The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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in Nueva Espana, is of a mild temperature ; si-tuate in a pleasant and fertile plain, and one whichabounds in maize, wheat, and other seeds. It con-tains S68 families of Indians, 13 of Spaniards, anda convent of the religious order of St. Francis;is one league n. of its capital,
Chiautla, with the addition of La Sal, an-other settlement, the capital of its jurisdiction, inthe same kingdom, thus called from the salt minesfound in it formerly, and from which the inhabi-tants used to derive a great commerce. At pre-sent it is in a thorough state of decay, not only asits trade has fallen off in the other provinces ; butas the Indians have applied themselves rather tothe cultivation of the soil and the planting of fruitsand pulse, from the traffic of which they derivetheir maintenance. It is inhabited by 650 familiesof Mexican Indians, and 40 of Spaniards, J\/us~iees, and Mulattoes. It contains a convent of thereligious order of St. Augustin. The jurisdictionis so much reduced that it is not more than fiveleagues in length and three in width, void of com-merce, and has but a small revenue. Its inhabi-tants, although they are somewhat given to thebreeding of small cattle, yet this must hardly beconsidered with them a branch of commerce,since they have scarcely enough of these where-with to support theiiiselves. It contains only twoother settlements, and these are,
|Forty-five leagues s. e.||to the s. w. of Mexico.|
CHIBATA, a settlement of the . province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, and the head settlement of the corregi-miento of Indies, is of a very cold and fresh tem-perature, abounding in productions, and particu-larly in cattle, from the fleeces and hides of whichare made quantities of blankets, linen cloths, andother articles for garments. It may contain about200 Indians, and it is eight leagues to the n. e.of Tunja, lying between this latter place and thesettlement of Siachoque.
on commerce with the Indians, is situated on theshore of the river Sonlahove.
CHICACHAS, a settlement of Indians of thisnation, in the territory thus called, where the Eng-lish have an establishment or factory for com-merce.
Chicagou, a river of the same province andgovernment, which runs s. then ?i. e. and entersthe former port.
CHICAHUAZTLA, San Andres de, a settle-ment and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor ofTepozcolula, in the province and bishopric ofOaxaca, in the kingdom of Nueva Espana, is ofa cold temperature, inhabited by 332 families ofIndians, including those of the settlements or wardsof its district, and they maintain themselves bybartering cotton garments for salt on the coast ofXicayan ; 12 leagues s. w. of its capital.
CHICAMA, a large, fertile, and beautiful valleyof the province and corregimiento of Truxillo inPeru. It was one of the most populous in thetimes of the gentilisra of the Indians, owing to itsagreeable and benign temperature : is watered bya river of its name, which divides it from that ofChimu. In 1540, the friar Domingo de SantoTomas founded here a convent of his order, forthe instruction of the Indians, which immediatelywas turned into a priory and a house for noviciates.It is at present, however, fallen into decay, throughthe ravages of time. This valley is six leaguesfrom the capital, to the n. in the road which leadsto the provinces of Quito, Sana, and Piura.
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Ingenio del Oro
And in the district of Tarija,
Tarija de Vieja, La Concepcion,
San Bernardo de Tarija, Berraeo.
The district of Tarija is a territory full of que-hradas and craggy mountains, as far as the punasand lofty plains of Escayache and Tacsora, wherethere are two salt lakes. It is composed of fourfertile valleys lying on the skirts of hills, and inthese are found human bones of a prodigious size,petrified, shin-bones of a yard and a quarter long,and teeth larger than a fist. In the midst of one ofthese valleys is the town of San Bernardo de Tarija,which is the capital of the province. Its reparti-miento used to amount to 82,350 dollars, and itsalcavala to 558 dollars per annum. For the settle-ments of this district, see above.
(Chichester, a small township in Rocking-ham county, New Hampshire, about 35 miles n. w.of Exeter, and 45 from Portsmouth. It lies onSuncook river, was incorporated in 1727, andcontains 491 inhabitants.)
