to the Pandabeques, and established themselves in the settlement of Xibaros of the missions of Maynas, with the exception of some few, who still remain in their idolatry, and lead a wandering life through the woods.

CINIO, a settlement of the province and colony of Maryland, in the county of Kent ; situate on the shore, and at the extremity of the bay of Chesapeak.

CIÑOQUIPA, a settlement of the province and government of La Sonora in Nueva Espana.

CINTENELA, Isla de, one of the islands which lie between the s. point of the Caico Grande and the Paiiuelo Quadrado.

CINTO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of its capital.

CINTORI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru.

CINTU, a spacious llanura or plain, of the ancient province of Chimu, now Truxillo, on the coast of the S. sea. It was taken possession of by Huaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor of the Incas. It is very fertile, and of a good and healthy climate ; but it is but little inhabited.

CINTY, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pilaya or Paspaya in Peru.

Same name, a river of the province and government of Tucuman. It runs s. and enters the river San Juan.

CIPOYAY, a country and territory of the province and government of Paraguay, called also the province of Vera, towards the e. and where the nation of the Guaranis Indians dwell. It is of a hot climate, but very fertile, abounding in woods, and well watered by many rivers ; some of which run from e. to w. and enter the Uruguay, and others from s. to n. and enter the Plata.

CIPRE, a river of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito. It takes its course from e. to w. and opposite tlie river Sola, empties itself into that of Esmeraldas, on the w. side, in lat. 28' n.

CIRANDIRO, a settlement and the capital of the alcaldia mayor of Guimeo in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a hot temperature, and inliabited by 90 families of Tarascos Indians. In its vicinity is the estate of Quichandio, in which eight families of Spaniards, and 15 of Mustees and Mulattoes, are employed in making sugar. Also in the estate of Santa Maria are five families of the former. It is 75 leagues to the w. and one-fourth to the s. w. of Mexico.

[CIRENCESTER. See Marcus Hook.]

CIRICHE, a settlement of the province and government of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate on the shore of a small river which enters that of Cauca.

CIRIGH. Sergipe.

CIRII, a small river of the province and captainship of Sergipe in Brazil. It rises near the coast, runs s. s. e. and enters the river Sirugipa, a little before this river enters the sea.

CIRIONES, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the province and government of Moxos in Peru. It is a wandering nation, savage, and but little known.

CISNE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom ot Quito.

CITRONIERS, mountains in the island of Guadalupe. They are in the large tract of land, and on the s. coast, lying between the settlements of Santa Ana and San Francisco.

CITY Point, in Virginia. See Bermuda Hundred.

CIUAPA, a river of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile, towards the «. It is notorious from a species of fish caught in it, called tache, of an extrem.ely delicate flavour. It runs into the S. or Pacific sea, terming a small port of little depth.

CIUDAD REAL, a city of the province and government of Paraguay ; founded in 1557. by Rui Diaz Melgarejo, on the shore of the river Piquiri, three leagues from Parana. It Was destroyed by the Mamalukos Indians of San Pablo of Brazil, in 1630, and in its place was substituted the rich town of Espiritu Santo, the territory of which abounds in fruits, vines, and mines of copper. In the vicinity of the present town is a great waterfall, formed by the above river, upwards »f 3p 2

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c o c


COCO, a river of the province and government of Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains of the n. and enters the sea opposite the island of Las Palmas, and gives its name to the territory of a Cacique, thus called.

Same name, a point of the coast of the South sea, and kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the bay of Panama.

COCOLI, a river of the province and government of Honduras. It runs e. and enters the sea in the gulf of this name.

COCOLI, a point of the coast, in the same province and kingdom (Honduras).

COCOLOT, a city, which some liave supposed to be in the province of Chaco in Peru, but of the existence of which no proofs are at present to be found.

COCOMERACHI, a settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. It is 40 leagues to the w. s.zo. of the town 'And real of the mines of Chiguaga.

COCOMICO, a settlement of the province and government of Popayan in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada,

COCONUCO, See Cucunuco.

COCORALE, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela in the kingdom of Tierra Firme; situate at the w. of the town of San Felipe.

COCORIN, a settlement of the province of Ostimuri in Nueva Espana; situate on the shore of the river Hiagui, between the settlements of Bacun and Comoriopa.

COCOROTE, some copper mines in the province and government of Venezuela, much celebrated.

COCOS, some small islands of the Pacific or S. sea, lying close together, and divided by some narrow channels. They abound in cocoa-trees, and from thence take their name. They are also called Santa Cruz, from having been discovered on the day of the invention of the cross. The climate here is pleasant, but the isles are uncultivated and desert. Lat. 5° n.

Same name, a point of the island of Trinidad, on the e. coast.

COCOSPERA, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate at the source of a river,

COCOTA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja, in the jurisdiction of the city of Pamplona, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.

COCOTZINGO, S. Geronimo de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca in Nueva Espana.

COCUI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the NueVo Reyno de Granada ; situate at the foot of the sierra Nevada. It is of a cold temperature, but abounds in all kinds of productions, and particularly in wheat, maize, barley, &c. It contains 700 white inhabitants, and 150 Indians. Thirty-two leagues from Tunja, and eight from the settlement of Chita.

COCUISAS, a settlement of the province and government of Cumana in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, It lies to the s. of the city of Cariaco.

Same name, a river of the province and government of Venezuela, being one of those which enter the Gamaiotal, before this runs into that of La Portuguesa.

COCULA, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tlajomulco in Nueva Espana. It contains a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, and is six leagues to the w. of its capital.

COCUPAC, a city and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Valladolid in Nueva Espana, and of the bishopric of Mechoaean. Its situation is in a nook to the n. of the great lake. On the e. and ze. are two lofty mountains, which form so many other entrances, the one to the 5. and the other to the n. Its temperature is rather cold than w'arm ; and although it does not want for fruits, it is but ill supplied with water, the only stream it has not running more than the distance of a stone’s throw before it enters a lake. The inhabitants are thus under the necessity of supplying themselves by wells. The population of this city consists in 45 families of Spaniards, 52 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 150 of Indians. They occupy themselves in the making of tiles or flags ; and the inferior order are muleteers. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Francis.

COCUS, Punta de, a point on the e. coast of the island of Newfoundland, between cape Spear and the bay of Tor.

COD, a cape of the coast of New England and province of Massachusetts. It runs for many leagues towards the sea, forming a large semicircle, and afterwards returning, forms the bay of Barnstable. [See Cape Cod, Barnstable, &c.]

CODDINGTON, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the district of the parish of San Juan.

CODEBORE, a small river of New Britain,

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