CHICHICAPA, a settlement and capital of thealcaldia mayor of the province and bishopric ofOaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild tem-perature, and was anciently the real of the mostesteemed silver mines; but is at present muchfallen of, the working of the mines having been for
the most part abandoned from the want of hands,in as much as the natives have given themselvesup to the trade of cochineal, in which its territoryabounds : it produces also much seed and maize.Its jurisdiction includes some of the finest andrichest provinces. It consists of five head settle-ments of districts, to which are subject as manyother. Its capital contains 430 families of Indians,and some of Spaniards, Muslees, and Mulattoes.Ninety leagues s. e. of Mexico. The other settle-ments are.
Rio Hondo or Thequila,
San Agustin de Losi-
CHICHICATEPEC, a settlement and head set-tlement of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in NuevaEspana, is of a cold temperature, contains 26 fa-milies of Indians, and is seven leagues to the s. e.of its capital.
CHICHIMEQUILLA, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district of Zitaquaro, and alcaldiamayor Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacanand kingdom of Nueva Espana. It contains 84families of Indians, and is a quarter of a league tothe s. of its head settlement.
(CHICKAHOMINY, a small navigable riverin Virginia. At its mouth in James river, 37miles from point Comfort, in Chesapeak bay, is abar, on which is only 12 feet water at commonflood tide. Vessels passing that may go eightmiles up the river; those of 10 feet draught 12miles ; and vessels of six tons burden may go 32miles up the river.)
(CHICKASAW Bluff is on the e. bank of theMississippi, witiiin the territories of the UnitedStates, in lat. 35 n. The Spaniards erected herea strong stockaded fort, with cannon, and furnishedit with troops, all in the space of 24 hours, in themonth of June 1795. It has since been given up,.according to the treaty of 1796.)
(Chickasaw, a creek which falls into theWabash from the c. a little below Post St. Vin-cent.)
(Chickasaw, a river which empties into theMississippi, on the e. side, 104 miles from themouth of Margot, and 67 s. w. of Mine au Fer.Tlie lands here are of an excellent quality, andcovered with a variety of useful timber, canes, &c.This river may be ascended during high floods up-wards of SO miles with boats of several tons burden.)
(Chickasaws, a famous nation of Indians, whoinhabit the country on the e. side of the Mississippi,on the head branches of the Tombigbee, Mobile,and Yazoo rivers, in the n. zo. corner of the state ofGeorgia, and n. of the country of the Chactaws.Their country is an extensive plain, tolerably wellwatered from springs, and of a pretty good soil.They have seven towns, the central one of whichis in lat. 34° 23' «• long. 89° 30' w. The num-ber of souls in this nation has been formerlyreckoned at 1725, of which 575 were fighting men.There are some Negroes among the Chickasaws,who either were taken captive in war, or ran awayfrom their masters, and sought safety among theIndians. In 1539, Ferdinand de Soto, with 900men, besides seamen, sailed from Cuba with a de-sign to conquer Florida. He travelled n. to theChickasaw country, about lat. 35° or 36° ; and threeyears after died, and was buried on the bank ofMississipi river.)
Chico, a river of the province and governmentof Panamá in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the mountains to the s. of the istmo, oristhmus, near the settlement of Chepo ; and runss. ze. and enters the sea in the bay or gulf of Pa-nama.
CHICOLAPA, a settlement of the head settle-ment, and alcaldla mayor of Coatepec, in NuevaEspana ; annexed to the curacy of its capital. Itcontains 187 families of Indians, who celebrateevery Friday throughout the year a teanguis orfair, at which are sold cattle and other productionsof the country. At these times it is a place of ge-neral rendezvous for the inhabitants of all the con-tiguous provinces ; and this fair has, from the greatconcourse of people usually assembling here, ob-tained the title of the famous teanguis of S. Vi-cente de Chicolapa. It is extremely fertile and plea-sant, and surrounded by several very small settle-ments or wards.
CHICOMESUCHIL, a settlement and headsettlement of tlie alcaldia mayor of Yxtepexi ofthe province and bishopric of Oaxaca in NuevaEspana, is of a hot temperature, and contains300 families of Indians, who exercise themselves inthe making scarlet cloths and cotton garments.
CHICOMOCELO, a settlement of the provinceand alcaldia mayor of Chiapa. in the kingdom ofGuatemala ; [having a cave very narrow at theentry, but spacious within, with a stagnant lake,which is, however, clear, and is two fathoms deeptowards the banks.]
CHICONAUTA, St. Tomas de, a settlementof the alcaldia mayor of Ecatepec in NuevaEspana; annexed to the curacy of its capital;from whence it is distant one league to the n. n. e.It contains 160 families of Indians.
CHICONCUAC, S. Miguel de, a settlementof the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tez-cuco in Nueva Espana. It contains 123 familiesof Indians, and six of Spaniards. It produces agood proportion of grain, seeds, and cattte, fromthe fleeces of which they derive great emolument,as also from the coarse stuffs manufactured of thesame. It is one league to the n. of its capital.
CHICONCUASO, a settlement of the head
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same kingdom. It contains 180 families of In-dians, and 60 of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes.Here is an hospital of the religious order of St.Francis. Seven leagues from its capital.
COXIMAR, a large plain of the coast of theisland of Cuba, close by the city of Havana, inwhich is a fortified tower. On this plain the Eng-lish drew up their troops when they besieged thatplace, in 1762.
COXUMATLAN, a settlement of the headsettlement of Zanguio and afcaldia mayor of Za-mora in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of thesea of Chapala, and being backed by a large moun-tain covered with fruit-trees of various kinds, andexcellent timber and woods. It contains 17 tami-lies of Indians, who employ themselves in fishingand in agriculture. Four leagues to the w. of itshead settlement.
COYAIMAS, a barbarous and ancient nationof Indians of the province and government of Po-payán in the kingdom of Quito, and district of thetownofNeiba. Tliese Indians are valorous, ro-bust, faithful, and enemies to the Pijaos. Someof tl)ern have become converted to the Catholicfaith, and liveuniteil in settlemenis.
COYONES, a barbarous nation of Indians, whoinhabit the s. w. of Tocuyo. They are ferociousand infidels, and live upon the mountains. Theirnumbers at the present day are much reduced.
COZALCAQUE, San Felipe de, a settlementof the head settlement of Tenantitlan, and alcaldiamayor of Acaynca, in Nueva Espana. It contains51 families of Indians, and is 10 leagues to the e.and one-fourth to the a. e, of its head settlement.
bears the same name, with the dedicatory title ofSan Martin, and which is situate on a plain half aleague long, and somewhat less broad, surroundedby mountains so knit together, that, at the time ofits foundation, passes were obliged to be o[>ened.Through this province runs a river, which flowsdown from the sferTflA of Zongolica, and whichafterwards takes the nam.e of Alvarado, it is ofa hot and moist temperature, and continually ex-posed to inundations during the rainy seasons,owing to the immense overflowings of the rivers.Its population is composed of 38 families of Spa-niards, 128 of Mulattoes, and 34 of Mexican In-dians, who maintain themselves by the gatheringof cotton and maize ; and this last in such abun-dance as to supply Vera Cruz. The Spaniardsemploy themselves in fishing in the rivers, whichabound with fish the three last months of the year,and they carry them for sale into the other juris-dictions. It has, besides the parish church, atemple of superior architecture, dedicated toNuestra Seilora de la Soledad, though it be com-monly called, Of Cozomalotipan, being of suchancient origin as to be said to liave existed 12years before the conquest of the kingdom. Thistemple was inhabited by a religious fraternity, ap-proved by his holiness Gregory XIII. he havinggranted to the same many favours and indulgences,which, through the devotion of the communily,were perpetuated, through several prodigies andmiracles which afterwards took place in the set-tlement, and in its district. One hundred andfifteen leagues s. s.xo. of Mexico, in lat. 17^ 47' ;long. 274° 50'. The jurisdiction of this alcaldiaconsists in the folloAving settlements :
COZAQUl, Santa Maria de, a settlement ofthe head settlement of Acazingo and alcaldiamayor of Tepeaca, in Nueva Espana. It containsfour families of Spaniards, 33 Aluslees and Mu-lattocs, and 51 of Indians. It is a quarter of aleague lioni its head settlement.
iid is two leagues to the w. of
lake is as cold as snow itself, This province, like all the others of the kingdom which lie to the s. e. of the cordilfcra, is ever subject to terrible tempests of thunder and lightning, accompanied with boisterous winds and rains from October to March; the same not happening in the provinces which lie to the to. The Indians of this province are of a darker complexion than those of any other ; but they are also of loftier stature, better made, agile, and extremely addicted to the chase, in which they greatly excel, and more particularly in the taking of ostriches, which abound in the llanuras to \X\cs. ; and by all of these exercises they become so light and active as to be able to keep pace with a horse. These Indians are generally known here by the name of Guapes, and are descendants of the Pampas, their neighbours to the e. with whom they trade in the fruits of the country in exchange for clothes and other articles, money not being known amongst any of these barbarians. The Guapes are of a docile and generous disposition, but of great spirit, and very warlike, robust, and well formed. This country, considering its extent, is but thinly peopled, since its inhabitants amount to only 25,000 of all sexes and ages, according to the latest calculation. The capital is the city of Mendoza. [See Chile.] _ _
[ CUYOACAN, a settlement of the intendancy of Mexico, containing a convent of nuns founded by Hernan Cortes, in which, according to his testament, this great captain wished to be interred, " in whatever part of the world he should end his days." This clause of the testament was never fulfilled.] CUYOCUYO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of its capital. CUYOTAMBO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Quishuares. CUYOTEPEC, San Bartolome de, a head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Antequera, in the province and bishopric of Oaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a middle temperature, contains 358 families of Indians, and a convent of the religious order of St. Dominic. In its district are sown in abundance various kinds of seeds and American aloes, of which is made pulque: Four leagues s. of its capital. CUYUANA, an island of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese, formed by two arms of the river Cudiivara or Purus, which separate before they c u z enter the Maranon. It is large, and of an irregular square figure. CUYUM, or Cuyuni, a large river of the province of Guayana, and government of Cumana. Its origin is not known for certain ; but, from the accounts of the Caribes Indians, it is somewhere near the lake Parime, in the interior of the province, and to the n. e. of the said lake. It runs nearly due from n. to s. making several turnings, until it enters the Esquivo. By this river the Dutch merchants of this colony, assisted by the Caribes, go to entrap the Indians, to make them labour in the estates ; and they have built two forts on either side of the mouth of this river.
CUZABAMBA, a large settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lamas in Peru ; close to which passes a small river of the same name, and which afterwards unites itself with the river Moyobamba. Cuzabamba, another settlement in the province and corregimiento of Tacunga, of the kingdom of Quito.
CUZALAPA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Ayotitlan, and alcaldia mayor of Amola, in Nueva Espana. Its population is very small, and its inhabitants employ themselves in the cultivation of seeds and breeding of cattle. Nine leagues to the w. of its head settle ment. CUZAMALA, a head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Azuchitlan in Nueva Espana, lying 10 leagues to the n. of its capital, and being divided from the same by two large rivers. It is of a hot and dry temperature ; its population is composed of 36 families of Spaniards, 30 of Mustees, 48 of Mulattoes, and 53 of Indians, who speak the Taracan language. The trade here consists in large cattle, in the cultivation of maize, and making cascalote. Some emolument also is derived from renting the lands belonging to the capital and the neighbouring settlements. CUZCATLAN, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of San Salvador in the kingdom of Guatemala. CUZCO, as it is called by the Indians, a city, the capital of a corregimiento in Peru, the head of a bishopric, erected in 1536, founded by the first Emperor of the Incas, Manco Capac, in 1043, who divided it into Hanam Cozco and Hurin Cozco, which signify Cuzco Lofty and Low, or Superior and Inferior ; the former towards the n. and the second towards the s. It is situate upon a rough and unequal plain formed by the skirts of various mountains, which are washed by